[permaculture] Breeding plants in diverse communities may lead to more productive plants

Lawrence London lfljvenaura at gmail.com
Thu Nov 13 21:36:49 EST 2014


On Thu, Nov 13, 2014 at 9:01 PM, Lawrence London <lfljvenaura at gmail.com>
wrote:

>
> ---------- Forwarded message ----------
> From: Lawrence London <lfljvenaura at gmail.com>
> Date: Thu, Nov 13, 2014 at 9:00 PM
> Subject: Re: [permaculture] Breeding plants in diverse communities may
> lead to more productive plants
> To: Alia Tsang <alia at dietrick.org>
>
>
> On Thu, Nov 13, 2014 at 8:01 PM, Alia Tsang <alia at dietrick.org> wrote:
>
>> That's really interesting about the clover, I'll have to read more
>>
>
In 100 words or less:

>* Other workers have shown that certain natural, plant-produced chemicals can
*>* stimulate the existing VAM to higher levels of activity.  These
*>* chemicals were originally derived from red clover, a popular sequence in
*>* crop
*>* rotations.  This may shed some light on why rotations are effective
*>* w/regard to VAM.*



> I will try to find the articles in question and post them here.
> The original one was so obscrure; I just ran across it in a newsgroup and
> saved it.
> Each year I have to do a big search to find it and the last time I did
> this I tried to make sure
> I could put my hand on it easily. This time there will be several replies
> from others familiar with this research.
> I am sure it is online somewhere in my ibiblio website.
>

I found four articles I posted to this list in 2013, one directed to you
and then three others, one containing the original post that interested me:

[permaculture] mycorhizae thread - this gem of info: plant selection of
appropriate VAM's & VAM-stimulating natural plant extracts
http://lists.ibiblio.org/pipermail/permaculture/2013-March/043074.html

There are more posts in this thread in the sanet-mg archives that this
forwarded post from me was included in.
There were replies with a lot more info on :
1) "determine how the different crop plants differentially select for
certain
species of VAM among all that are availible in the soil."
2) "that certain natural, plant-produced chemicals can
stimulate the existing VAM to higher levels of activity.  These
chemicals were originally derived from red clover"
[a group actually produced such extracts to make a marketable ag product
from]

I will find them and post them here.

<>

Article: 5512 of bionet.plants
From: niemirab at student.msu.edu
<http://lists.ibiblio.org/mailman/listinfo/permaculture>  (Brendan A.
Niemira)
Newsgroups: bionet.plants
Subject: Re: Mycorhizzae vs. Fertilizer
Date: Thu, 02 Mar 1995  11:04 est


For agronomic crops, you're talking about vesicular arbuscular
mycorrhizae (VAM), a symbiotic endomycorrhizal fungus.  These are
ubiquitous anyway, and
not very host-specific, so there is very little need to inoculate the field
in order
to introduce them.  The big trick is getting them to colonize your crop
plant to such an extent that fertilizer inputs can be reduced.  You can a)
build up the population in the soil such that even moderately active fungi
result in
heavy coloniazation, b) put something in the soil to stimulate the activity
of smaller populations to get heavy colonization.

Crop rotations have been shown to have a definite impact on the population
dynamics of VAM, and work is currently being done (by me, among others) to
determine how the different crop plants differentially select for certain
species of VAM among all that are availible in the soil.

Other workers have shown that certain natural, plant-produced chemicals can
stimulate the existing VAM to higher levels of activity.  These
chemicals were originally derived from red clover, a popular sequence in
crop
rotations.  This may shed some light on why rotations are effective
w/regard to VAM.


[permaculture] red clover extract that stimulates vesicular arbuscular
mycorrhizae - Google Search
http://lists.ibiblio.org/pipermail/permaculture/2013-March/043077.html

Attn: Alia -
<>

This seems to have to do with Alia's information about available phosphate
levels in soil affecting a
host plant's need to allow colonization of mycorrhizal fungi on its roots
for phosphate uptake;
i.e. phosphate is a regulator of this process.
The article quoted below goes into this and is fascinating:
The regulation of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis by phosphate in pea
involves early and systemic signalling
eventshttp://jxb.oxfordjournals.org/content/62/3/1049.full

<>http://aem.asm.org/content/57/2/434

Isolation and Identification of Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhiza-Stimulatory
Compounds from Clover (Trifolium repens) Roots

Muraleedharan G. Nair1*,
Gene R. Safir2 and
Jose O. Siqueira2†

+ Author Affiliations

1Bioactive Natural Products Laboratory, Department of Horticulture and
Pesticide Research Center, and Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, 2
Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824

ABSTRACT

Two isoflavonoids isolated from clover roots grown under phosphate stress
were characterized as formononetin (7-hydroxy,4′-methoxy isoflavone) and
biochanin A (5,7-dihydroxy,4′-methoxy isoflavone). At 5 ppm, these
compounds stimulated hyphal growth in vitro and root colonization of an
undescribed vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza, a Glomus sp. (INVAM-112). The
permethylated products of the two compounds were inactive. These findings
suggest that the isoflavonoids studied may act as signal molecules in
vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza symbiosis.

