[permaculture] A simple MATH view of Integrated Biological Systems (IBS) Microfarming Productivity Increases: How Synergy Emerges from Linked Foodchains by Lion Kuntz

Lawrence London lfljvenaura at gmail.com
Sat Aug 22 01:34:58 EDT 2015


* A simple MATH view of Integrated Biological Systems (IBS) Microfarming
Productivity Increases: How Synergy Emerges from Linked Foodchains.*

* The MATH of Integrated Biological Systems Microfarming: How Synergy
Emerges from Linked Foodchains*.

* [Apologies: a error in switchgrass productivity was incorporated in the
previous version. This corrected version uses the figures from Handbook of
Energy Crops James A. Duke. 1983
<http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/duke_energy/Panicum_maximum.html> at 55
tons per acre per year (125–150 MT/ha). My gratitude to an early reader who
notified me of the error.] *

One acre of alfalfa produces 3.5 tons of baled hay per year (US national
average production,) or up to 10 tons (@ 4 cutting/year best cases). The
cause of very low yields skewing the national averages lower than the peak
instances may be due to climates in areas which do not permit baled hay due
to wet springs or wet autumns, or both. In these cases the alfalfa fields
may still be productive as uncounted haylage (silage) or as grazing for
livestock in the fields. Do not be misled by the lowest productivity
figures for 'hay' only.

At the lower figure, 3.5 tons (7,000 lbs), one can feed and raise 1,750
pounds of live weight rabbit meat at a conversion ration of 4 pounds of
feed to obtain 1 pound of weight gain. 12-week-old 5 pound fryers = 350
rabbits per acre of feed provided in the form of pelletized alfalfa, or
fresh-cut green alfalfa. *[see Table 1: Example #1, below]*

[image: Rabbit breeding links. Sources of information include FAO, U.N.U.,
state extension services, professional breeder organizations. These pages
include further links to even more information.]
Rabbits Husbandry Links
<http://www20.brinkster.com/microfarm//Visual_Pages/Rabbits/index.html> Rabbits
waste approximately half the alfalfa when given in the form of dried hay,
so the production is halved to 175 rabbits (5 pound live weight average)
per acre if dried hay is fed. Fresh-cut green alfalfa is more palatable to
rabbits and they eat more, wasting less, so the figures for fresh-cut and
pellets are about the same.

Alfalfa feed in the form of mash is converted to weight gain at a higher
ratio, with very little waste. In this case, the same 3.5 tons converts to
2,187.5 pound live weight, or 437.5 market-sized rabbits of average 5
pounds live weight. *[see Table 1: Example #2, below]*

The outputs are meat and manures. The meat is directly marketable, whereas
the manures require further processing. Microbes and digestive enzymes from
the rabbits digestive system continue to break down the manures.

Wide experience has shown that rabbit manures are highly compatible with
earthworm culture, and that both vermicompost (as fertilizer and soil
amendments) and the earthworms have economic values. I have provided a
collection of laboratory analysis of rabbit manures from reputable sources,
like international, national and university labs from all parts of the
world. <http://lionkuntz.mybravenet.com/Rabbit_Manure01.html> There is no
question that they all agree on the high fertilizer contents of alfalfa-fed
rabbit manures.

The production of rabbit manures is approximately twice the weight of wet
manure to dried feed (pellets or hay) by the addition of the drinking water
taken by the rabbit. So 3.5 tons of hay becomes 7 tons of fresh manures.
The vermicomposting process will reduce this mass approximately by half due
to the metabolism of the retinue of microrganisms in the rabbit digestive
tract and earthworm digestive ecologies. The losses are primarily as
carbon-dioxide exhalations of the living microherd.

[image: Agricultural Alfalfa and Biomass Crops Links]
Agriculture Alfalfa Biomass Links
invariably introduces some rhizobium from its symbiotic nodules, which
survive the rabbit digestion. Rabbits introduce from their cecum digestive
organ a microbe symbiot of their own, clostridium. Several clostridium
species are extremely dangerous, causing tetanus, gasous gangrene, and
botulism in anaerobic wounds -- be sure to have tetanus booster shots as
needed and treat all wounds around the farm as serious matters. However,
these microbes live in the rabbit cecum and provide useful services to the
rabbit and later to the earthworm reactors.

