[permaculture] permaculture Digest, Vol 62, Issue 23

J. Kolenovsky garden at hal-pc.org
Wed Mar 19 14:55:59 EDT 2008


I have never seen Larry not post something. Got the flu Larry?

-- 
J. Kolenovsky
Peak Oil and Co2 
is changing our life-style. 
http://www.energybulletin.net/.
http://www.theoildrum.com/. See movie: 
http://earththesequel.edf.org/trailer
            



-----Original Message-----
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[mailto:permaculture-bounces at lists.ibiblio.org] On Behalf Of
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Sent: March 19, 2008 12:21 PM
To: permaculture at lists.ibiblio.org
Subject: permaculture Digest, Vol 62, Issue 23

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Today's Topics:

   1. Re: Coconuts & permaculture (Dylan Ford)
   2. Dalpura Autumn/Winter Workshops (Darren Doherty)
   3. Social Business Entrepreneurs Are the Solution	Muhammad Yunus
      (Wesley Roe and Santa Barbara Permaculture Network)
   4. Re: fruit tree propagation (Mathew Waehner)
   5. Re: biofuels (Harmon Seaver)
   6. Chinese racists call for the murder of Tibetans (Dieter Brand)
   7. Re: biofuels (Geoffrey wendel)
   8. Groundhogs! (Laura C Frazier)
   9. Re: Groundhogs! (Kai Vido)


----------------------------------------------------------------------

Message: 1
Date: Tue, 18 Mar 2008 21:52:40 -0500
From: Dylan Ford <dford at suffolk.lib.ny.us>
Subject: Re: [permaculture] Coconuts & permaculture
To: permaculture <permaculture at lists.ibiblio.org>
Message-ID: <001001c8896c$4f3a4030$826ec344 at dylanwmvi3setm>
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=iso-8859-1

Charles - You needn't go too far to see Cabruca style coffee and cacao
production, or at least where it once flourished.

Off the Blanchisseuse Road, north of Arima is the Asa Wright Nature
Centre,
at one time a working Coffee and Cacao Station, and now an Ecotourism
Mecca
for naturalists. It is a great destination for a day-trip (I would call
for
details - it is quite popular now) but if you get there early morning it
is
wonderful for birdwatching even if you never leave the porch. It has a
great
view down the Arima Valley, and if you are there in the proper season
you
can see the Immortelle trees in bloom. These pink and reddish flowering
trees are native to Trinidad and were widely planted, apparently were
considered the perfect overstory tree for shadegrown coffee and cacao.

I don't know if the Coffee and cacao are still harvested there, but on
my
first visit there some thirty years ago I heard great stories about
parties
that were held to "dance" the cacao. I believe the pods were spread
beneath
boards and then well-lubricated employees and guests would dance upon
them
all night to break the husks. The details have faded from my
well-lubricated
mind.

The Immortelle trees at Asa Wright also provide homes to colonies of
Oropendulas, worth the trip themselves. I was lucky enough to visit the
Centre because a dear friend of mine, Norte American wildlife artist and
naturalist Don Eckelberry was one of the main driving forces behind
buying
this property and gifting it as "forever wild" in perpetuity to the
people
of Trinidad & Tobago, who taught him so much about how to live.

I have had a brief but memorable love affair with Belize as well. Ah,
the
one that got away. dylan

Dylan Ford is the author of the proposal at www.ideaforpresident.com , a
website devoted to an idea that could provide an avenue to address
pollution
issues, food safety, social justice, prison reform and healthcare.

----- Original Message ----- 
From: "christopher nesbitt" <christopher.nesbitt at mmrfbz.org>
To: "permaculture" <permaculture at lists.ibiblio.org>
Sent: Tuesday, March 18, 2008 8:42 PM
Subject: Re: [permaculture] Coconuts & permaculture


> Hi Charles,
>
> I have never been to Trinidad. You have the Cocoa Research Institute
> and its seed bank there, and I would love to visit.
>
> Belize also is heavily dependent on imports of food. Some rural
> areas, down in Belizes under developed south, where we live, for
> example, are pretty secure in staples, rice, beans, corn, but import
> a lot of food, too. Most agriculture in Belize is oriented towards
> export crops, which earn foreign currsency and tax revenue, and then
> purchase foreign foods. Flour just spiked %15 increase, and other
> prices are going up. We are eating sapodilla today, though ;-).
>
> Cabruca style is planting cacao under the shade of selected forest
> trees, so the transition from forest to cacao is softer on the
> environment, and the canopy is typically comprised of native species.
> This style creates a lot of habitat and is useful for maintaining
> buffer zones between cultuvated and wild areas.
>
> I was in Venezuela in 2001 & 2006 looking at coffee and cacao,
> respectively. In 2006, Venezuela had obviously spent a lot of money
> in infrastructure, highways, etc, but there was a lot of poverty,
> too. I have been to Estacion Experimental Chama in Zulia and Ocumare,
> Cata and Cuyagua to look at cacao, and up above Merida to look at
> coffee. It is a beautiful country, but crowded and increasingly
> dangerous.
>
> Vanilla is labour intensive, but can be rewarding. It sells for up t
> USD50 a kilo now, for premium grade beans. We use glyricidia stakes,
> and various fruit trees for tutors, and hand pollinate. We are
> collecting much of our vanilla from the high bush, and have an FAO ]
> grant proposal for mapping vanilla in the wild out now. With any
> luck, we will get this project within a month. Like cacao, vanilla is
> a native plant species.
>
> If you get a chance to visit, please do. We have a lot going on here
> with plants.
>
>
>
>
> On Mar 17, 2008, at 11:52 AM, Charles de Matas wrote:
>
> >
> > Belize (and Bahia) are places that I would like to visit some day.
> > Unfortunately the time of your PDC's are not convenient for me.  My
> > mouth begins to water when I think of the sapodillas that you must
> > be getting in Belize now.  Last week I bought a few sapodillas from
> > a roadside vendor and he told me they were imported from another
> > caribbean island, St Vincent.  That's the stage we have reached
> > here in Trinidad and Tobago, having to import sapodillas.  We are
> > importing practically all of our food, even the fruits that we can
> > be grown locally.  This is due to the rapid "development" that is
> > going on in the country. The same thing is happening in Venezuela.
> > They are importing nearly all of their food and the poorer people
> > are facing unbearable food prices.
> >    Anyway, what is this cabruca syle of cacao production?  I'd like
> > to learn more.  I'd also like to learn more vanilla as a cash
> > crop.  Is it very labour intensive?
> >
> > Charles
> > T&T