Articles citing this article

==================

The regulation of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis by phosphate in pea
involves early and systemic signalling events J Exp Bot January 2011 62:3
1049-1060

Abstract
Full Text
PDF

The regulation of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis by phosphate in pea
involves early and systemic signalling
eventshttp://jxb.oxfordjournals.org/content/62/3/1049.full

Abstract

Most plants form root symbioses with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi,
which provide them with phosphate and other nutrients. High soil phosphate
levels are known to affect AM symbiosis negatively, but the underlying
mechanisms are not understood. This report describes experimental
conditions which triggered a novel mycorrhizal phenotype under high
phosphate supply: the interaction between pea and two different AM fungi
was almost completely abolished at a very early stage, prior to the
formation of hyphopodia. As demonstrated by split-root experiments,
down-regulation of AM symbiosis occurred at least partly in response to
plant-derived signals. Early signalling events were examined with a focus
on strigolactones, compounds which stimulate pre-symbiotic fungal growth
and metabolism. Strigolactones were also recently identified as novel plant
hormones contributing to the control of shoot branching. Root exudates of
plants grown under high phosphate lost their ability to stimulate AM fungi
and lacked strigolactones. In addition, a systemic down-regulation of
strigolactone release by high phosphate supply was demonstrated using
split-root systems. Nevertheless, supplementation with exogenous
strigolactones failed to restore root colonization under high phosphate.
This observation does not exclude a contribution of strigolactones to the
regulation of AM symbiosis by phosphate, but indicates that they are not
the only factor involved. Together, the results suggest the existence of
additional early signals that may control the differentiation of hyphopodia.
Key words

    Phosphorus
    arbuscular mycorrhiza
    strigolactone
    symbiosis
    hyphopodium

Previous SectionNext Section
Introduction

Roots of the vast majority of plant species develop symbiotic associations
with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) soil fungi. Fungal hyphae develop in the
root cortex where they form intracellular highly branched structures called
arbuscules, and simultaneously in the soil where they form a dense mycelial
network. Within the root the plant supplies the fungus with hexoses, at a
cost of up to 20% of the carbon fixed by photosynthesis (Smith and Read,
2008). In return, it obtains water and minerals taken up from soil by the
mycelial network. The main benefit of the symbiosis for the plant is an
enhanced acquisition of phosphorus (P), a frequent limiting factor in plant
growth due to its poor solubility and mobility in soils.

Despite the importance of AM symbiosis, cellular and molecular events
underlying this interaction are only beginning to be unravelled (Parniske,
2008). Direct genetic screens to identify mycorrhizal (myc−) mutants are
extremely cumbersome. As a result, most myc− mutants in fact belong to a
subset of mutants initially isolated as deficient in nitrogen-fixing
symbiosis, this latter interaction being easier to examine. A consequence
of this bias is the relative scarcity of mutants affected in events unique
to the AM symbiosis, including pre-colonization signalling and arbuscule
development and function (Marsh and Schultze, 2001). Nonetheless, several
specific myc− mutants have been identified in the past few years. They can
be affected in different stages of the interaction as summarized in Pumplin
et al. (2009): pre-symbiotic fungal growth, formation of hyphopodia (root
attachment and penetration structures, formerly referred to as
appressoria), epidermal penetration, and arbuscule development (see also
Zhang et al., 2010).

Various physiological situations are known to affect the development of AM
symbiosis. For instance, plants control the extent to which AM fungi can
colonize their roots according to their own nutritional requirements. The
best known example of such regulations is the control of AM symbiosis
according to P availability. Roots can acquire P as inorganic
orthophosphate (Pi) through different pathways (Bucher, 2007). In certain
conditions the mycorrhizal uptake pathway, which involves specific Pi
transporters (Rausch et al., 2001; Harrison et al., 2002; Paszkowski et
al., 2002), can be the major route for P uptake (Smith et al., 2003). When
P is abundant, a direct, probably less costly uptake pathway is preferred
(Nagy et al., 2008), and a reduced root colonization by AM fungi is
observed. This down-regulation of the symbiosis by P has been known for a
long time (Graham et al., 1981; Thomson et al., 1986; Elias and Safir,
1987; Rausch et al., 2001; and many others). It seems to be a general
phenomenon, although its magnitude can vary (Javot et al. 2007; Smith and
Read, 2008). It has far-reaching consequences in natural ecosystems where
it modulates the effect of AM fungi on plant species diversity (Collins and
Foster, 2009), as well as in agriculture where strong P fertilization may
in the long term decrease the presence and richness of soil AM communities
(Johnson, 1993).

Little is known about mechanisms underlying the regulation of AM symbiosis
by P. A recent study (Branscheid et al., 2010) has documented this
down-regulation in Medicago truncatula, and investigated the identity of
the internal signal that triggers suppression of the interaction under high
P. Nonetheless, the downstream mechanisms that prevent or limit root
colonization by AM fungi remain largely unknown. Early studies led to
conflicting results and interpretations, partly due to the variety of
species combinations and experimental systems. Some of these early studies
interpreted the impact of high P on the fungus in terms of trophic effects:
high P would decrease the root secretion of metabolites used by the fungus,
such as amino acids or carbohydrates (e.g. Graham et al., 1981; Thomson et
al., 1986). An alternative proposition was that qualitative rather than
quantitative differences between root exudates of P-replete and P-deficient
plants could account for their differential effects on the fungus (Elias
and Safir, 1987). This led to the suggestion that P-deprived roots exuded
important flavonoid signals that triggered pre-symbiotic fungal growth and
activity (Nair et al., 1991). Advances made in the last 10 years have
indeed emphasized the importance of signalling events in mycorrhizal
interactions, and the recent identification of some signals may shed new
light on the regulation of AM symbiosis by P.