Both rhizobium and clostridium are opportunistic saprophytes, meaning they
can prosper and reproduce in dung. The earthworms add their own adapted
microbe symbiots and coat their tunnels and egesta (castings) with mucus,
which provides extremely preferable habitat for the microbes. Ten times the
microbial populations are counted in worm castings than in the adjacent
soil. What makes this of interest is that the rhizobium and clostridium are
biological-nitrogen-fixing (BNF) species.

The fact is the nitrogen fertilizer value of earthworm castings can be
equal to, or higher than, the intial nitrogen assey of the feedstock of
alfalfa, from whence the final product originated. In addition, tiny crumbs
of worm castings can hold huge populations of desirable microbes as seed
populations to bio-activate surrounding soil, where 6,000 individuals can
be micro-photographed on the sharp point of a pin. Often the nitrogen is
bound up temporarily in living cell material, and some lab tests looking
for only soluble nitrogen will fail to detect it. A living population of
BNF microbes is continually manufacturing more nitrogen supplies day and
night, so any snapshot of nitrogen at a single moment in time will not
truthfully report the ongoing nitrogen fertilizer additions continually
being created from air.

In any case, the asseys of rabbit manures are nearly as high in nitrogen as
the alfalfa feedstocks before vermicomposting. In addition, azotobactor
which commonly floats in on the air currents, which is another BNF species,
prospers well in earthworm castings, but poorly in plain soil. BNF species
are all to some extent handicapped in direct competition with other
species, because of the nitrogenase enzyme they depend on has peculiar
requirements. By breeding them intentionally in optimal conditions they can
multiply as rapidly as non-BNF species, bypassing the BNF option until
nitrogen supplies in the environment are sopped up. They then can
out-compete their neighbors whom have to wait for nitrogen to come from
some other source than the air.

[image: I have provided a collection of laboratory analysis of rabbit
manures from reputable sources, like international, national and university
labs from all parts of the world.]
Rabbit Manure Fertilizer Value Links
<http://lionkuntz.mybravenet.com/Rabbit_Manure01.html> By using
vermicompost passed six or seven times through the simple digestive tract
of the earthworms, the rabbit manures have been turned into incubation
capsules which serve as ecological 'sources' in soil microcosms. A 'source'
is a place of high reproduction and subsequent dispersal of offspring to
colonize less productive ecological terrains.

The co-adapted earthworm microbe retinue perform in miniature eco-systems
serving to repulse immigrant species by co-option of all existing niches.
Their offspring, healthy and numerous, can disperse into surrounding soils
with lower nutritional value thereby supporting weaker pre-existing microbe
ecologies. Since these dispersers are BNF species they introduce affluence
into their habitat by drawing nitrogen from the atmosphere, Nitrogen is
often the limiting resource in many soils, essential for all proteins,
DNA/RNA, enzymes, and vitamins. The dispersers exude their own ureas and
wastes, which are taken up by other microbes in the soil. The soil health
is raised by introduction of this form of predigested
microbiologically-active vermicompost nuggets and crumbs.

Vermicompost also supports actinomycetes, which is yet another BNF
lifeform, and the soils fertilized with living (not steamed sterilized)
vermicomposts become enriched with these threading-colony builders whom can
transport raw materials from where it is abundant to where it is scarce
through their dense numerous fibers. Finally, the nitrogen-enriched
vermicompost is soon connected to vast soil networks of phosphorus
conveyers -- the mycorrhizia. Phosphorus is needed by CAMP and ATP, the
essential energy molecules of every cell alive on earth. Phosphorus is
often the second most limiting element in the foodwebs. To avoid crushing,
sufficating and breaking up this essential microbial network the wise
farmer plants in raised beds which are never compacted by walking on or
compressed by vehicles of any kind. Using earthworm populations for
stirring, aerating and churning, and by regular mulch toppings of
vermicompost, this soil rarely needs digging of any kind forever. This soil
is of maximum tilth and health, and cannot be improved upon by anything
science has ever tried. Only the addition of 'companion planting' is needed
to limit the predatory members to low numbers beneath levels of concern.

