[permaculture] Breeding plants in diverse communities may lead to more productive plants

Lawrence London lfljvenaura at gmail.com
Thu Nov 13 12:31:28 EST 2014


 Thanks for posting this amazing article, Alia. The new technology
described in it will be a new and vitally important tool for permaculture
practitioners, designers and homesteaders (urban and rural). This research
will be important to people interested in agroecology and site design.

On Wed, Nov 12, 2014 at 10:56 AM, Alia Tsang <alia at dietrick.org> wrote:

> Enjoy!
>
> On Wed, Nov 12, 2014 at 2:38 PM, Hannah Roessler
> <hannahroessler at hotmail.com> wrote:
> > Hello there,
> > I too would love a pdf of this article.
> > Thank you,
> > Hannah
> >
> >> Date: Wed, 12 Nov 2014 09:24:42 -0500
> >> From: eefarlow at gmail.com
> >> To: permaculture at lists.ibiblio.org
> >> Subject: Re: [permaculture] Breeding plants in diverse communities may
> lead to more productive plants
> >>
> >> Hi,
> >> I would love a pdf of this article!
> >>
> >> Thanks,
> >>
> >> Eleanor
> >>
> >>
> >> On Tue, Nov 11, 2014 at 7:20 PM, Lawrence London <lfljvenaura at gmail.com
> >
> >> wrote:
> >>
> >> > Even in the early years of the new "organic" agriculture [organic
> >> > gardening, organic farming, biointensive, regenerative, biological,
> >> > natural, beyondorganic agriculture]
> >> > there was considerable emphasis placed on polyculture and taking that
> to
> >> > extreme limits, permaculture; also companion cropping, succession
> cropping,
> >> > intercropping/interplanting.
> >> > It was an assumed fact that this would be practiced if you were
> gardening
> >> > or farming naturally.
> >> > You write: "Would experiments on intercropping, for example, show even
> >> > greater benefits if the plant varieties tested were
> >> > bred in an diverse ecosystem rather than monoculture? Are standard
> garden
> >> > catalog variety seeds suitable genetics for permaculture?"
> >> > I like your use of the term permaculture instead of agriculture. Yes,
> I
> >> > would assume that non-gmo, untreated, preferably organically grown
> seeds
> >> > would be just fine for such an experiment.
> >> > If you could make plantings in "old" soil, minimally conditioned and
> >> > amended, you might get more interesting results.
> >> > A permaculture educational curriculum should absolutely have a
> section on
> >> > what to do, or preferably what not to do, with the soil on your land
> or
> >> > land you're working that you rent or are loaned. This should involve
> an in
> >> > depth look at soil types, the nature of the terrain, i.e. grades,
> slopes
> >> > and all other features including a comprehensive plant inventory.
> Part of
> >> > this section of such a course should contain one key question: Are
> there
> >> > any parts of this land that should not be driven on or worked with a
> >> > tractor or rototiller, ever, only selectively hand worked with some
> places
> >> > not even walked on. This is a very valid question. Doing crop plant
> >> > development on raw untouched land allows plants to grow in more
> natural
> >> > conditions than in specially prepared soil. The only amendments would
> be
> >> > well aged compost mixed with N, P & K (from rock dusts) as needed and
> >> > microbially-enhanced compost tea.
> >> >
> >> > On Tue, Nov 11, 2014 at 3:27 PM, Alia Tsang <alia at dietrick.org>
> wrote:
> >> >
> >> > > This article was interesting (though I'm still working on digesting
> >> > > it). It suggests that the offspring of plants that have been growing
> >> > > in a diverse setting for generations (8 years in this experiment)
> are
> >> > > more productive (as measured by above ground biomass) than plants
> that
> >> > > have been growing for generations in monoculture. The probable
> >> > > mechanism is greater niche differentiation, or specialization, which
> >> > > reduces competition. The implications for plant breeding could be
> >> > > interesting to think about. Would experiments on intercropping, for
> >> > > example, show even greater benefits if the plant varieties tested
> were
> >> > > bred in an diverse ecosystem rather than monoculture? Are standard
> >> > > garden catalog variety seeds suitable genetics for permaculture?
> >> > >
> >> > > The study doesn't look at what's going on belowground,
> unfortunately.
> >> > > (And they used a really artificial agricultural soil + sand +
> perlite
> >> > > mix to test the plants on.)
> >> > >
> >> > > Article link and abstract below, I can send a PDF to anyone
> interested.
> >> > >
> >> > > Alia
> >> > >
> >> > > Selection for niche differentiation in plant communities increases
> >> > > biodiversity effects
> >> > >
> http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v515/n7525/full/nature13869.html
> >> > >
> >> > > In experimental plant communities, relationships between
> biodiversity
> >> > > and ecosystem functioning have been found to strengthen over time1,
> 2,
> >> > > a fact often attributed to increased resource complementarity
> between
> >> > > species in mixtures3 and negative plant–soil feedbacks in
> >> > > monocultures4. Here we show that selection for niche differentiation
> >> > > between species can drive this increasing biodiversity effect.
> Growing
> >> > > 12 grassland species in test monocultures and mixtures, we found
> >> > > character displacement between species and increased biodiversity
> >> > > effects when plants had been selected over 8 years in species
> mixtures
> >> > > rather than in monocultures. When grown in mixtures, relative
> >> > > differences in height and specific leaf area between plant species