Plants and AM fungi are known to exchange molecular signals prior to
physical contact, at the so-called pre-symbiotic stage. Various lines of
evidence indicate that AM fungi produce diffusible compounds able to
modulate root gene expression (Kosuta et al., 2003; Weidmann et al., 2004),
intracellular signalling (Navazio et al., 2007; Kosuta et al., 2008),
development (Olah et al., 2005), and metabolism (Gutjahr et al., 2009).
Reciprocally, plant roots secrete compounds that stimulate the fungus
(Gianinazzi-Pearson et al., 1989; Siqueira et al., 1991; Tsai and Phillips,
1991; Giovannetti et al., 1996; Buée et al., 2000). A group of secondary
metabolites called strigolactones were identified as major contributors to
this effect (Akiyama et al., 2005; Besserer et al., 2006). Strigolactones
trigger morphological and developmental responses in the fungus such as
hyphal branching and spore germination, and enhance fungal mitochondrial
activity and respiration (Besserer et al., 2006, 2008).
Strigolactone-mediated signalling is necessary for a normal level of root
colonization, as demonstrated using strigolactone-deficient mutants
(Gomez-Roldan et al., 2008). Most interestingly, these root-exuded
compounds also play an important role in planta, acting as hormones that
contribute to the regulation of shoot branching (Gomez-Roldan et al., 2008;
Umehara et al., 2008).

Prior to the discovery of their roles in AM symbiosis and plant
development, strigolactones were known as germination stimulants for the
seeds of the parasitic plants Striga and Orobanche (Bouwmeester et al.,
2007). Damage caused to crops by these weeds is lower under strong nutrient
fertilization, which led to the investigation of whether P availability
influenced strigolactone release into the soil. Indeed, several studies
demonstrated a strong negative effect of high P supply on strigolactone
production and exudation in various species (Yoneyama et al., 2007a, b;
Lopez-Raez et al., 2008). A reasonable hypothesis is that high P
availability would decrease the extent of AM symbiosis by reducing
strigolactone production in roots (Bouwmeester et al., 2007; Yoneyama et
al., 2007b).

In this report, P fertilization conditions which lead to an almost complete
arrest of the first stages of the interaction between pea (Pisum sativum
L.) and two species of AM fungi are described. This strong effect is at
least partly linked to regulatory events occurring in the plant partner, as
shown by split-root experiments. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that like
root colonization, strigolactone production is controlled in a systemic
manner by P supply. Hence, strigolactones may contribute to the regulation
of AM symbiosis by P, but supplementation experiments indicate that they
are not the only factor involved.

==========================

Tissue-Specific Localization of Pea Root Infection by Nectria haematococca.
Mechanisms and Consequences Plant Physiol. April 2005 137:4 1363-1374

Abstract
Full Text
PDF

Intracellular pH in Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi . A Symbiotic
Physiological Marker Plant Physiol. April 1998 116:4 1279-1288

Abstract
Full Text

<><><>
<><><>

[permaculture] mycorhizae thread - this gem of info: plant selection
 of appropriate VAM's & VAM-stimulating natural plant extracts
http://lists.ibiblio.org/pipermail/permaculture/2013-March/043079.html

And here is the original collection of posts about this topic
including the first that I found by Niemira in 1995,
which is (and again further down):

>* Article: 5512 of bionet.plants
*>* From: niemirab at student.msu.edu
<http://lists.ibiblio.org/mailman/listinfo/permaculture>  (Brendan A.
Niemira)
*>* Newsgroups: bionet.plants
*>* Subject: Re: Mycorhizzae vs. Fertilizer
*>* Date: Thu, 02 Mar 1995  11:04 est
*>>>* For agronomic crops, you're talking about vesicular arbuscular
*>* mycorrhizae (VAM), a symbiotic endomycorrhizal fungus.  These are
*>* ubiquitous anyway, and
*>* not very host-specific, so there is very little need to inoculate the
*>* field in order
*>* to introduce them.  The big trick is getting them to colonize your crop
*>* plant to such an extent that fertilizer inputs can be reduced.  You can a)
*>* build up the population in the soil such that even moderately active fungi
*>* result in
*>* heavy coloniazation, b) put something in the soil to stimulate the activity
*>* of smaller populations to get heavy colonization.
*>>* Crop rotations have been shown to have a definite impact on the population
*>* dynamics of VAM, and work is currently being done (by me, among others) to
*>* determine how the different crop plants differentially select for certain
*>* species of VAM among all that are availible in the soil.
*>>* Other workers have shown that certain natural, plant-produced chemicals can
*>* stimulate the existing VAM to higher levels of activity.  These
*>* chemicals were originally derived from red clover, a popular sequence in
*>* crop
*>* rotations.  This may shed some light on why rotations are effective
*>* w/regard to VAM.*


VAM:http://users.sunbeach.net/users/lec/vaminfo.html
Vesicular-arbuscular and Arbuscular Mycorrhizas
by L.E. Chinnery
Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizas (VAM) and arbuscular mycorrhizas are
mutualistic symbioses formed between the roots of
most plants and fungi in the order Glomales.

<...>

This is the commonest type of mycorrhiza and can be found in almost
all plant communities, natural and agricultural.
Vesicular- arbuscular (VA) and arbuscular mycorrhizas are
endomycorrhizas formed by Zygomycete like fungi and the roots
of most families of Angiosperms as well as Gymnosperms, Pteridophytes
and Bryophytes (liverworts). Non-mycotrophy in the
Angiosperms appears to be restricted primarily to the families
Amaranthaceae, Brassicaceae, Chenopodiaceae and
Zygophyllaceae, and many hemiparasitic plants. The mycorrhizal host
may be facultatively or obligately dependent on its
fungal partner. It appears that these mycorrhizal associations are
evolutionary very old and that other types of
mycorrhizas and non-mycotrophy evolved more recently. In fact, it has
been speculated that VA mycorrhizas may have been
involved in the successful invasion of land by vascular plants and
played a controlling influence on the evolution of
roots. Unlike many of the fungi involved in other types of mycorrhiza,
these mycorrhizal fungi cannot be cultured in the
absence of plant roots or a root organ culture.