------------------------------

Message: 2
Date: Wed, 19 Mar 2008 13:56:20 +1100
From: "Darren Doherty" <darren at permaculture.biz>
Subject: [permaculture] Dalpura Autumn/Winter Workshops
To: "permacultue discussion list"
	<pil-pc-oceania at lists.permacultureinternational.org>,
"Permaculture
	List" <permaculture at lists.ibiblio.org>
Message-ID:
	<cef38c330803181956pacc650fwba6d7207a9352c9a at mail.gmail.com>
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=WINDOWS-1252

G'day,

*'Dalpura' has been under development as a Broadacre Permaculture
Forestry &
Silvapastoral operation since 1997. The 140 acre site in the eastern
(dry!)
Otways just 10km north of Angelsea/Torquay was designed by Australia
Felix
Permaculture's Darren Doherty & Ben Boxshall in 1996. The site has over
120
species of managed Forestry, Tree Crop & Fodder species over a total of
over
50 000 trees planted, all on a Keyline Design layout with many
integrated
into the pastoral systems of the property. Over that time Darren has
continuously been involved in the ongoing design & development of the
site
along with a host of other's including as David Holmgren, David
Griffiths,
Paul 'Ringo' Kean, Derek Ashby, Cam Wilson and many others. 'Dalpura' is
about to undergo another phase of development as a Farm Stay facility,
adding to the enterprise mix as designed by award winning architects
Third
Ecology (http://www.thirdecology.com.au/) of nearby Geelong.  *


We are pleased to announce that the following practical and skill-based
workshops will be held here at 'Dalpura' over the coming Autumn & Winter
months as part of our operations:


*KEYLINE DESIGN COURSE*
Date: Friday 23 - Sunday 25th May 2008 - 9am-5.30pm daily
Tutors: Darren Doherty (www.permaculture.biz) & David Griffiths (
www.geometree.com.au)
Cost: $250 per person or $100 per day including BBQ lunches plus morning
&
afternoon refreshments (BYO breakfast & dinner)
Accommodation: Free onsite camping or Paid local accommodation is
available
Also required: Appropriate Disposition together with clothing & footwear
(hat, boots, weatherproof clothes); Own Cup, Plate, Bowl, Cutlery;
Camping
Gear
Maximum Participants: 20
Venue: 'Dalpura', 15 Thielemanns Rd, Moriac, Victoria, Australia, 3240,
(03)
5266 1804
Contact: Darren Doherty - darren at permaculture.biz OR George Howson -
gpshowson at hotmail.com
Communications: Landline, VOIP phone; WiFi
Recommended Text (s):
'Water for Every Farm', P.A. Yeomans, K. Yeomans ed. (available from
Keyline
Designs - www.keyline.com.au)
'Holistic Management', A. Savory & J. Butterfield (available from
Holistic
Management International - www.holisticmanagement.org)
'Permaculture: A Designer's Manual', B. Mollison (available from Tagari
Publications - www.tagari.com)
'Trees on the Treeless Plains', D. Holmgren (available from Holmgren
Design
Services - www.holmgren.com.au)
'Rainwater Harvesting in Drylands - Volume 2', B. Lancaster, (available
from
www.harvestingrainwater.com)
'Design & Construction of Small Earth Dams', K.D. Nelson, Inkata Press

Workshop Program:

 *Date*

*Session*

*Lecture*

*Indoor/Outdoor*

DAY 1

Rego

Registration/Housekeeping/Introductions

Indoor



A

Farm Walk

Outdoor



B-C

Keyline? Design Applications

Indoor



D

Keyline? Design ? Sandpit Exercise

Angelsea Beach

DAY 2

A

Intro to GIS/GPS Applications

Outdoor



B

Low ? Medium Tech Survey Equipment

Outdoor



B

High Tech Survey Equipment

Indoor



C

Land Component Analysis, Site Analysis Techniques

Indoor/Outdoor



D

Carbon Farming Techniques & Holistic Management?