Effectively, the original rabbit manures provided a one-to-one return: one
acre produced one acres' worth of fertilizer. This is the basis for a
perpetual fertility system. Ecological Synergy does much better than 1-to-1
return, as will be shown.

[image: This assortment of links shows the variety of earthworm pages on
the internet. I picked some which are representative and hopefully
informative. One should obtain a basic understanding of the beneficial
values of earthworms by reading the fertilizer nutritional content of lab
analysis of castings and vermicompost.]
Earthworms: culture and castings links
<http://lionkuntz.mybravenet.com/castings_01.htm> The 40 to 50 feet deep
roots of mature perennial alfalfa bring up trace elements from far below
the plow zone, and the plant bio-concentrates trace minerals which make it
a superior raw ingredient in fertilizers. The illusion is that vast amounts
of fertility are being exported off the farm in the form of meat, but
analysis shows that the largest bulk of it is from the air and water:
carbon dioxide photosynthesized into sugar carbons make up 50% of the dry
fraction, which is only about 15% of the living animal if it was
freeze-dried to remove all water content. Calcium, which is often in
oversupply making alkaline soils, and is cheaply mined from vast limestone
deposits, is the second largest mineral exported in the meats mainly as
bones. The remaining minerals exported in live rabbits amount to the size
and weight of a multi-vitamin tablet, which in fact they are equivilent to.

So the rabbits-alfalfa short foodchain represents a perpetually sustainable
system. The BNF microbes use minute traces of boron in nitrogenase to fix
the nitrogen, and occasionally enriching the alfalfa stands with 20 pounds
of mined boron will reduce the workload on the plants and improve their
health and vigor.

Adding earthworms adds productivity in the form of poultry and fish feeds.
Extending the foodchain two more species greatly improves the productivity.
Earthworms can be harvested from the vermicompost bin or reactor at
sustained rate of about 300 pounds per ton of manures processed per year.
One acre of alfalfa generates 7 tons of fresh moist manures, so the
sustained annual harvest of earthworms is slightly more than 1 ton of
earthworms (2,100 lbs). *[see TABLE 1 Example #3 below]*

As chicken feed, this represents 656.25 pounds of live weight gain, at a
rate of 3.2 pounds of feed converted to 1 pound of meat. This turns out to
be equal to 131.25 chickens raised at five pound 12-week fryers, except for
two things. First, the feed-to-weight ratio is based on grain-based chicken
feeds, and chickens gain weight faster on less feed with earthworm
supplements, although no figures are available demonstrating the
efficiencies of adding earthworms. The second exception is earthworms are
fed at about one-third of the total diet.

[image: Farm pollution is found in polar bears on arctic pack ice and in
penguins on antartic ice sheets. These poisons are destroying habitats and
directly causing biodiverity extinctions. Students of the soil know how
valuable ever the invisibly small co-species on the farm are, and would
spurn these chemicals if at all; possible. This page of links describes a
few of the tragedies caused by farm pollution by sociopaths in charge of
farmlands and in charge of government regulatory agencies.]
Industrial Agriculture & Slash and Burn causes
15,000 rare species to go extinct every year!
fish feed (and we know how fish love earthworm bait) the conversion ratio
is closer to 2 to 1, since fish do not have to struggle against gravity,
and as cold-blooded they convert less food to heat. 2,100 pounds of
earthworms produces 1,050 pounds of live weight fish. The quarter ton of
chickens or half ton of fish represents a synergetic bonus by using a
four-step integrated biological system. *[see TABLE 1 Example #3 below]*

Actually it is overly-simplistic to look at it as four macro links in a
foodchain, because we have identified at least four microherd essential
players, and in fact there are hundreds of species in the soil performing
essential functions.