-------- Original Message --------
Subject: Re: [SANET-MG] Soil phosphate (was organic vrs conventional)
Date: Tue, 9 Nov 2010 22:07:35 -0500
From: Jerome Rigot <jfrigot at GMAIL.COM
<http://lists.ibiblio.org/mailman/listinfo/permaculture>>
To: SANET-MG at LISTS.IFAS.UFL.EDU
<http://lists.ibiblio.org/mailman/listinfo/permaculture>

Hi Edna,

Mycorrhizal fungi are microorganismes that form a symbiotic relationship
with plants, providing nutrients not readily bioavailable in exchange for
sugars the plant provide. One of the main mineral nutrient these organisms
help make available to plants is phosphate. Generally, there is always a
very large amount of phosphate in the soil that is not bioavailable to
plants, but the fungi extend their hyphae much farther than the root hairs
can, and release organic acids that not only transform the phosphate into a
more bioavailable form, but transport it back to the plant.

Actually, research has shown that adding readily available phosphate
(synthetic fertilizers such as superphosphate) into the soil prevent the
mycorrhizal fungi from forming these symbiotic relationships with the
plants. Mycorrhizal fungi bring several other benefits to plants, such as a
higher resistance to diseases.

Anyway, I hope that helps.

Jerome

-------- Original Message --------
Subject: Re: [SANET-MG] Soil phosphate (was organic vrs conventional)
Date: Tue, 9 Nov 2010 20:58:17 -0800
From: Barry Lia <barrylia at COMCAST.NET
<http://lists.ibiblio.org/mailman/listinfo/permaculture>>
To: SANET-MG at LISTS.IFAS.UFL.EDU
<http://lists.ibiblio.org/mailman/listinfo/permaculture>

Mycorrhiza (2004) 14:145–163
Roger T. Koide · Barbara Mosse
A history of research on arbuscular mycorrhiza

Micorrhizae were first crudely described in 1842 and study of their
symbiosis taken up in ernest in the 1880's. The first evidence of
their role in phosphorus uptake came in about 1959.

My text should have read: The role of mycorrhizal fungi in phosphorus
uptake wasn't recognized in 1910...
_________________________________________
Barry Lia \ barrylia at comcast.net
<http://lists.ibiblio.org/mailman/listinfo/permaculture> \ Seattle WA

On 12/29/2010 1:08 PM, Beginning Farmers wrote:
>** Speaking of microorganisms and phosphorus...*>**>* In the late 1980's researchers at Michigan State did a simple experiment*>* with white clover grown in the presence of mycorrhizae (which is extremely*>* important in phosphorus uptake by plants). In the experiment they used some*>* soil that was phosphorus deficient, and some that had plenty of available P.*>* What they found was that the P deficient plants were colonized by the*>* mycorrhizae at much higher levels than the plants that had plenty of*>* phosphorus.*>**>* A curious result. But that's not where the story ends. Based on this result*>* it was postulated that the plants were actually sending out a 'signal' when*>* they were under P stress that 'told' the mycorrhizae 'we need help'. Another*>* researcher, Muralee Nair, was able to isolate a compound called formononetin*>* - an isoflavanoid (think soybeans) that was responsible for the signal.*>* Formononetin was present in such small quantities that Nair didn't believe*>* the results at first. But after isolating and synthesizing the compound, he*>* consistently got significant increases in not only mycorrhizal colonization*>* but also rhizobial nodulation (associated with nitrogen fixation) in*>* legumes. You can get the paper for free here:*>* http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-8137.1991.tb00568.x/abstract* <http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-8137.1991.tb00568.x/abstract*>>**>* When I was working with them testing the product, we were able to get*>* significant increases in plant growth and production by applying*>* formononetin at levels as low as 30 grams (yes, grams) per acre! I tested*>* this product on plants all over the country with mixed yield results (I*>* never saw significant decreases, but sometimes didn't get increases) - which*>* I attribute to the fact that conventional farmers typically apply so much*>* phosphorus that increased mycorrhizal colonization doesn't always result in*>* increased yield.*>**>* Just another example of the beautiful complexity of nature, the wonders of*>* symbiotic convolution, and the importance of healthy living soils for*>* optimal plant growth.
*
*http://www.ibiblio.org/ecolandtech/orgfarm/mycology/

Glomalin:http://www.ibiblio.org/ecolandtech/orgfarm/mycology/High.CO2.Stimulates.Soil-Building.Glue
STORY LEAD:
High CO2 Stimulates Soil-Building "Glue"
ARS News Service
Agricultural Research Service, USDA
Don Comis, (301) 504-1625, dcomis at asrr.arsusda.gov
<http://lists.ibiblio.org/mailman/listinfo/marketfarming>
August 12, 1999
In the first examination of the effects of high atmospheric carbon
dioxide levels on soil structure, an Agricultural Research Service
scientist and cooperators found that the gas stimulates soil-dwelling
fungi to produce more of a unique protein that greatly amplifies a
soil's ability to store carbon. The study's results are described in a
letter published in the August 12 issue of Nature magazine. One of the
letter's authors, ARS soil scientist Sara F. Wright, previously
discovered the protein and named it glomalin. She suspects it may be the
primary glue that holds soil together. Now it appears that a little of
this glue goes a long way toward helping soils keep carbon out of the
atmosphere in the form of carbon dioxide.