Indoor

DAY 3

A

Keyline? Soil Renovation & Pattern Cultivation

Outdoor



B

Tree Ground Preparation & Establishment

Outdoor



C-D

Keyline?/Water Harvesting Earthworks Design & Construction

Indoor/Outdoor
  Keyline is a registered Trademark of Keyline Designs
(www.keyline.com.au)
*29KL FERROCEMENT TANK BUILDING WORKSHOP*
Date: Friday 30 May - Monday 2nd June 2008 - 9am-5.30pm daily
Tutors: Darren Doherty (www.permaculture.biz)
Cost: $300 per person or $100 per day including BBQ lunches plus morning
&
afternoon refreshments (BYO breakfast & dinner)
Accommodation: Free onsite camping or Paid local accommodation is
available
Also required: Appropriate Disposition together with clothing & footwear
(hat, boots, weatherproof clothes, work gloves); Own Cup, Plate, Bowl,
Cutlery; Camping Gear
Maximum Participants: 20
Venue: 'Dalpura', 15 Thielemanns Rd, Moriac, Victoria, Australia, 3240,
(03)
5266 1804
Contact: Darren Doherty - darren at permaculture.biz OR George Howson -
gpshowson at hotmail.com
Communications: Landline, VOIP phone; WiFi
Recommended Text (s):
'Water Storage - Tanks, Cisterns, Aquifers & Ponds for Domestic Supply,
Fire
& Emergency Use, A. Ludwig (available from www.oasisdesign.net)
'Rainwater Harvesting in Drylands - Volume 1', B. Lancaster, (available
from
www.harvestingrainwater.com)
'Rainwater Catchment Systems for Domestic Supply, J. Gould & E.
Nissen-Petersen (available from ITDG - www.itdg.org)


Workshop Program:

*Date*

*Session*

*Lecture*

*Indoor/Outdoor*

DAY 1

Rego

Registration/Housekeeping/Introductions

Indoor



A

Ferrocement Design Applications

Indoor



B-D

Foundation: Site Preparation/Formwork/Concrete Pour

Outdoor

DAY 2

A-D

Walls: Meshwork/Rendering

Outdoor

DAY 3

A-D

Roof: Meshwork/Rendering

Outdoor

DAY 4

A-D

Roof/Walls: Finishing

Outdoor
  *FARM BASED* *SILVICULTURE*
Date: Friday 25th July - Sunday 27th July 2008 - 9am-5.30pm daily
Tutors: David Holmgren TBC (www.holmgren.com.au), Darren Doherty (
www.permaculture.biz) & David Griffiths (www.geometree.com.au)
Cost: $300 per person or $100 per day including BBQ lunches plus morning
&
afternoon refreshments (BYO breakfast & dinner)
Accommodation: Free onsite camping or Paid local accommodation is
available
Also required: Appropriate Disposition together with clothing & footwear
(hat, boots, weatherproof clothes, work gloves); Own Cup, Plate, Bowl,
Cutlery; Camping Gear
Maximum Participants: 20
Venue: 'Dalpura', 15 Thielemanns Rd, Moriac, Victoria, Australia, 3240,
(03)
5266 1804
Contact: Darren Doherty - darren at permaculture.biz OR George Howson -
gpshowson at hotmail.com
Communications: Landline, VOIP phone; WiFi
Recommended Text (s):
'Trees on the Treeless Plains', D. Holmgren (available from Holmgren
Design
Services - www.holmgren.com.au)

Workshop Program:



*Date*

*Session*

*Lecture*

*Indoor/Outdoor*

DAY 1

Rego

Registration/Housekeeping/Introductions

Indoor



A

Farm Walk

Indoor



B-D

Silvicultural Applications/Planning

Outdoor

DAY 2

A-B

Field Work: Pruning ? Form/Lift/Ladder

Outdoor



C

Field Work: Thinning/Coppicing/Mulching

Outdoor



D

Field Work: Measurement

Outdoor

DAY 3

A-B

Field Work: Harvesting ? Felling, Snigging, Skidding

Outdoor



C

Field Work: Processing ? Firewood, Farm Timbers, Charcoal

Outdoor



D

Field Work: Processing ? Logosol Chainsaw Mill, Lucas Saw Mill, Drying

Outdoor

Thanks and we look forward to seeing you here.....

-- 
Hooroo,
Darren J. Doherty
www.permaculture.biz

US Cell: +1 805 455.8914
Yahoo Voice Phone: +1 310 237 6970

WORLD TOUR 2007/8
North America/Europe
Permaculture Design Certificate Course (72hours)
Keyline Design Course (2-6days)


-- 
Hooroo,
Darren J. Doherty
www.permaculture.biz

US Cell: +1 805 455.8914
Yahoo Voice Phone: +1 310 237 6970

WORLD TOUR 2007/8
North America/Europe
Permaculture Design Certificate Course (72hours)
Keyline Design Course (2-6days)


------------------------------

Message: 3
Date: Tue, 18 Mar 2008 20:59:12 -0800
From: Wesley Roe and Santa Barbara Permaculture Network
	<lakinroe at silcom.com>
Subject: [permaculture] Social Business Entrepreneurs Are the Solution
	Muhammad Yunus
To: permaculture <permaculture at lists.ibiblio.org>,	international
	Permaculture List <permaculture at openpermaculture.org>
Message-ID: <7.0.1.0.2.20080318205845.07d1eca0 at silcom.com>
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"; format=flowed



Social Business Entrepreneurs
Are the Solution

http://www.grameen-info.org/bank/socialbusinessentrepreneurs.htm




<http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kW-4gJmXy5M>YouTube - Muhammad Yunus: 
Building Social Business <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kW-4gJmXy5M>...