>From the giant-sized human perspective it is a 4-step chain. Additional
steps can be added. The alfalfa would enjoy return of vermicompost from
time to time, but is essentially self-sufficient. The vermicompost is then
available to be used to fertilize other acreage for vegetable, ornamental
horticulture and orchard fertilization. This high-grade fertilizer is
essentially free after producing 437 rabbits and 131 chickens off one acres
production of one years hay.

If one wanted to do some creative recycling, many farm wastes (weeds, crop
residues, cosmetically damaged produce, spoiled returns) and other organics
can be added to bulk up the vermicompost. Carbon is the limiting ingredient
in the vermicompost enriched with BNF microbes. Shredded paper, soaked
cardboard, leaves, straw, can be added to the worm bins as bedding and
feedstock. In 90 days it will be enriched with nitrogen by the microbe

[image: This is a visual page showing 100 website pages about the global
epidemic of biotic holocaust. Each thumbnail describes one page and links
to it. Learn. Act Wisely with Courage. Change the world. Grow food
Ecologicaly Synergistically.]
Human waste of land is causing
a global epidemic of Mass Species Extinctions.
on 1 to 1 rabbit feed/vermicompost ratio output, it is possible to get
three times the amount of vermicompost and three times the earthworm
harvest for three times the poultry or fish gains. It is even possible to
grow biomass crops for worm reactor feedstocks to increase the fertilizer
productions. A fifteenth (1/15) of an acre put into switchgrass could
produce 3.5 tons of high-carbon feedstocks, or equal mass to a whole acre
of alfalfa. This is from a patch of switchgrass 53 feet by 53 feet. Two
patches would triple the biomass in the earthworm reactors. A 2 to 1 ratio
of high-carbon organic material is converted to equally high fertilizer by
the earthworms once the carbon supply allows the BNF microbes to colonize
it. *[see TABLE 1 Example #4 below]*

Please keep in mind the reproductive fertility of microbes in optimal
circumstances. One individual, splitting in two ever 20 minutes become
1,000,000 duplicates in 8 hours. High-carbon low-nitrogen feedstocks give
the competitive advantage to BNF populations, which can fill the ecological
niches before the non-BNF populations can gain entry. There is sound
measured evidence to support every one of these statements.

Tripling the biomass in the earthworm reactors triples the earthworm
population carrying capacity, so that 3,150 pounds production of earthworms
is produced by 1 acre of alfalfa rabbit feed and 2/15ths of an acre of
switchgrass. *[see TABLE 1 Example #4 below]*

This tripling carries down the foodchain to chickens or fish: instead of a
0.33 ton (656.25 lbs) of live weight chickens one obtains 1 ton of
chickens; instead of 0.5 ton of live weight fish, one obtains 1.5 tons of

Just adding 2/15ths of an acre of switchgrass (55 tons yield per year) has
provided a bonus of meat not available to those whom spurn the Integrated
Biological System (IBS) approach. In addition, there is now 3.0 acres of
fertilizer produced on 1.13 acres of land versus 1.0 acres of fertilizer
produced on 1.0 acres of alfalfa alone. That 0.13 acre contribution
produced 200% increase in earthworms and vermicompost product.

*TABLE 1* (In each example given, changes to any variable cause changes in
productivity, therefore the changes from the preceding example are
*highlighted.*) So far the math looks like this:
*EXAMPLE #1* just rabbits alone, fed dried alfalfa pellets or fresh-cut
green alfalfa feeds.
1.0 acre of alfalfa
1,750 pounds of live rabbits (350 live rabbits)
3.5 tons aged manures
*EXAMPLE #2* just rabbits alone, *fed alfalfa mash.*
1.0 acre of alfalfa
*3,181 pounds of live rabbits (437 live rabbits)*
3.5 tons aged manures
*EXAMPLE #3* rabbits *(fed alfalfa pellets or fresh-cut green), earthworms,
chicken or fish.*
1.0 acre of alfalfa
*1,750 pounds of live rabbits (350 live rabbits)*
3.5 tons *vermicompost*
*2,100 pounds earthworms*   = *656.25 pounds of chickens (131 chickens),*   OR
= *1,050 pounds of fish*
*EXAMPLE #4* rabbits (fed alfalfa pellets or fresh-cut green), earthworms,
chicken or fish, *switchgrass biomass.*
1.0 acre of alfalfa

