[permaculture] Kunu - a non alcoholic cereal beverage

Steve Diver steved at ncat.org
Fri Sep 17 12:20:04 EDT 2004

Passing along this grain beverage / gruel in case it leads to
other useful recipes and food processing topics.

Steve Diver


Traditional production, consumption and storage of Kunu  a non
alcoholic cereal beverage
Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
previously `Qualitas Plantarum'
Winter 2002, Volume 57, Issue 1, pp. 73-81
T. Gaffa, I.A. Jideani, I. Nkama (in Nigeria)


A survey of the production, consumption and storage of Kunu was carried
out. Some of the information included consumption rate, processing 
and equipment, producer's status and grains used. About 73% consume Kunu
daily, 26% occasionally; 1% know it is produced but may or may not be
consuming it. Millet (Pennisetum typhoideum), sorghum ( Sorghum vulgare),
maize ( Zea mays), rice (Oryza sativa) and acha ( Digitalis exilis) were 
in its production in decreasing order of preference. The grains were used
singly or combined; sorghum/millet was the most common combination in
a ratio of 1:2 (w/w). Steeping was done in ordinary water for 1272 h,
depending on the grain type, in local clay pots, plastic buckets, 
or basins or 57 h in warm water (6070 °C). The grains were dry or wet
milled with or without spices such as ginger, red pepper, black pepper,
clove and garlic. Other ingredients introduced included: sweet potatoes,
malted rice, malted sorghum and Cadaba farinosa crude extract. Both
dry and wet milling was done with grinding mills, mill stones or mortar
and pestle, depending on locality. The product was then cooked into
a thin free flowing gruel. The various types of kunu were: Kunun zaki,
Kunun gyada, Kunun akamu, Kunun tsamiya, Kunun baule, Kunun jiko,
Amshau and Kunun gayamba. Kunun zaki was the most commonly
consumed. Production and consumption cut across all social classes
of the society.

Consumption and storage, Kunu, Traditional production


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