Preview of Muhammad Yunus: Building Social Business Ventures ...
<http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=Social+business&btnG=Google+Search
#>Watch 
video - 4 min 36 sec -
www.youtube.com/watch?v=kW-4gJmXy5M
Muhammad Yunus

----------
Capitalism is Interpreted too Narrowly

Many of the problems in the world remain unresolved because we 
continue to interpret capitalism too narrowly. In this narrow 
interpretation we create a one-dimensional human being to play the 
role of entrepreneur. We insulate him from other dimensions of life, 
such as, religious, emotional, political dimensions. He is dedicated 
to one mission in his business life ---- to maximize profit. He is 
supported by masses of one-dimensional human beings who back him up 
with their investment money to achieve the same mission. The game of 
free market works out beautifully with one-dimensional investors and 
entrepreneurs. We have remained so mesmerised by the success of the 
free market that we never dared to express any doubt about it. We 
worked extra hard to transform ourselves, as closely as possible, 
into the one-dimensional human beings as conceptualised in theory to 
allow smooth functioning of free market mechanism.

Economic theory postulates that you are contributing to the society 
and the world in the best possible manner if you just concentrate on 
squeezing out the maximum for yourself. When you get your maximum, 
everybody else will get their maximum.

As we devotedly follow this policy sometimes doubts appear in our 
mind whether we are doing the right thing. Things don't look too good 
around us. We quickly brush off our doubts by saying all these bad 
things happen because of "market failures"; well-functioning market 
cannot produce unpleasant results.

I think things are going wrong not because of "market failure". It is 
much deeper than that. Let us be brave and admit that it is because 
of "conceptualisation failure". More specifically, it is the failure 
to capture the essence of a human being in our theory. Everyday human 
beings are not one-dimensional entities, they are excitingly 
multi-dimensional and indeed very colourful. Their emotions, beliefs, 
priorities, behaviour patterns can be more aptly described by drawing 
analogy with the basic colours and millions of colours and shades 
they produce.

Social Business Entrepreneurs Can Play a Big Role in the Market

Suppose we postulate a world with two kinds of people, both 
one-dimensional, but having different objectives. One type is the 
existing type, i.e. profit maximizing type. Second type is a new 
type, who are not interested in profit-maximization. They are totally 
committed to make a difference to the world. They are 
social-objective driven. They want to give better chance in life to 
other people. They want to achieve their objective through 
creating/supporting sustainable business enterprises. Their 
businesses may or may not earn profit, but like any other businesses 
they must not incur losses. They create a new class of business which 
we may describe as "non-loss" business.

Can we find second type of people in the real world ? Yes, we can. 
Aren't we familiar with "do-gooders" ? Do-gooders are the same people 
who are referred to as "social entrepreneurs" in formal parlance. 
Social entrepreneurism is an integral part of human history. Most 
people take pleasure in helping others. All religions encourage this 
quality in human beings. Governments reward them by giving tax 
breaks. Special legal facilities are created for them so that they 
can create legal entities to pursue their objectives.

Some social entrepreneurs (SE) use money to achieve their objectives, 
some just give away their time, labour, talent, skill or such other 
contributions which are useful to others. Those who use money may or 
may not try to recover part or all of the money they put into their 
work by charging fee or price.

We may classify the SEs, who use money, into four types :
   i) No cost recovery
   ii) Some cost recovery
   iii) Full cost recovery
   iv) More than full cost-recovery

Once a SE operate at 100% or beyond the cost recovery point he has 
entered the business world with limitless possibilities. This is a 
moment worth celebrating. He has overcome the gravitational force of 
financial dependence and now is ready for space flight ! This is the 
critical moment of significant institutional transformation. He has 
moved from the world of philanthropy to the world of business. To 
distinguish him from the first two types of SEs listed above, we'll 
call him "social business entrepreneur" (SBE).

With the introduction of SBEs, the market place becomes more 
interesting and competitive. Interesting because two different kinds 
of objectives are now at play creating two different sets of 
frameworks for price determination. Competitive because there are 
more players now than before. These new players can be equally 
aggressive and enterprising in achieving their goals as the other 
entrepreneurs.

SBEs can become very powerful players in the national and 
international economy. Today if we add up the assets of all the SBEs 
of the world, it would not add up to even an ultra-thin slice of the 
global economy. It is not because they basically lack growth 
potential, but because conceptually we neither recognised their 
existence, nor made any room for them in the market. They are 
considered freaks, and kept outside the mainstream economy. We do not 
pay any attention to them, because our eyes are blinded by the 
theories taught in our schools.

If SBEs exist in the real world, it makes no sense why we should not 
make room for them in our conceptual framework. Once we recognise 
them supportive institutions, policies, regulations, norms, and rules 
will come into being to help them become mainstream.

Market is always considered to be an utterly incapable institution to 
address social problems. To the contrary, market is recognised as an 
institution significantly contributing to creating social problems 
(environmental hazards, inequality, health, unemployment, ghettoes, 
crimes, etc.). Since market has no capacity to solve social problem, 
this responsibility is handed over to the State. This arrangement was 
considered as the only solution until command economies were created 
where State took over everything, abolishing market.

