[permaculture] Good science and Permaculture.

Lawrence London lfljvenaura at gmail.com
Sat Apr 7 22:07:25 EDT 2018


[Many of the URLs in this document are invalid but the content is timeless
in value - LL]

Date: Tue, 14 May 1996 22:17:14 -0500 (CDT)
From: Steve Diver <steved at ncatfyv.uark.edu>
To: permaculture-mg at amani.ces.ncsu.edu
Subject: Permaculture FAQ 1.3

                   The Permaculture FAQ
                       Version 1.3
                         May 1996

The Permaculture FAQ (1.3) is divided into 7 parts:

1.  Introduction to permaculture
2.  Permaculture defined
3.  Characteristics of permaculture
4.  The practical application of permaculuture
5.  Permaculture resources:
       United States
       Australia
       Around the World
6.  Books on permaculture
7.  Electronic sources

==============================================================
                  INTRODUCTION TO PERMACULTURE
==============================================================

The word "permaculture" was coined in 1978 by Bill Mollison, an
Australian ecologist, and his student, David Holmgren.  It is a
contraction of "permanent agriculture" or "permanent culture."

Permaculture is about designing ecological human habitats and
food production systems.  It is an approach to land use which
integrates human dwellings, microclimate, annual and perennial
plants, animals, soils, and water management into stable,
productive communities.

A central theme in permaculture is the design of ecological
landscapes that produce food.  Emphasis is placed on multi-use
plants and the integration of animals to recycle nutrients and
graze weeds.  However, permaculture entails much more than just
food production.  Permaculture design concepts are being applied
in urban as well as rural settings, and are applicable to single
households or whole farms and villages.

"Integrated farming" and "ecological engineering" are terms
sometimes used to describe permaculture.  Though helpful, these
terms do not capture the holistic nature of permaculture and thus
the following definitions are included to provide insight.

==============================================================
                   PERMACULTURE DEFINED
==============================================================

1.   From the Permaculture Drylands Institute and published in
     THE PERMACULTURE ACTIVIST (Autumn 1989):

     Permaculture:  the use of ecology as the basis for
     designing integrated systems of food production,
     housing, appropriate technology, and community
     development.  Permaculture is built upon an ethic of
     caring for the earth and interacting with the
     environment in mutually beneficial ways...

2.   From Lee Barnes (editor of KATUAH JOURNAL and PERMACULTURE
     CONNECTIONS), Waynesville, North Carolina:

     Permaculture (PERMAnent agriCULTURE or PERMAnent CULTURE) is
     a sustainable design system stressing the harmonious
     interrelationship of humans, plants, animals and the Earth.
     To paraphrase the founder of permaculture, designer
     Bill Mollison:

          "Permaculture principles focus on thoughtful designs
          for small-scale intensive systems which are labor
          efficient and which use biological resources instead of
          fossil fuels. Designs stress ecological connections and
          closed energy and material loops.  The core of
          permaculture is design and the working relationships
          and connections between all things. Each component in a
          system performs multiple functions, and each function
          is supported by many elements.  Key to efficient design
          is observation and replication of natural ecosystems,
          where designers maximize diversity with polycultures,
          stress efficient energy planning for houses and
          settlement, using and accelerating natural plant
          succession, and increasing the highly productive
          "edge-zones" within the system."

     Permaculture designs have been successfully and widely
     implemented in third-world countries, but there is current
     need to expand these principles in temperate climates, and
     especially urban areas to create more enjoyable and
     sustainable human habitats.

3.   From Michael Pilarksi, founder of Friends of the Trees, and
     published in INTERNATIONAL GREEN FRONT REPORT (1988):

     Permaculture is:  the design of land use systems that are
     sustainable and environmentally sound; the design of
     culturally appropriate systems which lead to social
     stability; a design system characterized by an integrated
     application of ecological principles in land use; an
     international movement for land use planning and design; an
     ethical system stressing positivism and cooperation.

     In the broadest sense, permaculture refers to land use
     systems which promote stability in society, utilize
     resources in a sustainable way and preserve wildlife
     habitat and the genetic diversity of wild and domestic
     plants and animals.  It is a synthesis of ecology and
     geography, of observation and design.  Permaculture
     involves ethics of earth care because the sustainable use of
     land cannot be separated from life-styles and philosophical
     issues.

