[permaculture] nitrogen fixing trees/shrubs that feedlivestock

Lee Flier lflier at mindspring.com
Sun Dec 26 15:04:35 EST 2004

From: "Toby Hemenway" <toby at patternliteracy.com>

>> What leads us to assume nature is being stupid when she
lets species such as Russian olive thrive?

Like the man said, "I'm tired of growing plants that want to die and killing
plants that want to live."

Well said.  I should add that a lot of people before us have practiced
"Permaculture" without anybody necessarily knowing it.  For example Native
Americans on the eastern seaboard certainly helped propagate blueberries,
chestnuts, trout and other species they relied on for food.  If it's not
growing in neat rows the anthropologists don't tend to classify it as
"agriculture" but the line between hunter/gatherer and agriculturist has
often been blurred when it comes to hardy edible species.  Interesting that
if we see a "wild food forest" i.e. one that has been established for
centuries (even if it's had human assistance), we think it's the garden of
Eden, but if we plant it ourselves, it's invasive. :)  All animals and
plants create micro-systems around themselves to store food and energy,
which changes the environment in some way.  Humans are no exception.

I'm sure there's a line to be drawn somewhere, but just trying to discourage
blanket statements like "invasives are bad."


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