But this did not last long. With command economies gone we are back 
to the artificial division of work between the market and the State. 
In this arrangement market is turned into an exclusive playground of 
the personal gain seekers, overwhelmingly ignoring the common 
interest of communities and the world as a whole.

With the economy expanding at an unforeseen speed, personal wealth 
reaching unimaginable heights, technological innovations making this 
speed faster and faster, globalisation threatening to wipe out the 
weak economies and the poor people from the economic map, it is time 
to consider the case of SBEs more seriously than we did ever before. 
Not only is it not necessary to leave the market solely to the 
personal-gain seekers, it is extremely harmful to mankind as a whole 
to do that. It is time to move away from the narrow interpretation of 
capitalism and broaden the concept of market by giving full 
recognition to SBEs. Once this is done SBEs can flood the market and 
make the market work for social goals as efficiently as it does for 
personal goals.

Social Stock Market

How do we encourage creation of SBEs ? What are the steps that we 
need to take to facilitate the SBEs to take up bigger and bigger 
chunks of market share ?

First, we must recognise the SBEs in our theory. Students must learn 
that businesses are of two kinds : a) business to make money, and b) 
business to do good to others. Young people must learn that they have 
a choice to make --- which kind of entrepreneur they would like to be 
? If we broaden the interpretation of capitalism even more, they'll 
have wider choice of mixing these two basic types in proportions just 
right for their own taste.

Second, we must make the SBEs and social business investors visible 
in the market place. As long as SBEs operate within the cultural 
environment of present stock markets they'll remain restricted by the 
existing norms and lingo of trading. SBEs must develop their own 
norms, standards, measurements, evaluation criteria, and terminology. 
This can be achieved only if we create a separate stockmarket for 
social business enterprises and investors. We can call it Social 
Stock Market. Investors will come here to invest their money for the 
cause they believe in, and in the company they think is doing the 
best in achieving a particular mission. There may be some companies 
listed in this social stock market who are excellent in achieving 
their mission at the same time making very attractive profit on the 
side. Obviously these companies will attract both kinds of investors, 
social-goal oriented as well as personal-gain oriented.

Making profit will not disqualify an enterprise to be a social 
business enterprise. Basic deciding factor for this will be whether 
the social goal remains to be enterprise's over-arching goal, and it 
is clearly reflected in its decision-making. There will be 
well-defined stringent entry and exit criteria for a company to 
qualify to be listed in the social stock market and to lose that 
status. Soon companies will emerge which will succeed in mixing both 
social goal and personal goal. There will be decision-rules to decide 
upto what point they still qualify to enter the social stock market, 
and at what point they must leave it. Investors must remain convinced 
that companies listed in the social stock market are truly social 
business enterprises.

Along with the creation of the Social Stock Market we'll need to 
create rating agencies, appropriate impact assessment tools, indices 
to understand which social business enterprise is doing more and/or 
better than others --- so that social investors are correctly guided. 
This industry will need its Social Wall Street Journal and Social 
Financial Times to bring out all the exciting, as well as the 
terrible, news stories and analyses to keep the social entrepreneurs 
and investors properly informed and forewarned.

Within business schools we can start producing social MBAs to meet 
the demand of the SBEs as well as preparing young people to become 
SBEs themselves. I think young people will respond very 
enthusiastically to the challenge of making serious contributions to 
the world by becoming SBEs.
We'll need to arrange financing for SBEs. New bank branches 
specialising in financing social business ventures will have to come 
up. New "angels" will have to show up on the scene. Social Venture 
Capitalists will have to join hands with the SBEs.

How to Make a Start

One good way to get started with creating social business enterprises 
would be to launch a design competition for social business 
enterprises. There can be local competition, regional competition and 
global competition. Prizes for the successful designs will come in 
the shape of financing for the enterprises, or as partnership for 
implementing the projects.

All submitted social business proposals can be published so that 
these can become the starting points for the designers in the next 
cycles, or ideas for someone who wants to start a social business
enterprise.

Social Stock Market itself can be started by a SBE as social business 
enterprise. One business school, or several business schools can join 
hands to launch this as a project and start serious business
transactions.

Let us not expect that a social business enterprise will come up, 
from its very birth, with all the answers to a social problem. Most 
likely, it will proceed in steps. Each step may lead to the next 
level of achievement. Grameen Bank is a good example in this regard. 
In creating Grameen Bank I never had a blue-print to follow. I moved 
one step at a time, always thinking this step will be my last step. 
But it was not. That one step led me to another step, a step which 
looked so interesting that it was difficult to walk away from. I 
faced this situation at every turn.

I started my work by giving small amount of money to a few poor 
people without any collateral. Then I realised how good the people 
felt about it. I needed more money to expand the programme. To access 
bank money, I offered myself as a guarantor. To get support from 
another bank, I converted my project as the bank's project. Later, I 
turned it into central bank project. Over time I saw that the best 
strategy would be to create an independent bank to do the work that 
we do. So we did. We converted the project into a formal bank, 
borrowing money from the central bank to lend money to the borrowers. 
Since donors became interested in our work, and wanted to support us, 
we borrowed and received grants from international donors. At one 
stage we decided to be self-reliant. This led us to focus on 
generating money internally by collecting deposits. Now Grameen Bank 
has more money in deposits than it lends out to borrowers. It lends 
out half a billion dollars a year, in loans averaging under $ 200, to 
4.5 million borrowers, without collateral, and maintains 99 per cent 
repayment record.