4.   From a Bay Area Permaculture Group brochure, published in
     WEST COAST PERMACULTURE NEWS & GOSSIP AND SUSTAINABLE LIVING
     NEWSLETTER (Fall 1995):

     Permaculture is a practical concept which can be applied in
     the city, on the farm, and in the wilderness.  Its
     principles empower people to establish highly productive
     environments providing for food, energy, shelter, and other
     material and non-material needs, including economic.
     Carefully observing natural patterns characteristic of a
     particular site, the permaculture  designer gradually
     discerns optimal methods for integrating water catchment,
     human shelter, and energy systems with tree crops, edible
     and useful perennial plants, domestic and wild animals and
     aquaculture.

     Permaculture adopts techniques and principles from ecology,
     appropriate technology, sustainable agriculture, and the
     wisdom of indigenous peoples.  The ethical basis of
     permaculture rests upon care of the earth--maintaining a
     system in which all life can thrive.  This includes human
     access to resources and provisions, but not the accumulation
     of wealth, power, or land beyond their needs.

=============================================================
               CHARACTERISTICS OF PERMACULTURE (*)
=============================================================

*    Permaculture is one of the most holistic, integrated systems
     analysis and design methodologies found in the world.

*    Permaculture can be applied to create productive ecosystems
     from the human-use standpoint or to help degraded
     ecosystems recover health and wildness.  Permaculture can be
     applied in any ecosystem no matter how degraded.

*    Permaculture values and validates traditional knowledge and
     experience.  Permaculture incorporates sustainable
     agriculture practices and land management techniques and
     strategies from around the world.  Permaculture is a bridge
     between traditional cultures and emergent earth-tuned
     cultures.

*    Permaculture promotes organic agriculture which does not use
     pesticides to pollute the environment.

*    Permaculture aims to maximize symbiotic and synergistic
     relationships between site components.

*    Permaculture is urban planning as well as rural land design.

*    Permaculture design is site specific, client specific, and
     culture specific.

(*)  Source:   Pilarski, Michael (ed.)  1994.  Restoration Forestry.
               Kivaki Press, Durango, CO.  p. 450.

==============================================================
           THE PRACTICAL APPLICATION of PERMACULTURE
==============================================================

Permaculture is not limited to just plant and animal agriculture,
but also includes community planning and development, use of
appropriate technologies (coupled with an adjustment of life-
style), and adoption of concepts and philosophies that are both
earth-based and people-centered, such as bio-regionalism.

Many of the appropriate technologies advocated by permaculturists
are well-known.  Among these are solar and wind power, composting
toilets, solar greenhouses, energy efficient housing, and solar
food cooking and drying.

Due to the inherent sustainability of perennial cropping systems,
permaculture places a heavy emphasis on tree crops.  Systems that
integrate annual and perennial crops such as alleycropping and
agroforestry   take advantage of "the edge effect", increase
biological diversity, and offer other characteristics missing in
monoculture systems.  Thus, multicropping systems that
blend woody perennials and annuals hold promise as viable
techniques for large-scale farming.  Ecological methods of
production for any specific crop or farming system are central to
permaculture as well as sustainable agriculture in general.

Since permaculture is not a production system, per se, but rather
a land use planning philosophy, it is not limited to a specific
method of production.  Furthermore, as permaculture principles
may be adapted to farms or villages worldwide, it is site
specific and therefore amenable to locally adapted techniques of
production.

As an example, standard organic farming and gardening techniques
utilizing cover crops, green manures, crop rotation, and mulches
are emphasized in permacultural systems.  Yet, the use of
the Keyline chisel plow, rotational grazing, the Aerway implement
in no-till farming, and a whole number of other techniques are
adaptable to farms working within a permacultural framework.
The decision as to which "system" is employed is site-specific
and management dependent.

Farming systems and techniques commonly associated with
permaculture include rotational grazing, agroforestry, swales,
contour plantings, the Keyline method (soil and water
management), hedgerows and windbreaks, and integrated farming
systems such as aquaculture, intercropping, and polyculture.

