[permaculture] Palestine - Farming on the West Bank Story of Permaculture on the West Bank
Wesley Roe and Santa Barbara Permaculture Network
lakinroe at silcom.com
Wed Dec 30 11:38:26 EST 2009
Palestine - Farming on the West Bank
30 Dec 2009
As a means to counter the creeping expansion of illegal Jewish
settlements in the occupied West Bank, a permaculture farm might not
seem like the obvious approach. But for Murad al Khofash, who runs
Marda farm in the northern West Bank, it is the natural choice.
Squashed between some of the largest and most powerful settlements,
Mr al Khofash's three-year-old eco-friendly farm is a Palestinian
template of how to grow-your-own resistance, from the roots upwards.
"There are many ways to resist the occupation," explained Mr al
Khofash, who has just returned from the climate change summit in
Copenhagen where he demanded the international community put the
Palestinian Territories on the environmental map.
"Some resist with weapons and violence, others choose the path of
negotiation. My way is to encourage Palestinians to grow trees, and
to encourage them not to leave their land."
Permaculture - an organic, holistic and sustainable system of working
the land - is Mr al Khofash's preferred weapon at a time when swathes
of Palestinian land and water resources have long been appropriated
or contaminated by Jewish settlements in the West Bank, which are
illegal under international law.
Marda, a picture-postcard village lined with ancient olive trees,
nestles at the foot of a rugged green mountain range that ensures a
healthy supply of underground water. But, as is the case in most
parts of the West Bank, Palestinian villagers at Marda - which has a
population of around 25,000 - are not permitted to dig wells and
instead have to rely on a temperamental supply of water from the
According to a World Bank report published this year, Palestinians
receive only a quarter of the water that Israelis have access to - a
particularly cruel irony given the fact that much of this water comes
from the West Bank in the first place.
Meanwhile, the population of Ariel - one of the largest Jewish
settlements in the West Bank - shows no qualms about releasing sewage
water into the villages below, flooding the soils, poisoning lands
and choking olive trees.
Earlier this year, the Israeli human rights group B'Tselem released
footage showing how the Palestinian village of Salfit, near Marda,
has for years suffered from the free flow of sewage water from Ariel.
The organisation reports, more widely, that "tens of millions of
cubic metres of wastewater flow freely in the West Bank, from
settlements, from Jerusalem and from Palestinian communities, greatly
damaging the environment. In many settlements, the wastewater
treatment plants are outdated and cannot treat the load currently
placed on them; other settlements have never built plants."
Israel has made the building of Palestinian sewage plants conditional
on them serving the settlements as well, a legitimising clause that
the Palestinian Authority continues to reject.
On top of which, Mr al Khofash points out that a nearby industrial
settlement pumps toxic chemical waste into the Palestinian landscape.
There have been media reports of Palestinian children falling sick
after swimming in streams polluted with untreated water from
settlements, while Palestinian livestock has fallen victim to the
Mr al Khofash, dubbed the "Palestinian with a green thumb", is
picking up on a permaculture project that began in Marda in 1993 but
was shut down by the Israeli army at the onset of the second intifada
in 2000. The Sustainable Development Centre, in Marda, was initiated
by Australian permaculturists and involved dozens of villages in the
Salfit district. It ran training courses in water management,
composting and other aspects of organic, sustainable farming that
were attended by thousands of Palestinians, but was a target of
nearby settlers who would burn trees and vandalise farm property
before the Israeli military closed the centre completely in 2000.(
the military attacked the Center with Tanks and fired on the
Permaculturists as they sent SOS to the world for help destroying a
Center and Gardens where Jews and Palestinians worked and trained
together ) Now, locals say, the military use the building to question
Palestinians that they have detained in the area.
The farm begun by Mr al Khofash in 2003 utilises all the skills he
learnt while working a four-year stint at the centre, and during a
remote-study permaculture course. The farm, which is a member of the
UK Permaculture Association and the Global Ecovillage Network, is a
blooming tract of land, on which everything is sown with careful
consideration to the principles of permaculture.
Mr al Khofash is energised with enthusiasm and ideas as he bustles
around the robust-looking farm, pointing out patches of aubergine,
chilli, potatoes, beans and onions. Demand routinely exceeds supply
for his vegetables.
"The methods we use in permaculture are some of the same methods of
traditional Palestinian farming," said Mr al Khofash.
At the farm, the stones that are a ubiquitous feature of the soil in
this part of the territories have been used to build walls. Stacked,
discarded car-tyres make borders and also double up as flower beds:
tyres attract dew and therefore provide a microclimate for plants.
Trees are planted according to their capacity to emit nitrogen or to
proved shade. A clump the of sweetly-fragranced Louisa bush is
utilised to detract fruit flies. Acacia trees act as a windbreak and
feeding ground for the honeybees Mr al Khofash plans to bring to the
There are other plans too: to rear farm animals; use methane gas as a
power source; run permaculture courses; and start recycling and
composting projects to deal with the rubbish that despoils the
Palestinian countryside. It all depends on securing funding and
investment - and the idea is to share knowledge and to spread this
model to other villages as well.
"If I succeed in getting Palestinians to grow their own food, in a
few years' time we will be self-sufficient," Mr al Khofash said. "If
[the Israeli authorities] put us under curfew again, we will cope
because we will have everything we need. And we won't need to depend
on the Israeli market - not for work and not for food."
Ever since the West Bank and Gaza strip were occupied by Israel in
the 1967 war, Palestinians have become a captive market for Israeli
products and were also the source of cheap labour until the second
intifada. On top of which, trade agreements between Israel and the
Palestinian Authority have deepened Palestinian dependency on Israeli
Mr al Khofash is aware of the farm's vulnerability, located so close
to imposing and powerful settlements. "Yes, they could come and take
my farm and land away anytime, if they wanted to," he says. "But
should I just sit here idle because of that? No. Our roots are here
and we will stay here. We will do our best to keep our roots firmly
in the ground."
More information about the permaculture