Chitin:http://www.ibiblio.org/ecolandtech/orgfarm/mycology/chitin.txt
Date:         Fri, 11 May 2001 08:18:07 -0500
Sender:       Sustainable Agriculture Network Discussion Group
<SANET-MG at LISTS.IFAS.UFL.EDU
<http://lists.ibiblio.org/mailman/listinfo/marketfarming>>
From:         "Wilson, Dale" <WILSONDO at PHIBRED.COM
<http://lists.ibiblio.org/mailman/listinfo/marketfarming>>
Subject:      Chitin in laymans terms

Two basic strategies for mechanical support are found among living
things, bones/muscles and tough, hard shells.  Plants, fungi, insects,
spiders, and crustaceans (including lots of tiny, tiny soil creatures)
have shells or cell walls.  Most of these exoskeletons and walls are
made of sugar molecules spun together to make long chains.  The sugar
molecules are connected by a kind of linkage or bond that is very
resistant to breakdown (unlike starch, which is easily broken into
sugar). The plants make cell walls mainly out of cellulose, the main
constituent of cotton and wood.  The animals (and most fungi) that make
cell walls and exoskeletons make them out of a substance very similar to
cellulose called chitin, also fiberous and hard to break down.  It is
almost identical chemically to cellulose, except the sugar molecules
have an amino group (contains N) stuck on the side.

The fact that chitin contains all this nitrogen has important
implications ecologically.  Nitrogen is a scarce resource in most
systems (well, not if you apply 200 lb/a!), and chitin is an important
source of N, and sugar in many systems.  There has been great pressure
for the evolution of organisms that can exploit this resource.  In soils
with a large currency of chitin (soils with a lot of fungi) there are
also many organisms that eat chitin for breakfast.  In such situations,
chitin is less effective as armor plate. It so happens that nematodes
use chitin as armor plate, and of course most fungi do to.  Soil with a
high rate of formation and breakdown of chitin is less hospitable to
nematodes and fungi.  Flora must spend more energy
defending itself.  Plants have ways of exploiting this situation at the
root/soil interface.  It is all wonderfully complex and, well,
miraculous (also very violent on a tiny scale).

Dale

<>http://www.ibiblio.org/ecolandtech/orgfarm/mycology/fungi-mycorrhizae.faq

<>

Date: Tue, 28 Mar 2000 09:51:57 -0500
To: ARS News List <ars-news at ars-grin.gov
<http://lists.ibiblio.org/mailman/listinfo/marketfarming>>
Subject: Adding Microbes to Transplant Mix
STORY LEAD:
Adding Microbes to Transplant Mix Helps Increase Crop Yields
ARS News Service
Agricultural Research Service, USDA
Jesus Garcia, (301) 504-1627, jgarcia at ars-grin.gov
<http://lists.ibiblio.org/mailman/listinfo/marketfarming>
March 28, 2000
Tomato and pepper farmers can now add microbes along with their
transplant mix to the arsenal of production practices used to reduce
yield losses caused by soilborne pathogens--including root-knot
nematodes. The microbe-amended transplant mix is being developed by
Agricultural Research Service scientists at the U.S. Horticultural
Research Laboratory in Fort Pierce, Fla., led by Nancy K. Burelle, in
cooperation with Gustafson LLC of Plano, Texas. The transplant mix,
called BioYield 213, is amended with two naturally occurring soil
microorganisms--Paenobacillus macerans and Bacillus amyloliquefacien.
<>

Here's an interesting article on release of rock
phosphate:http://www.ibiblio.org/ecolandtech/orgfarm/soil-amendments/phosphate-rock

One on chitin:http://www.ibiblio.org/ecolandtech/orgfarm/agronomy/chitin.txt

and ARS News Bulletin:
Boosting organic matter in soil creates a healthy environment for
soil-dwelling bacteria that suppress
weeds.http://www.ibiblio.org/ecolandtech/orgfarm/agronomy/cropping-systems-influence-biological-weed-control

<>

The soil population is so complex that it manifestly cannot be dealt
with as a whole with any detail by any one person, and at the same
time it plays so important a part in the soil economy that it must be
studied.
--Sir E. John Russell "The Micro-organisms of the Soil", 1923

<>

-------- Original Message --------
Subject: Re: [SANET-MG] Soil solution concentrations of phosphorus
Date: Thu, 30 Dec 2010 16:19:36 -0500
From: James Kotcon <jkotcon at WVU.EDU
<http://lists.ibiblio.org/mailman/listinfo/permaculture>>
To: SANET-MG at LISTS.IFAS.UFL.EDU
<http://lists.ibiblio.org/mailman/listinfo/permaculture>

Here in West Virginia, both VAM and ectomycorrhizal fungi ARE
ubiquitous.  We typically find 10-20 species/100 cc in most agricultural
soils, and will even find several species on reclaimed mineland soils.
These are "soils" that are literally created from mine spoil out of
crushed bedrock.  It appears that they are inoculated from several
sources, including previously colonized transplants brought in for
re-seeding, as well as wind blown spores.  Within a few years after
reclamation, the soils are loaded.

It is true that root colonization tends to be very limited in
agricultural soils, largely due to inhibition by large amounts of
phosphate in heavily fertilized soils..  Hence high levels of root
colonization tend to occur only in phosphorus deficient soils, or in
native ecosystems.  But low root colonization is not the same as "wiping
out" the species.  In our experience, although root colonization can be
reduced, anything short of broad spectrum biocides (e.g., methyl
bromide) is unlikely to wipe them out.

Given the low host specificity and the functional similarities of many
VAM species, we have found it difficult to demonstrate a benefit of VAM
inoculation except in fumigated nursery beds or similar special
situations.  Of course, there are species-specific differences
associated with things like induction of disease tolerance in infected
crops, but it is difficult to make broad generalizations because these
vary among crop, VAM species, and plant pathogen.