> >> > > selected in mixtures (mixture types) were greater than between
> species
> >> > > selected in monocultures (monoculture types). Furthermore, net
> >> > > biodiversity and complementarity effects1, 2 were greater in
> mixtures
> >> > > of mixture types than in mixtures of monoculture types. Our study
> >> > > demonstrates a novel mechanism for the increase in biodiversity
> >> > > effects: selection for increased niche differentiation through
> >> > > character displacement. Selection in diverse mixtures may therefore
> >> > > increase species coexistence and ecosystem functioning in natural
> >> > > communities and may also allow increased mixture yields in
> agriculture
> >> > > or forestry. However, loss of biodiversity and prolonged selection
> of
> >> > > crops in monoculture may compromise this potential for selection in
> >> > > the longer term.
> >> > > _______________________________________________
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> >> > > Permaculture Institute USA http://permaculture.org
> >> > > How to permaculture your urban lifestyle
> >> > > http://www.ipermie.net
> >> > > Avant Geared  http://www.avantgeared.com
> >> > > https://plus.google.com/+Avantgeared
> >> > > Permaculture: -- portal to an expanding global network of landtech
> >> > > pioneers practicing and teaching permaculture
> >> > > while designing ecological, biointensive land use systems with
> integrated
> >> > > elements for synergy, sustainability, regeneration and enhanced
> >> > > nature-compatible
> >> > > human habitat --
> >> >
> >> >
> >> >
> >> >
> >> > --
> >> > Lawrence F. London
> >> > lfljvenaura at gmail.com
> >> > http://www.avantgeared.com
> >> > https://plus.google.com/+Avantgeared
> >> > Ello: https://ello.co/ecoponderosa <https://ello.co/ecoponderosa>
> >> > Twitter: @ecoponderosa <https://twitter.com/ecoponderosa>
> >> > Reddit: ecoponderosa
> >> > Cellphone: lfljcell at gmail.com
> >> > _______________________________________________
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> >> > https://groups.google.com/forum/?hl=en#!forum/permaculturelist
> >> > http://permacultureforum.blogspot.com
> >> > http://permaculturelist.wordpress.com
> >> > Google message archive search:
> >> > site: lists.ibiblio.org/pipermail/permaculture [searchstring]
> >> > Permaculture Institute USA http://permaculture.org
> >> > How to permaculture your urban lifestyle
> >> > http://www.ipermie.net
> >> > Avant Geared  http://www.avantgeared.com
> >> > https://plus.google.com/+Avantgeared
> >> > Permaculture: -- portal to an expanding global network of landtech
> >> > pioneers practicing and teaching permaculture
> >> > while designing ecological, biointensive land use systems with
> integrated
> >> > elements for synergy, sustainability, regeneration and enhanced
> >> > nature-compatible
> >> > human habitat --
> >> >
> >> _______________________________________________
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> >> http://permacultureforum.blogspot.com
> >> http://permaculturelist.wordpress.com
> >> Google message archive search:
> >> site: lists.ibiblio.org/pipermail/permaculture [searchstring]
> >> Permaculture Institute USA http://permaculture.org
> >> How to permaculture your urban lifestyle
> >> http://www.ipermie.net
> >> Avant Geared  http://www.avantgeared.com
> >> https://plus.google.com/+Avantgeared
> >> Permaculture: -- portal to an expanding global network of landtech
> pioneers practicing and teaching permaculture
> >> while designing ecological, biointensive land use systems with
> integrated elements for synergy, sustainability, regeneration and enhanced
> nature-compatible
> >> human habitat --
> >
> > _______________________________________________
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> > https://groups.google.com/forum/?hl=en#!forum/permaculturelist
> > http://permacultureforum.blogspot.com
> > http://permaculturelist.wordpress.com
> > Google message archive search:
> > site: lists.ibiblio.org/pipermail/permaculture [searchstring]
> > Permaculture Institute USA http://permaculture.org
> > How to permaculture your urban lifestyle
> > http://www.ipermie.net
> > Avant Geared  http://www.avantgeared.com
> > https://plus.google.com/+Avantgeared
> > Permaculture: -- portal to an expanding global network of landtech
> pioneers practicing and teaching permaculture
> > while designing ecological, biointensive land use systems with
> integrated elements for synergy, sustainability, regeneration and enhanced
> nature-compatible
> > human habitat --
> >
> >
>
> _______________________________________________
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> Google message archive search:
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> Permaculture Institute USA http://permaculture.org
> How to permaculture your urban lifestyle
> http://www.ipermie.net
> Avant Geared  http://www.avantgeared.com
> https://plus.google.com/+Avantgeared
> Permaculture: -- portal to an expanding global network of landtech
> pioneers practicing and teaching permaculture
> while designing ecological, biointensive land use systems with integrated
> elements for synergy, sustainability, regeneration and enhanced
> nature-compatible
> human habitat --
>



-- 
Lawrence F. London
lfljvenaura at gmail.com
http://www.avantgeared.com
https://plus.google.com/+Avantgeared
Ello: https://ello.co/ecoponderosa <https://ello.co/ecoponderosa>
Twitter: @ecoponderosa <https://twitter.com/ecoponderosa>
Reddit: ecoponderosa
Cellphone: lfljcell at gmail.com


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