We introduced many programmes in the bank --- housing loans, student 
loans, pension funds, loans to purchase mobile phones to become the 
village telephone ladies, loans to beggars to become door-to-door 
salesman. One came after another.

If we create the right environment, SBEs can take up significant 
market share and make the market an exciting place for fighting 
social battles in ever innovative and effective ways.

Lets get serious about social business entrepreneurs. They can 
brighten up this gloomy world.






------------------------------

Message: 4
Date: Wed, 19 Mar 2008 08:04:09 -0400
From: "Mathew Waehner" <waehner at gmail.com>
Subject: Re: [permaculture] fruit tree propagation
To: permaculture <permaculture at lists.ibiblio.org>
Message-ID:
	<b95769ff0803190504j16a0812ay9395bcb5ea74bc53 at mail.gmail.com>
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1

A friend of mine has transplanted wild pawpaws successfully.  He started
with young trees, unearthed the sucker and slowly injured it so that the
young tree was forced to rely on its own roots over the course of weeks,
then he dug deep to injure the taproot as little as possible.  Even with
great care, the success rate was low.

It would be great to rescue these wonderful trees, but it would be much
easier and possibly less frustrating to buy some.  I just ordered
pawpaws
from Oikos tree crops- their prices are great and they have tons of
forest
garden and native American heirloom crops.  http://oikostreecrops.com



On 3/18/08, Brooks Miller <brooks.devin at gmail.com> wrote:
>
> has anyone propagated paw paws?  i have a stand on some public land
nearby
> that suckers like crazy.  last fall i dug out one of the suckers and
> looked
> at a few others, and they all seem to have a very strong, woody
taproot.
> there are tons of them in the area, and they're nearby a grass trail,
so
> the
> ones on the edge simply get mowed down every summer.   i've read that
the
> most successful way to propagate  paw paws is through grafting, but i
have
> no rootstock to begin with.  anyone have any hints on propagating the
> suckers?
>
> also, i'm trying my hand at some hardwood cuttings of nanking cherry,
> blueberry, currant, and a few nut trees.  i have softwood cuttings of
> hardy
> kiwis as well.  i was going to try rooting hormone, but i'm fairly
> inexperienced with woody plant propagation.  any tips are welcomed.
>
> i'm looking for a good source of ribes and medlars, too.
>
>
> brooks
> _______________________________________________
> permaculture mailing list
> permaculture at lists.ibiblio.org
> Subscribe or unsubscribe here:
> http://lists.ibiblio.org/mailman/listinfo/permaculture
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> site:http://lists.ibiblio.org/pipermail/permaculture searchstring
>
>
>


-- 
Matt

This is our grace: To be a note
In the exact chord that animates creation

-- Deena Metzger


------------------------------

Message: 5
Date: Wed, 19 Mar 2008 07:24:18 -0500
From: Harmon Seaver <hseaver at gmail.com>
Subject: Re: [permaculture] biofuels
To: permaculture <permaculture at lists.ibiblio.org>
Message-ID: <47E105F2.3000808 at gmail.com>
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=UTF-8

trevor william johnson wrote:
> where did you get this info. can you please send a source.
> 


   I did -- "Alcohol Can Be A Gas", by David Blume.
http://www.permaculture.com
   It's a big book, with pretty complete info on every aspect of alcohol
fuels, from choosing and growing the feedstock, fermenting and
distilling -- both big and small operations, and all an intrinsic part
of a permaculture operation. Also complete info on using alcohol for
fuel, converting engines, etc.



> trevor
> 
>>     No, it is making ethanol and running the diesels on a
>> ethanol/biodiesel mix. An unmodified diesel can run 80% ethanol/ 20%
>> biodiesel. Slightly modified diesels -- usually just adding an extra
>> head gasket to lower the compression ration to 18:1 or less allows
you
>> to use almost pure ethanol with just 1%-2% biodiesel to provide the
>> lubrication for the injection pump and help with ignition. Further
>> modification can turn a diesel into a super efficient ethanol  
>> engine --
>> such as adding a distributor and replacing the glowplugs with  
>> sparkplugs
>> and replacing the injectors and pump with propane injectors, then
>> heating the ethanol so it vaporizes.
>>     Ethanol is very high octane fuel, so it needs a compression  
>> ratio of
>> at least 14:1 to burn efficiently. 16:1 is much better.
>>
> _______________________________________________
> permaculture mailing list
> permaculture at lists.ibiblio.org
> Subscribe or unsubscribe here:
> http://lists.ibiblio.org/mailman/listinfo/permaculture
> Google command to search archives:
> site:http://lists.ibiblio.org/pipermail/permaculture searchstring
> 
> 
> 


-- 
Harmon Seaver


------------------------------

Message: 6
Date: Wed, 19 Mar 2008 05:39:34 -0700 (PDT)
From: Dieter Brand <diebrand at yahoo.com>
Subject: [permaculture] Chinese racists call for the murder of
	Tibetans
To: permaculture <permaculture at lists.ibiblio.org>
Message-ID: <121860.21316.qm at web63402.mail.re1.yahoo.com>
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=iso-8859-1

All independent news about Tibet is blocked by Chinese censors.
At the same time, Chinese censors have passed racist comments
on a number of websites that calls for the murder of the "separatists."
   