Perhaps others know how to make them work, but I have rarely seen
consistent benefits from field inoculations, except where soils are low
in phosphorus or similar elements.

Jim Kotcon

<>

The most beautiful thing we can experience is the
mysterious. It is the source of all true art and science.
 -- Albert Einstein

On Sat, Mar 23, 2013 at 1:44 PM, Lawrence London <lfljvenaura at
gmail.com <http://lists.ibiblio.org/mailman/listinfo/permaculture>>wrote:

>>* There are more posts in this thread in the sanet-mg archives that this
*>* forwarded post from me was included in.
*>* There were replies with a lot more info on :
*>* 1) "determine how the different crop plants differentially select for
*>* certain
*>* species of VAM among all that are availible in the soil."
*>* 2) "that certain natural, plant-produced chemicals can
*>* stimulate the existing VAM to higher levels of activity.  These
*>* chemicals were originally derived from red clover"
*>* [a group actually produced such extracts to make a marketable ag product
*>* from]
*>>* I will find them and post them here.
*>>* <>
*>>* Article: 5512 of bionet.plants
*>* From: niemirab at student.msu.edu
<http://lists.ibiblio.org/mailman/listinfo/permaculture>  (Brendan A.
Niemira)
*>* Newsgroups: bionet.plants
*>* Subject: Re: Mycorhizzae vs. Fertilizer
*>* Date: Thu, 02 Mar 1995  11:04 est
*>>>* For agronomic crops, you're talking about vesicular arbuscular
*>* mycorrhizae (VAM), a symbiotic endomycorrhizal fungus.  These are
*>* ubiquitous anyway, and
*>* not very host-specific, so there is very little need to inoculate the
*>* field in order
*>* to introduce them.  The big trick is getting them to colonize your crop
*>* plant to such an extent that fertilizer inputs can be reduced.  You can a)
*>* build up the population in the soil such that even moderately active fungi
*>* result in
*>* heavy coloniazation, b) put something in the soil to stimulate the activity
*>* of smaller populations to get heavy colonization.
*>>* Crop rotations have been shown to have a definite impact on the population
*>* dynamics of VAM, and work is currently being done (by me, among others) to
*>* determine how the different crop plants differentially select for certain
*>* species of VAM among all that are availible in the soil.
*>>* Other workers have shown that certain natural, plant-produced chemicals can
*>* stimulate the existing VAM to higher levels of activity.  These
*>* chemicals were originally derived from red clover, a popular sequence in
*>* crop
*>* rotations.  This may shed some light on why rotations are effective
*>* w/regard to VAM.
*>

<><><>
<><><>

And a third article:

[permaculture] mycorhizae thread - this gem of info: plant selection
 of appropriate VAM's & VAM-stimulating natural plant extracts
http://lists.ibiblio.org/pipermail/permaculture/2013-March/043075.html


On Sat, Mar 23, 2013 at 1:44 PM, Lawrence London <lfljvenaura at
gmail.com <http://lists.ibiblio.org/mailman/listinfo/permaculture>>wrote:

>>* There are more posts in this thread in the sanet-mg archives that this
*>* forwarded post from me was included in.
*>* There were replies with a lot more info on :
*>* 1) "determine how the different crop plants differentially select for
*>* certain
*>* species of VAM among all that are availible in the soil."
*>* 2) "that certain natural, plant-produced chemicals can
*>* stimulate the existing VAM to higher levels of activity.  These
*>* chemicals were originally derived from red clover"
*>* [a group actually produced such extracts to make a marketable ag product
*>* from]
*>>* Also, Dale Wilson mentioned a researcher in Indiana who took soil samples
*in a large region of that state in order to catalogue the different
varieties of VAM's that occurred and what their plant associations were. I
will try to find this post or article on the web.


>* I will find them and post them here.
*>
red clover extract that stimulates vesicular arbuscular
mycorrhizaehttps://www.google.com/search?q=natural+plant+extracts+that+stimulate+vesicular+arbuscular+mycorrhizae&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8&aq=t&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&client=firefox-a#hl=en&gs_rn=7&gs_ri=psy-ab&gs_mss=red%20clover%20extract%20that%20stimulate%20vesicular%20arbuscular%20mycorrhizae&tok=Lwq_wZ4JsmvBVingydpWaw&pq=natural%20plant%20extracts%20that%20stimulate%20vesicular%20arbuscular%20mycorrhizae&cp=34&gs_id=4ik&xhr=t&q=red+clover+extract+that+stimulates+vesicular+arbuscular+mycorrhizae&es_nrs=true&pf=p&client=firefox-a&rls=org.mozilla:en-US%3Aofficial&sclient=psy-ab&oq=red+clover+extract+that+stimulates+vesicular+arbuscular+mycorrhizae&gs_l=&pbx=1&bav=on.2,or.r_cp.r_qf.&bvm=bv.44158598,d.dmQ&fp=5f5b50af68174618&biw=1600&bih=1019