Gardening and recycling methods common to permaculture include
edible landscaping, keyhole gardening, companion planting,
trellising, sheet mulching, chicken tractors, solar greenhouses,
spiral herb gardens, swales, and vermicomposting.

Water collection, management, and re-use systems like Keyline,
greywater, rain catchment, constructed wetlands, aquaponics (the
integration of hydroponics with recirculating aquaculture),
and solar aquatic ponds (also known as Living Machines) play an
important role in permaculture designs.

==============================================================
                  PERMACULTURE RESOURCES
==============================================================

The two basic sources of information on permaculture are
permaculture design courses and permaculture literature.

The Permaculture Design Course is the primary vehicle for
transfer of permaculture expertise.  The standard course is
72-hours in length and lasts two weeks.  Graduates are
issued a permaculture design certificate and are entitled to use
"Permaculture" in the pursuit of livelihood and for educational
purposes.

The permaculture literature is a rich source of information on a
wide range of topics dealing with land use, plant and animal
agriculture, water management, appropriate technology,
energy-efficient and toxic-free housing, and community design.

         *******************************************
         Permaculture Resources in the United States
         ********************************************

THE PERMACULTURE ACTIVIST
Box 1209
Black Mountain, NC  28711
(704) 683-4946
Editor: Peter Bane
Cost:  $16, quarterly

     THE PERMACULTURE ACTIVIST is the leading periodical for
     North American permaculture.  It publishes articles
     on permaculture, edible landscaping, bioregionalism,
     aquaculture, etc, and provides a current listing of
     upcoming permaculture design courses.  It serves as an
     important networking tool in the U.S., Canada, and
     Central America.  Back issues are available for sale.

THE INTERNATIONAL PERMACULTURE SOLUTIONS JOURNAL (TIPS)
Yankee Permaculture, Elfin Permaculture, and Forest Ecosystem
Rescue Network (FERN)
P.O. Box 672
Dahlonega, GA 30533-0672
Editor:  Dan Hemenway
Cost: $27.50 for four issues

     THE INTERNATIONAL PERMACULTURE SOLUTIONS JOURNAL (TIPS) is
     published on an irregular basis, but is a rich source of
     information.  Prior to TIPS, Yankee Permaculture put out a
     fantastic yearbook called THE INTERNATIONAL PERMACULTURE
     SPECIES YEARBOOK (TIPSY).  The TIPSY series is a goldmine
     of permaculture information; much of the information is
     still quite useful.  FERN publishes a permaculture
     newsletter called ROBIN that deals with forest issues.
     Yankee Permaculture also publishes THE RESOURCES OF
     INTERNATIONAL PERMACULTURE - TRIP.  Volume 5 of TRIP,
     published in 1993, is a 68-page issue that contains 1,540
     listings of groups working in permaculture, sustainable
     food systems, and tree-based agriculture.

RESTORATION FORESTRY
Friends of the Trees
P. O. Box 4469
Bellingham, WA   98227
(206) 738-4972
Editor:  Michael Pilarski

     RESTORATION FORESTRY: AN INTERNATIONAL GUIDE TO SUSTAINABLE
     FORESTRY PRACTICES (1994) is a 525-page guide to resources
     in restoration forestry.  It contains over 50 review articles,
     780 organizations, 230 journals/periodicals, 800 books, 100
     restoration forestry projects underway, and 100 directories on
     topics relating to restoration forestry, forest ecology, tree
     seedlings, bioregionalism, and permaculture.  It is a massive
     addition to tree-based agricultural literature.  Cost is $27,
     plus $4 handling.

     Other publications from Friends of the Trees include the
     INTERNATIONAL GREEN FRONT REPORT (1988, $7.00);
     KIWIFRUIT ENTHUSIASTS JOURNAL (Vol. 6, $17.20); and THIRD
     WORLD RESOURCE GUIDE (1993, $5.00) and the WEST COAST
     PERMACULTURE NEWS & GOSSIP NEWSLETTER.

     Travelers Earth Repair Network (TERN) is a database
     maintained by Friends of the Trees containing over 2,500
     permaculture contacts in 100-plus countries.  The aim is to
     link travelers with individuals and organizations
     involved in sustainable agriculture, forestry, permaculture,
     and ecological restoration.  There is a $50 fee to access
     the TERN database.  Hosts are listed free of charge.