*+ 0.13 acre switchgrass*
1,750 pounds of live rabbits (350 live rabbits)
*10.5 tons* vermicompost
*3,150* pounds earthworms     = *984.37* pounds of chickens (*196* live
chickens),     OR = *1,431* pounds of fish
The previous examples are based upon the lower national average (3.5
tons/year/acre hay) alfalfa production fed in the form of pellets or fresh
green cut alfalfa. Using the peak current production figures of best
management, most favorable soil/growing conditions one can obtain *10* tons
alfalfa hay/year/acre. This is a *286%* increase in rabbit feedstock.
Multiplying the inputs by *2.86* gives idealized production goals of the
*EXAMPLE #5* *just rabbits alone,* fed dried alfalfa pellets or fresh-cut
green alfalfa feeds.
1.0 acre of alfalfa
  *5,000* pounds of live rabbits (*1,000* live rabbits)
  *10 tons aged manures*
*EXAMPLE #6* rabbits (fed alfalfa pellets or fresh-cut green), *earthworms,
chickens or fish.*
1.0 acre of alfalfa
5,000 pounds of live rabbits (1,000 live rabbits)
10 tons *vermicompost*
*3,000 pounds earthworms*     = *937.5 pounds of chickens (187 live
chickens),*     OR = *1,363 pounds of fish*
*EXAMPLE #7* rabbits (fed alfalfa pellets or fresh-cut green), earthworms,
chicken or fish, *switchgrass biomass.*
1.0 acre of alfalfa

*+ 0.26 acre switchgrass*
5,000 pounds of live rabbits (1,000 live rabbits)
*30* tons vermicompost
*9,000* pounds earthworms     = *2,812* pounds of chickens, (*562* live
chickens),     OR = *4,090* pounds of fish

I would like to point out the fact that 9,000 pounds of earthworms have
treated 30 tons of vermicompost. At average nitrogen assey of 2.3% plant
available nitrogen four tons will deliver 184 pounds of nitrogen fertilizer
per acre. However, the biologically alive BNF vermicompost will produce
additional amounts of nitrogen through the season as timed-release nitrogen
through their microbe manures (urea) and decomposition of their deceased

[image: In countries without refrigeration, small livestock like chickens
and rabbits represent one meal without leftovers. High reproduction rates
and home-grown feedstocks make these animals profitable to local customers.
Home processing of the meats requires figuring how to dispose of the
processing wastes. This page collects links on feathers, broiler litter,
and other 'wastes' which are too valuable to throw away in the compost
Links to Many Uses of Chicken Wastes
<http://lionkuntz.mybravenet.com/Chicken_Manure_01.html> So the *EXAMPLE #7*
number of acres fertilized by the vermicompost are more than 7 acres from
the feedstocks grown on 1.057 acres of land. However, that is measured by
broadcasting the fertilizer to row crops: using the much more efficient
intensive raised-bed method and applying the vermicompost as mulch directly
as top dressing around the plants, one could fertilize nearly 9 acres with
the same quantity of fertilizer and harvest at least 20% more from the same

[image: Spent Mushroom Substrate is called SMS for short, and is the
mycelium mass which grows reproductive organs we know as mushrooms. The
SMS, while still fresh and living, has nearly the same nutritional value as
milk, and is considered delicious by poultry, goats, horses and cattle. The
SMS has even higher soil fertilizer values after being passed through
animals digestive tracts as manures for the earthworm bins.]
Spent Mushroom Substrate is called SMS for short
<http://lionkuntz.mybravenet.com/SMS_01.html> This fertilizer gain is in
addition to harvest and export of 10,635 pounds of combined live chickens
and live rabbits. The synergy of rabbits-earthworms-chickens-vermicompost
has an efficiency exponentially greater than any monocropping livestock
confined animal feeding operation.