   1. The Influence of *Vesicular*-*Arbuscular Mycorrhiza* on Growth
*...*- JStor<http://www.jstor.org/stable/2431986>
   www.jstor.org/stable/2431986
   by K Hardie - 1981 - Cited by
146<http://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&lr=&cites=7188355155794001473&um=1&ie=UTF-8&sa=X&ei=I_NNUfbHCIix0QGMu4GIBw&sqi=2&ved=0CDUQzgIwAA>-
Related
   articles<http://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&lr=&q=related:Qf5yvO0qwmMJ:scholar.google.com/&um=1&ie=UTF-8&sa=X&ei=I_NNUfbHCIix0QGMu4GIBw&sqi=2&ved=0CDYQzwIwAA>
   *Vesicular*-*arbuscular* (VA) *mycorrhizal* infection of *red
clover*grown in phosphate
   *...* enhanced the concentration of P in the tissues,
*stimulated*growth of root and shoot
   *...* *Mycorrhizal* plants were able to *extract* soil moisture down to
   lower water *...*
   2.
    THE INFLUENCE OF *VESICULAR*‐*ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZA*
*...*<http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-8137.1981.tb02339.x/abstract>
   onlinelibrary.wiley.com › ... › New
Phytologist<http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/%28ISSN%291469-8137>›
Vol
   89 Issue 4<http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/nph.1981.89.issue-4/issuetoc>
   by KAY HARDIE - 2006 - Cited by
146<http://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&lr=&cites=7188355155794001473&um=1&ie=UTF-8&sa=X&ei=I_NNUfbHCIix0QGMu4GIBw&sqi=2&ved=0CEIQzgIwAQ>-
Related
   articles<http://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&lr=&q=related:Qf5yvO0qwmMJ:scholar.google.com/&um=1&ie=UTF-8&sa=X&ei=I_NNUfbHCIix0QGMu4GIBw&sqi=2&ved=0CEMQzwIwAQ>
   May 2, 2006 – *Vesicular*-*arbuscular* (VA) *mycorrhizal* infection of *red
   clover* grown in *...* tissues, *stimulated* growth of root and shoot
   but reduced the root/shoot ratio. *...* *Mycorrhizal* plants were able
   to *extract* soil moisture down to lower water *...*
   3.
    Isolation and Identification of *Vesicular*-*Arbuscular Mycorrhiza* *...
   * <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC182728/>
   www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov › ... › v.57(2); Feb
1991<http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/issues/5883/>
   by MG Nair - 1991 - Cited by
172<http://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&lr=&cites=15412015669858937330&um=1&ie=UTF-8&sa=X&ei=I_NNUfbHCIix0QGMu4GIBw&sqi=2&ved=0CE8QzgIwAg>-
Related
   articles<http://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&lr=&q=related:8imyaph64tUJ:scholar.google.com/&um=1&ie=UTF-8&sa=X&ei=I_NNUfbHCIix0QGMu4GIBw&sqi=2&ved=0CFAQzwIwAg>
   At 5 ppm, these compounds *stimulated* hyphal growth in vitro and root
   colonization *...* The role of *arbuscular mycorrhiza* in zinc uptake by
   *red clover* growing in a *...*
   4.
    Spore production by the *vesicular*-*arbuscular mycorrhizal* fungus *...
   * <http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF00257660>
   link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF00257660
   by M Giovannetti - 1988 - Cited by
20<http://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&lr=&cites=6046441059652699291&um=1&ie=UTF-8&sa=X&ei=I_NNUfbHCIix0QGMu4GIBw&sqi=2&ved=0CFgQzgIwAw>-
Related
   articles<http://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&lr=&q=related:m4TvuxtG6VMJ:scholar.google.com/&um=1&ie=UTF-8&sa=X&ei=I_NNUfbHCIix0QGMu4GIBw&sqi=2&ved=0CFkQzwIwAw>
   Apr 1, 1988 – The *vesicular*-*arbuscular mycorrhizal* fungus Glomus
   monosporum was inoculated on grapevine (Vitis vinifera), *red
clover*(Trifolium pratense),
   *...*
   5.
    Isolation and Identification of *Vesicular*-*Arbuscular* *...* -
   ResearchGate<http://www.researchgate.net/publication/7422452_Isolation_and_Identification_of_Vesicular-Arbuscular_Mycorrhiza-Stimulatory_Compounds_from_Clover_%28Trifolium_repens%29_Roots>
   www.researchgate.net/.../7422452_Isolation_and_Identificatio...
   *...* Identification of *Vesicular*-*Arbuscular Mycorrhiza*-Stimulatory
   Compounds from *Clover* *...* At 5 ppm, these compounds
*stimulated*hyphal growth in vitro and root
   *...*
   6.
    PLOS Biology: Strigolactones *Stimulate Arbuscular Mycorrhizal*
*...*<http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pbio.0040226>
   www.plosbiology.org/.../info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal....
   by A Besserer - 2006 - Cited by
214<http://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&lr=&cites=7373245409551917941&um=1&ie=UTF-8&sa=X&ei=I_NNUfbHCIix0QGMu4GIBw&sqi=2&ved=0CGkQzgIwBQ>-
Related
   articles<http://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&lr=&q=related:dSMfhqIHU2YJ:scholar.google.com/&um=1&ie=UTF-8&sa=X&ei=I_NNUfbHCIix0QGMu4GIBw&sqi=2&ved=0CGoQzwIwBQ>
   (2006) Strigolactones *Stimulate Arbuscular Mycorrhizal* Fungi by
   Activating *....* This rapid method for detecting strigolactones
   directly in plant tissue *extracts* has not *....* orobanchol, from *red
   clover* [15]; and 5-deoxy-strigol, from L. japonicus [16]. *.....* by CO
   2 and root exudates in *vesicular*-*arbuscular mycorrhizal* symbiosis.
   7.
    Stimulatory Compounds from *Clover* (Trifolium repens)
Roots<http://aem.asm.org/content/57/2/434.full.pdf>
   aem.asm.org/content/57/2/434.full.pdf
   by MG Nair - 1991 - Cited by
172<http://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&lr=&cites=15412015669858937330&um=1&ie=UTF-8&sa=X&ei=I_NNUfbHCIix0QGMu4GIBw&sqi=2&ved=0CHIQzgIwBg>-
Related
   articles<http://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&lr=&q=related:8imyaph64tUJ:scholar.google.com/&um=1&ie=UTF-8&sa=X&ei=I_NNUfbHCIix0QGMu4GIBw&sqi=2&ved=0CHMQzwIwBg>
   Nov 26, 1990 – Stimulatory Compounds from Clover (Trifolium repens)
   Roots *...* At 5 ppm, these compounds *stimulated* hyphal growth in
   vitro and root *...* *Vesicular*-*arbuscular mycorrhizae* (VAM) result
   from a *...* under vacuum, a solution of the *extract* in CHCl3-MeOH *
   .....* from 14 ppm in alfalfa to 1,700 ppm in *red clover* (16).
   8.
    ICOM3 Abstracts - *Mycorrhiza* Information
Exchange<http://mycorrhiza.ag.utk.edu/latest/icoms/icom3/icom3.htm>
   *mycorrhiza*.ag.utk.edu/latest/icoms/icom3/icom3.htm
   Electrophysiology of *vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal* fungi.
*...*stages of
   *arbuscular mycorrhiza* on uptake of zinc and phosphorus by *red clover*from
   *.....* The ectomycorrhizal fungal community in soil as identified from
   soil DNA *extracts*. *....* chemical signals from a host root exudate
   synergistically *stimulate* hyphal branching of *...*
   9.
    [PDF]  Bibliography on *Vesicular Arbuscular
Mycorrhizae*<http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PNAAP692.pdf>
   pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PNAAP692.pdf
   File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat
   Introduction. This bibliography on *vesicular*-*arbuscular
mycorrhizal*associations was motivat
   *...* to *stimulate* nutrient uptake by plants. The dis- *....* and
   othfe nutrients to be *extracted* frc very inoculum *.....* irrigation,
   bee pollination of *red clover* cv.
   10.
    [PDF]  Effect of mycorrhization on the isoflavone content -
   bashanfoundation<http://www.bashanfoundation.org/horst/horstphytoestrogen.pdf>
   www.bashanfoundation.org/horst/horstphytoestrogen.pdf
   File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat - Quick
View<https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:S5RxIzf58lIJ:www.bashanfoundation.org/horst/horstphytoestrogen.pdf+&hl=en&gl=us&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESjQWqrEaYT59klC4aOPT9YXZkPefdflFUrx_PZcmp3Tj_Qb94-CNicLiHIDRVBw2b4g-SkV7hdkgZKeIZoqR0k9PumuD3eDiqGjXP7ne6iUjGxL5t3KHtWSEZPL63_RImSU5tbd&sig=AHIEtbRu04nQfo2JStm1Ceh5c5JFqbS3xA>
   by T Khaosaad - 2008 - Cited by
17<http://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&lr=&cites=8192210883013882769&um=1&ie=UTF-8&sa=X&ei=I_NNUfbHCIix0QGMu4GIBw&sqi=2&ved=0CIoBEM4CMAk>-
Related
   articles<http://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&lr=&q=related:kbMh12SUsHEJ:scholar.google.com/&um=1&ie=UTF-8&sa=X&ei=I_NNUfbHCIix0QGMu4GIBw&sqi=2&ved=0CIsBEM8CMAk>
   *Red clover*, known for its estrogenic activity due to its isoflavones
   content (biochanin. A, genistein *...* doubled compared with
   non-mycorrhizal control plants, and this growth-*stimulating*
effect of *arbuscular
   mycorrhiza* did not affect the estrogenic activity of *red clover*. In a
   control P *...* Plant *extracts* containing polyphenolic com- *...*