PERMACULTURE DRYLANDS JOURNAL
Permaculture Drylands Institute
P.O. Box 156
Santa Fe, NM  87504-0156
(505) 983-0663
Cost: $25, 3 issues per year

     PERMACULTURE DRYLANDS JOURNAL (formerly SUSTAINABLE LIVING
     IN DRYLANDS) is published in April, August, and
     December by the Permaculture Drylands Education and Research
     Institute.  It focuses on permaculture concepts and designs
     for arid lands, with a heavy focus on New Mexico and
     Arizona.  PDJ has published articles on straw bale
     buildings, solar box cookers, dryland farming, and much
     more; back issues are available.  PDI offers a regular
     series of Permaculture Design Courses.

EARTHWORD JOURNAL
Eos Institute
580 Broadway, Suite 200
Laguna Beach, CA  92651
(714) 497-1896
Cost: $20, 4 issues

     EARTHWORD JOURNAL is a glossy permaculture magazine published
     collaboratively by Eos Institute and the Permaculture Institute
     of Southern California.  It explores the ecological interface
     between urban and rural communities and is geared to the
     professional designer, architect, and land-use planner.  Issue
     No. 6 was published in January 1996.

TEMPERATE BAMBOO QUARTERLY
Earth Advocates Research Facility
30 Myers Road
Summertown, TN  38483
(615) 964-4151
Cost:  $24, quarterly

     TEMPERATE BAMBOO QUARTERLY is a quarterly publication from
     Earth Advocates, a permaculture team run by Sue and Adam
     Turtle.  It focuses on the bamboo plant which has unique,
     multi-purpose uses.  They also operate a nursery with dozens
     of bamboo species.

Permaculture Resources
P.O. Box 65
56 Farmersville Rd
Califon, N.J.  07830
(800) 832-6285

     Educational publisher and distributor of permaculture
     resources and publications.

agAccess
P.O. Box 2008
Davis, CA  95616
(916) 756-7177

     agAccess, primarily a mailorder bookstore but also a
     publishing company and for-profit information service,
     carries one of the largest selections of agricultural
     literature in North America.  They specialize in
     sustainable agriculture and related resources.

             ***********************************
             Permaculture Resources in Australia
             ***********************************

PERMACULTURE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL
Permaculture International Ltd.
P.O. Box PG6039
South Lismore, NSW  2480
Australia
Phone:  (066) 220 020
International:  (066) 220 579
Cost: U.S. $24, quarterly
**Available in the U.S. through THE PERMACULTURE ACTIVIST**

     PIJ serves as the leading periodical for permaculture
     worldwide.  It contains articles, book reviews, and news of
     permacultural events around the world.  It serves as an
     important networking tool.  Back issues to the early 1980s
     are available for sale.

THE PERMACULTURE EDGE
Permaculture Nambour, Inc.
P.O. Box 148
Inglewood 6050
Western Australia
Cost: U.S. $20, quarterly
**Available in the U.S. through THE PERMACULTURE ACTIVIST**

     THE PERMACULTURE EDGE aims to report activities that are seen
     to be at the cutting edge of permaculture developments around
     the world.  The "permaculture edge" refers to the "edge effect"
     found at the boundaries of two ecological systems where there is
     more synergism, biological activity, and variations in the
     microenvironment and which can be used to increase yields in
     designed systems.  It also points to permaculture ideas as being
     "at the edge" of a change in the push towards a sustainable
     future.

International Permaculture Institute
P.O. Box 1
Tyalgum, NSW  2484
Australia
Phone:  (066) 793 442

     The International Permaculture Institute in Tyalgum,
     Australia, serves as the international coordinating
     organization for permaculture activities such as
     permaculture design accreditation.

           ***************************************
           Permaculture Resources Around the World
           ***************************************

PERMACULTURE MAGAZINE UK: ECOLOGICAL SOLUTIONS FOR EVERYDAY LIFE
Permanent Publications
Hyden House Limited
Little Hyden Lane
Clandfield, Hampshire  PO8 ORU
England
Cost:  U.S. $24, quarterly
**Available in the U.S. through THE PERMACULTURE ACTIVIST**

      A quarterly journal published in cooperation with the
     Permaculture Association of Great Britain.  It contains
     articles, book reviews, and solutions from Britain and
     Europe.  A good source for temperate agroforestry species
     and permaculture design projects.