For maximum simplicity of understanding these descriptions have been
streamlined. No mortality figures were included, which subtract from the
total outputs. Mortality is highly site dependant and management skill
dependent, and can vary from a low of a couple of percent to total disaster

There are substitutions which could be included, such as using water
hyacinths as the biomass feedstocks for the earthworm reactor bins. Water
hyacinths are some of the highest biomass productive plants on the planet,
and can be used for excess fertilizer sopping up in pond water purification

Parts of the water hyacinths, or switchgrass biomass, can be pre-processed
as gourmet mushroom cultivation feedstocks. In this case the biomass is
reduced by 50% due to fungi respiration of carbon-dioxide exhalations and
are further reduced another 20% due to cropped mushrooms. For every 10
units of harvested biomass (pounds/kilos/tons/tonnes) one recovers 3 units
of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) biomass to feed the earthworm reactors.
At the same time, the SMS with still living mycelium has a high nutritional
value for livestock feed, and a protein content similar to milk. The SMS
can be fed to chickens to increase chicken outputs, but at a reduction of
earthworm feedstocks.

To see what this looks like *EXAMPLE #8* diverts switchgrass biomass to
mushroom cultivation before feeding the SMS to earthworms, and *EXAMPLE #9*
describes a condition where additional biomass is grown above the amounts
in *EXAMPLE #7* above to add a mushroom link to that foodchain.

*EXAMPLE #7* [repeated from Table 1 above] rabbits (fed alfalfa pellets or
fresh-cut green), earthworms, chicken or fish, switchgrass biomass.
1.0 acre of alfalfa

+ 0.26 acre switchgrass
5,000 pounds of live rabbits (1,000 live rabbits)
30 tons vermicompost
9,000 pounds earthworms     = 2,812 pounds of chickens, (562 live chickens),
    OR = 4,090 pounds of fish
*Diverting biomass to mushrooms instead of to earthworms, diverting SMS to
chickens instead of to earthworms]* *EXAMPLE #8* rabbits (fed alfalfa
pellets or fresh-cut green), earthworms, chicken or fish,
switchgrass/water-hyacinths biomass.
1.0 acre of alfalfa

+ 0.26 acre switchgrass
5,000 pounds of live rabbits (1,000 live rabbits)
*10* tons vermicompost
*3,000* pounds earthworms *(fed rabbit manure only)*     = *937.5* pounds
of chickens (*187* live chickens),     OR *1,363* pounds of fish
*2,000 pounds gourmet mushrooms*
*(SMS-fed) 1,875 pounds of additional chickens (375 live chickens)*
[Increasing biomass for mushroom production and unpre-processed biomass for
earthworm reactors by doubling biomass land cultivation area --
combining *examples
#7 & #8 above*] *EXAMPLE #9* rabbits (fed alfalfa pellets or fresh-cut
green), earthworms, chicken or fish, switchgrass/water-hyacinths biomass.
1.0 acre of alfalfa

*+ 0.52* acre switchgrass
5,000 pounds of live rabbits (1,000 live rabbits)
*33* tons vermicompost
*9,900* pounds earthworms     = *3,093* pounds of chickens (*618* live
chickens),         OR = *4,500* pounds of fish
2,000 pounds gourmet mushrooms
(SMS-fed) 1,875 pounds of additional chickens (375 live chickens)

The total so far is 11,973 pounds of high-protein foods (rabbits,
mushrooms, chickens/fish) produced on feedstocks from 1.52 acres or
slightly more than 0.5 hectare on a sustainable perpetual basis, with 33
tons of fertilizer to nourish 7.29 acres of crops at 200 pounds of organic
nitrogen per acre per year (broadcast to row-crops). This is an average
daily production of 32.7 pounds of protein foods, which can perpetually
sustain a population of 16 persons at a daily consumption of 2 pounds per