>* <>
*>>* Article: 5512 of bionet.plants
*>* From: niemirab at student.msu.edu
<http://lists.ibiblio.org/mailman/listinfo/permaculture>  (Brendan A.
Niemira)
*>* Newsgroups: bionet.plants
*>* Subject: Re: Mycorhizzae vs. Fertilizer
*>* Date: Thu, 02 Mar 1995  11:04 est
*>>>* For agronomic crops, you're talking about vesicular arbuscular
*>* mycorrhizae (VAM), a symbiotic endomycorrhizal fungus.  These are
*>* ubiquitous anyway, and
*>* not very host-specific, so there is very little need to inoculate the
*>* field in order
*>* to introduce them.  The big trick is getting them to colonize your crop
*>* plant to such an extent that fertilizer inputs can be reduced.  You can a)
*>* build up the population in the soil such that even moderately active fungi
*>* result in
*>* heavy coloniazation, b) put something in the soil to stimulate the activity
*>* of smaller populations to get heavy colonization.
*>>* Crop rotations have been shown to have a definite impact on the population
*>* dynamics of VAM, and work is currently being done (by me, among others) to
*>* determine how the different crop plants differentially select for certain
*>* species of VAM among all that are availible in the soil.
*>>* Other workers have shown that certain natural, plant-produced chemicals can
*>* stimulate the existing VAM to higher levels of activity.  These
*>* chemicals were originally derived from red clover, a popular sequence in
*>* crop
*>* rotations.  This may shed some light on why rotations are effective
*>* w/regard to VAM.
*>


-- 
Lawrence F. London
lfljvenaura at gmail.com
http://www.avantgeared.com
https://plus.google.com/+Avantgeared
Ello: https://ello.co/ecoponderosa <https://ello.co/ecoponderosa>
Twitter: @ecoponderosa <https://twitter.com/ecoponderosa>
Reddit: ecoponderosa
Cellphone: lfljcell at gmail.com


More information about the permaculture mailing list