  Does this remind us of the genocide in Rwanda or of Goebles?
   
  Read the details in the following article from the Paris based 
organisation Reporters Without Borders
   
  http://www.rsf.org/article.php3?id_article=26248
   
  China 17 March 2008
   
  Crackdown in Tibet away from the eye of the media in new violation of
Olympics pledge
   
  Reporters Without Borders today strongly condemned steps taken by
Beijing to prevent media coverage of demonstrations and an ongoing
crackdown in Tibet and in provinces where Tibetans live. Foreign
journalists have been stopped from entering the province and tight
censorship has been imposed on the Internet and in the Chinese press.
   
  The authorities have since 12 March refused to grant foreign
correspondents permits to enter Tibet and at least 25 journalists,
including 15 from Hong Kong, have reportedly been expelled from Tibet or
Tibetan areas.
   
  "The freedom of movement for foreign journalists had been one of the
few positive developments ahead of the Olympic Games, but this is now
being flouted by the Chinese government facing Tibetan protests," the
worldwide press freedom organisation said.
  "Yet again the Chinese government is trampling on the promises it made
linked to the Olympics and has preparing the ground to crackdown on the
Tibetan revolt in the absence of witnesses."
   
  "Online censorship is also veering into racism, with comment items
urging the killing of Tibetan separatists, while all independent news on
the events is being censored," the organisation added.
   
  The authorities have refused entry to Tibet to foreign correspondents
since 12 March and tourists are also being denied access, for security
reasons, according to the authorities. One European correspondent
confirmed to Reporters Without Borders that requests for permission to
enter Tibet faxed to the Beijing authorities have gone unanswered.
Officials responsible for giving permits for Tibet stopped answering
phone calls from 14 March.
   
  The Foreign Correspondents Club of China said at least 25 journalists,
15 of them from Hong Kong, had been expelled from Tibet or Tibetan
areas, particularly Xiahe in Gansu province.
  Jonathan Watts, correspondent for British daily The Guardian, was
today prevented from going through a police check point in this border
province. "After checking my passport, the police told me to go back and
I had to leave the region. They had obviously expected the arrival of
foreign journalists, because one of the policemen spoke English," he
said. At least six other foreign media have been forced to leave the
regions where many Tibetans live. And Agence France-Presse (AFP)
reported that foreigners were being refused train and bus tickets in
Gansu province or to be allowed to stay in Tongren, in the neighbouring
province of Qinghai, where large numbers of Tibetans live.
   
  A few foreign journalists are still inside Tibet but are unable to
move around normally because the cities are under police and army
control. A reporter with The Economist, who is in the capital, Lhasa,
had obtained permission to travel to Tibet before the start of the
demonstrations.
   
  The decision of the authorities to close Tibet to the press is in
contravention of the rules for foreign media adopted in January 2007,
ahead of the Olympic Games. And in an introduction to the "Guide to
services for foreign journalists during the Olympic Games in Beijing",
the city?s mayor Liu Qi, wrote : "The freedom of foreign journalists to
carry out their professional work, will be guaranteed".
   
  Nearly 15 Hong Kong journalists representing at least six media were
expelled from Lhasa, accused by the authorities of "illegal reporting".
They were then forcibly taken to the airport and put on a flight to
Chengdu in Sichuan province. "They were not very polite. They came and
looked at our computers, searching for video footage," Dickson Lee, a
photographer on the South China Morning Post, told AFP. They had earlier
got footage out of Lhasa of the riots which left nearly 80 dead,
according to the Tibetan government in exile. The Hong Kong Journalists?
Association (HKJA) has called on the authorities to reconsider the
expulsions.
   
  The Chinese authorities also forced most foreign tourists in Tibet to
leave the province. Some of them who witnessed the first demonstrations
had provided photos and footage of the protests and the crackdown. It is
more and more difficult for the foreign press to gather news,
particularly about the hunting down of demonstrators because telephone
connections have been cut in Tibet. Foreign-based Tibetan websites,
particularly phayul.com, have posted a number of accounts and footage of
the events, thanks to networks within Tibet.
   
  The video-sharing website Youtube has been censored since 16 March
after footage was posted of demonstrations in the streets of Lhasa. The
message, "incorrect address" appears when anyone tries to open it. The
Youtube videos are also inaccessible from the website Google Video. The
BBC, CNN and Yahoo News websites have been regularly inaccessible over
the past few days.
   
  Anyone searching for Tibet in Chinese can see videos on YouTube.cn and
on others web sites which are hostile to the Tibetans along with
insulting remarks about "separatists Tibetans" which are not censored.
Chinese video-sharing platforms, the most popular of which are
http://www.tudou.com and http://www.56com, have had all news referring
to the latest events deleted. On the other hand one can find news
websites on which racist comments have been posted about Tibetans,
calling for the murder of the "separatists". 
   
  Reporters Without Borders has been able to confirm that the
cyber-censors have not been deleting them, although all messages
referring to Tibet are undergoing advance filtering.
  Finally, broadcasts within China of international television, CNN and
BBC, were cut by the Chinese authorities on several occasions during
showing of footage of events in Tibet. While official television has
been showing only film of Tibetans attacking Chinese businesses, without
referring to Tibetan casualties and the army deployment.
   