[image: The most numerous pages on the internet which completely describe
in details how to grow mushrooms are the recreational mushroom growing
pages. In some places these types of mushrooms are prohibited, but the
information is still useful translated into gourmet and medicinal mushroom
species for small farm support and income generation.]
Mushroom Growers Techniques
from around the world.
this set of figures has not yet subtracted out the feathers, furs, blood,
scales, heads and entrails, from the live weight (approximately 22% of live
weight), it also does not include the productivity gains of recycling these
wastes through black soldier fly larve, for additional fish feeds
cancelling these losses. Chicken henhouse litter (straw mixed with manures)
is highly palatable to cattle (and highly desirable to them, regardless
whether this disturbs your sense of propriety), and has crude protein
nutritional values equal to grain feeds. Water hyacinths and fish IBS
produce synergistic gains because the selected species of fish graze on the
floating plants roots while the fish manures fertilize the plant growth
increases, and BNF-blue-green algea are adding continuous supplies of
organic-Nitrogen to the aquatic foodwebs. Other synergies exist by adding
small plots for market gardening of mixed vegetables using the fertilizers
to grow the crops and adding green wastes (crop residues, cosmetically
unsalable, and over supply) as rabbit feeds to increase their health and
quality of life and increasing net weight gains and net vermiculture gains.

More synergies can be added at little effort, cultivating honeybees which
pollinate the alfalfa takes very little work or expenses once established.
Vine crops can grow up over the henhouse and chicken coops getting
double-duty from the same square-footage of land space. The grapes, kiwi or
passion fruits give summer heat shading to the animals when they need it
most. Chickens and ducks can eat weeds and insects among the growing crops,
if the operation is designed intelligently. Ducks can co-exist with the
aquaculture of fish/water weeds, at minimal expense or effort once

[image: Companion Planting means growing Pyrethrum species to make your own
organic insecticide sprays, growing tagetes marigold to cleanse soil of
root-knot nemetodes, catnip for mosquito and other types of pest
repellants, garlic for mildew mold sprays, and many other integrated pest
management solutions. Here are 64 links pages dispelling entrenched
scientific ignorance on this important and valuable subject. Not all of
these linked pages are equaly as useful, but they show how many people are
obtaining good results while the 'biased researcher effect' continues to
fail to obtain results in chemically polluted university plots.]
Companion Planting can reduce pest damage
in an ecologically compatible way.
breeding rabbits and fowl, harvested young at 12 weeks, have very little
time to multiply any infectious prions to spread any Spongiform
Encephapathy which may become epidemic in your area as it is now sweeping
the globe. So far the infectious agent has never been located in fish,
although fowl (wild waterfowl) may be carriers. It might be wise to only
eat eggs from the ducks once the plague hits your area.

Elsewhere There are internet knowlegebase resource website pages I
maintain, and many others from 'eco-villiages' or permaculture advocates
providing information about choreographing lifeforms for synergistic
productivity increases.

Let me conclude this article by describing one point alluded to above.
#9* you can get another 250 pounds of rabbit production, (1,250 lbs total),
from the exact same feedstocks by making the simple change from feeding it
as pellets or fresh-cut, to providing it ground-up in water as mash.
Rabbits go from 4 units of feed to one unit of weight gain, to only needing
3.2 units of mash feed to obtain the exact same 1 unit of weight gain. It
pays to research many methods and learn many options so that one can be
flexible in a world of uncertain changes looming on the future.

This article has two companion articles with additional information and
alternative ways to view the data. This present article presented
comparisons of varying a factyor at a time in table format, however some
people are more visually oriented and can more easily grasp the ideas of
integrated biological systems microfarming by viewing a flowchart of the
whole and subsystems. Such a flowchart is available at

A page of links to other websites with examples of benefits of using some
of these IBS subsystems is found at

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