GROUND COVER
Permaculture Association of Zimbabwe
Box CY 301
Causeway, Harare
Zimbabwe
Telephone/Fax:  (+4) 726911
Cost:  U.S. $30, per year

PERMACULTURE INDIA NEWSLETTER and ECOLOGICAL VISIONS
Earthcare Books c/o Classic Books
10 Middleton St.
Calcutta  700 071
India

==============================================================
                   BOOKS ON PERMACULTURE
==============================================================

INTRODUCTION TO PERMACULTURE by Bill Mollison and Reny Mia Slay.
1991.  Tagari Publishers, Tyalgum, Australia.  198 p.

PERMACULTURE ONE: A PERENNIAL AGRICULTURE FOR HUMAN SETTLEMENTS,
3rd ed (Reprint of 1978 ed) by Bill Mollison and David Holmgren.
1987.  Tagari Publishers, Tyalgum, New South Wales, Australia.
127 p.

PERMACULTURE TWO: A PRACTICAL DESIGN FOR TOWN AND COUNTRY IN
PERMANENT AGRICULTURE by Bill Mollison.  1979.  Tagari Press,
Stanley, Australia.  150 p.

PERMACULTURE: A DESIGNER'S MANUAL by Bill Mollison.  1988.
Tagari Publications, Tyalgum, Australia.  576 p.

THE BEST OF PERMACULTURE by Max O. Lindegger and Robert Tap.
1986.  Nascimanere Publishers, Nambour, Australia.  136 p.

THE PERMACULTURE WAY: PRACTICAL WAYS TO CREATE A SELF-SUSTAINING
WORLD by Graham Bell.  1992.  Thorsons, London.  239 p.

THE PERMACULTURE GARDEN by Graham Bell.  1994.  Thorsons, London.
170 p.

URBAN PERMACULTURE by David Watkins.  1993.  Permanent
Publications, U.K.  152 p.

PERMACULTURE IN A NUTSHELL by Patrick Whitefield.  1993.
Permanent Publications, U.K.  75 p.

EARTH USER'S GUIDE TO PERMACULTURE by Rosemary Morrow and Rob
Allsop.  1994.  Kangaroo Press, Kenthurst, NSW Australia.  152 p.

GETTING STARTED IN PERMACULTURE by Ross and Jennifer Mars.  1995.
Candlelight Trust, Hovea, Western Australia.  60 p.

==============================================================
      A FEW GOOD BOOKS for the PERMACULTURIST'S BOOKSHELF
==============================================================

CORNUCOPIA: A SOURCE BOOK OF EDIBLE PLANTS by Stephen Facciola.
1990.  Kampong Publications, Vista, CA.  678 p.

DESIGNING & MAINTAINING YOUR EDIBLE LANDSCAPE NATURALLY by Robert
Kourik.  1986.  Metamorphic Press, Santa Rosa, CA.  370 p.

TREE CROPS: A PERMANENT AGRICULTURE by J. Russell Smith.  1987.
Island Press, Washington, D.C.  408 p.

THE PERMACULTURE BOOK OF FERMENT & HUMAN NUTRITION by Bill
Mollison.  1993.  Tagari Publications, Tyalgum, Australia.
288 p.

==============================================================
        ELECTRONIC SOURCES OF PERMACULTURE INFORMATION
===============================================================

1.   Permaculture Mailing List in the United States

     permaculture-mg at amani.ces.ncsu.edu
     (post your articles to this address)

     To subscribe, send email to almanac at amani.ces.ncsu.edu
     type: subscribe permaculture-mg
     in the body of the message

2.   Permaculture Mailing List in Western Australia

     perma at eepo.com.au

     To subscribe, send email to listserv at eepo.com.au
     type: SUBSCRIBE PERMA [Type your name here w/o the brackets]
     in the body of the message

3.   Organic Gardening & Permaculture Information

     http://sunsite.unc.edu/london/The_Sustainable_Farmstead.html
     http://sunsite.unc.edu/london/permaculture.html
     Email: london at sunsite.unc.edu