  A disastrous state of press freedom in Tibet
  Trying to get access to unofficial news is very hard for Tibetans. All
media are controlled by the Chinese Communist Party or public bodies. A
few underground publications run by Tibetans, particularly monks, are
circulated secretly.
   
  Chinese and Tibetan journalists in this Himalayan province are forced
to comply with state directives much more than in the rest of China.
Only articles on official religious demonstrations are allowed. Party
members are to be found in all key posts of the administration and media
in Tibet, ensuring there is no chance of any editorial freedom. Articles
are submitted to "journalist-censors" before being published.
   
  Radio Free Asia (RFA) and Voice of America (VOA), based in the United
States, along with Voice of Tibet (VOT), based in India, are the three
main radio stations that broadcast programmes to Tibet in the Tibetan
language, but these programmes are systematically jammed.
   
  Thanks to their acquisition of ALLISS aerials made by the French
company Thal?s, the authorities have been able to boost their capacity
to jam broadcasts, particularly in Tibet. Radio Free Asia has as a
result been forced to use around a score of different frequencies to try
to get round this censorship. During an on-the-spot investigation in
Tibet in 2006, representatives of Reporters Without Borders found that
the Chinese authorities constantly tried to scramble broadcasts using
thudding sounds and music. In Lhasa, RFA and VOT programmes in Tibetan
were drowned out by broadcasts in Chinese. Many monks do continue to
secretly listen to these broadcasts inside their monasteries.
   
  The Chinese authorities are particularly watchful about Internet use
in Tibet. Identity cards are systematically checked in Cyber-caf?s and
several websites and discussion forums were closed in 2007. One instance
was the closure in December 2007 of the most popular discussion forums
with Tibetan students (http://www.tibet123.com).
   
  ? Reporters Without Borders - 47, rue Vivienne, 75002 Paris - France

       
---------------------------------
Never miss a thing.   Make Yahoo your homepage.

------------------------------

Message: 7
Date: Wed, 19 Mar 2008 09:50:19 -0400
From: "Geoffrey wendel" <geowend at gmail.com>
Subject: Re: [permaculture] biofuels
To: permaculture <permaculture at lists.ibiblio.org>
Message-ID:
	<b1b3c7860803190650i8787339y724d6f05ac7bb201 at mail.gmail.com>
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1

===This looked rather interesting, and may affect things a bit.  I do
wish that they had not made things proprietary...

"A strain of bacteria accidentally found in the Chesapeake Bay more
than 20 years ago -- a bug that decomposes everything from algae to
newspapers to crab shells -- could help produce cheaper fuel,
according to scientists at the University of Maryland"

http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/03/09/AR200803
0901983.html?hpid=topnews

                                            Geoffrey Wendel


------------------------------

Message: 8
Date: Wed, 19 Mar 2008 12:28:21 -0400
From: "Laura C Frazier" <farmgirlarts at gmail.com>
Subject: [permaculture] Groundhogs!
To: permaculture at lists.ibiblio.org
Message-ID:
	<829254b30803190928i75c8b18av10a8e9a3af3a68d1 at mail.gmail.com>
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1

I'm wondering if anyone has suggestions for dealing with groundhogs
eating
the garden.

Thanks!

-- 
Laura C Frazier
(336) 971-3834
http://www.geocities.com/farmgirlarts/Homestead.html
http://seedgallery.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=17&Item
id=29


------------------------------

Message: 9
Date: Wed, 19 Mar 2008 09:42:33 -0700 (PDT)
From: Kai Vido <kaivido at yahoo.com>
Subject: Re: [permaculture] Groundhogs!
To: permaculture <permaculture at lists.ibiblio.org>
Message-ID: <453710.96312.qm at web38415.mail.mud.yahoo.com>
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=iso-8859-1

A .22 caliber rifle works best. The groundhog's liver is very good to
eat, though I never tried to eat the rest of the animal. 

On the other hand, if you want to keep them away peacefully, I have not
found the solution either. A good dog will keep them at bay, but the
dog needs to be in the vicinity of the garden. Fencing isn't really
effective because they burrow and can climb as well; however, woven
wire or chicken wire will go a long way toward deterring them. If they
burrow under the fence, you could keep filling in the hole and maybe
they'll get the message and look for breakfast outside your garden.

Perhaps someone else with experience will post a better answer.

--Kai Vido


--- Laura C Frazier <farmgirlarts at gmail.com> wrote:

> I'm wondering if anyone has suggestions for dealing with groundhogs
> eating
> the garden.
> 
> Thanks!
> 
> -- 
> Laura C Frazier
> (336) 971-3834
> http://www.geocities.com/farmgirlarts/Homestead.html
>
http://seedgallery.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=17&Item
id=29
> _______________________________________________
> permaculture mailing list
> permaculture at lists.ibiblio.org
> Subscribe or unsubscribe here:
> http://lists.ibiblio.org/mailman/listinfo/permaculture
> Google command to search archives:
> site:http://lists.ibiblio.org/pipermail/permaculture searchstring
> 
> 
> 



------------------------------

_______________________________________________
permaculture mailing list
permaculture at lists.ibiblio.org
http://lists.ibiblio.org/mailman/listinfo/permaculture


End of permaculture Digest, Vol 62, Issue 23
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