4.   Permaculture Guide at Communications for a Sustainable
     Future

     http://csf.colorado.edu:8080/

5.   Permaculture International Journal (Australia)

     http://nornet.nor.com.au/environment/perma/
     Email:  pcjournal at peg.apc.org

6.   International Permaculture Institute (Australia)

     Email:  perminst at peg.apc.org

7.   Permaculture Global Assistance Network (Australia)

     http://www.peg.apc.org/~pgan

8.   Permaculture in Western Australia

     http://www.eepo.com.au/perma/

9.   Permaculture in South Australia - "What's Happening in
     Permaculture"

     http://dove.mtx.net.au/%7Esteveo/wotsnu.html

10.  Correspondence Course on Permaculture (Australia)

     http://www.qldnet.com.au/acs

11.  Permaculture Visions International's Correspondence Course
     (Australia)

     Email:  askpv at ozemail.com.au

12.  British Permaculture Magazine/Permanent Publications Web
     Site

     http://www.uea.ac.uk/~e415/home.html

13.  PermaWeb in Great Britain

     http://www.sysmag.com/permaweb

14.  Permaculture Association (Britain)

     http://www.sysmag.com/permaweb/groups/pcbritain

15.  Bay Area Permaculture Group

     http://www.nbn.com/people/bapg/

16.  Permaculture Institute of Northern California

     http://www.nbn.com/people/bapg/pinc.html

17.  Friends of the Trees

     http://www.pacificrim.net/~trees/

18.  Cross Timbers Permaculture Institute in Texas

     http://csf.colorado.edu/perma/ctpi/cross_t.htm
     Email:  72530.1353 at compuserve.com

19.  Central Rocky Mountain Permaculture Institute

     Email:  103070.2354 at compuserve.com

20.  Permaculture on "Mind*Body*Spirit" (South Africa)

     http://www.pix.za/mbs/body/perma.htm

21.  Permaculture on Carmela's Home Page

     http://www.ozoline.com.au/permaculture/index.html

22.  Plants for a Future On-Line

     http://www.liv.ac.uk/~rmorris/pfaf/index.html

23.  Institute for Bioregional Studies

     http://www.cycor.ca/IBS/

24.  EcoVillage Information Service

     http://www.gaia.org/

25.  Crystal Waters Permaculture Village

     http://www.gaia.org/crystalwaters/

26.  The Farm EcoVillage Training Center

     http://www.gaia.org/farm/

27.  Intentional Communities on the Web
     http://www.well.com/user/cmty/iclist.html

28.  Findhorn

     http://www.gaia.org/findhorn/

29.  Arcosanti

     http://www.arcosanti.org

30.  Auroville

     http://www.webcom.com/~miraura/aa/av/av.html

31.  Permaculture FAQ on the Web

     Hyper-Text
          http://csf.colorado.edu/perma/faq.html

     Ascii-Text
          http://sunsite.unc.edu/london/permaculture.faq.v1.3

==============================================================
                         - * -
==============================================================

The Permaculture FAQ was compiled by Steve Diver(*) for the
permaculture-mg mailing list

Send updates, comments, and corrections to:
         steved at ncatfyv.uark.edu
                   or
         permaculture-mg at amani.ces.ncsu.edu

(*) Permaculture Design Course graduate, Michaela
    Farm/Sisters of St. Francis, Oldenburg, Indiana

=============================================================
                      - * -
=============================================================

On Sat, Apr 7, 2018 at 5:57 PM, Lawrence London <lfljvenaura at gmail.com>
wrote:

>
>
> On Sat, Apr 7, 2018 at 9:30 AM, Mom's Computer <murbith at gmail.com> wrote:
>
>>   My sense as I learn more and more about permaculture is that there is
>> no one right way.  It all depends on the specific situation in space and
>> time and even then there may be several “right ways”.  Seems like
>> discussion and sharing of ideas is what we need, not debate.
>>
>
> As far as the right way to apply permaculture is concerned, consider the
> Permaculture Standards and the Definition of Permaculture. You can then
> easily see what the right way is.
> There are resources here:
> Permaculture
> https://lists.ibiblio.org/mailman/listinfo/permaculture
>
> Here is something I found with a search:
>
> A definition of Permaculture (fwd)
> ------------------------------
>
>    - *To*: permaculture-mg at ces.ncsu.edu
>    - *Subject*: A definition of Permaculture (fwd)
>    - *From*: "Lawrence F. London, Jr." <london at calypso-2.oit.unc.edu>
>    - *Date*: Tue, 14 Mar 1995 11:21:23 -0500 (EST)
>
> ------------------------------
>
> ---------- Forwarded message ----------
> Date: Tue, 14 Mar 1995 10:51:14 WST
> >From: Warwick Rowell <warwick at bettong.eepo.dialix.oz.au>
> To: Homestead list <HOMESTEAD at world.std.com>
> Subject: A definition of Permaculture
>
> After the last spate of stuff about food systems there seems
> to be some confusion about what Permaculture is. In an attempt
> to clarify this, I have enclose below a one page definition
> with some characteristics that I have built over eight years
> of dealing with people's requests for information about
> Permaculture.
>
> We are all moving in the same direction and have different and
> overlapping mental frameworks for doing it. Arguing that "my theory
> contains yours" is not very fruitful. But one of the fundamental issues
> we face is the order in which we come across ideas, and what we do with
> new stuff.
>
> Most times we fit subsequent material into the first framework
> we receive. Very occasionally we find a new framework that fits
> our experience of the world so well we go through the huge mental
> effort of changing.
>
> Permaculture seems to me to be a comprehensive framework that is
> system based, that is positive, personal, and pragmatic. For me,
> it is a framework that contains organic gardening, sustainable agriculture,
> homesteading, solar design, alternative power, frugal living,
> alternative economics, independence/interdependence issues, and so on..
>
>
> Here is the text of the handout:
>
> 	Permaculture is applied integrated design.
>
> Permaculture started as a strategy for designing systems for Permanent
> or Perennial Agriculture. It has developed to  include other systems
> where carefully integrated design is desperately needed; houses and
> factories, as well as economic and community structures. Permaculture
> has drawn together a wide range of techniques, old and new, but it is
> different from most of them, because it is concerned about the >placement<
> of >elements< within the >system<.
>
>
> 	Permaculture is about deliberately designing systems that
> 	are resilient and meet the needs of all their members.
> 	
>
> Characteristics of Permaculture systems:
>
> 1.   The designed system uses and complements the natural systems that
> are present. eg: water control by planted swales not concrete drains.
>
>  2.   Each element performs many functions in the system. eg: A fruit
> tree can provide a crop, wind shelter, trellis, soil conditioning,
> shade, roosting.
>
>  3.   Every function needed in the system is provided by many elements.
> eg: To keep warm: clothes, hats, gloves, food, exercise, find a sunny
> spot, before lighting a fire.
>
>  4.   The system's size is appropriate to the resources available to
> design, establish and maintain it. eg: Don t spend all your money on
> buying a large block of land. eg: Don t look for the world s best
> technique or machinery, look for something appropriate, inexpensive,
> that works, here. eg: Borrow a 4WD once a year..
>
> 5.   The local needs of the system and its participants are given
> priority over external needs. eg: Design and finance a farm so most
> needs can still be met if there is reduced income from exports (that
> is, anything going off the property).
>
> 6.   In the longer term, energy is conserved and variety is maintained.
> eg: Producing your own food saves energy used for transport and packaging.
> eg: Adding predators to the system, rather than trying to kill a pest.
>
>
> Please feel free to distribute freely, but only with acknowledgement to
> 	Permaculture Applications, Consultancy and Education
> 		  Perth, Western Australia.
>  __________________________________________________________
> |                warwick.rowell at eepo.com.au                |
> |                                                          |
> |   Management Consultant     Permaculture Designer        |
> |_"Helping Managers Learn"___"Helping Land Managers Learn"_|
>
>
>
> --
> Lawrence F. London, Jr.
> lfljvenaura at gmail.com
> https://sites.google.com/site/avantgeared
>
>
>
>
>
>
>


-- 
Lawrence F. London, Jr.
lfljvenaura at gmail.com
https://sites.google.com/site/avantgeared


More information about the permaculture mailing list