[permaculture] Rhizobium bacteria

lfl at intrex.net lfl at intrex.net
Sat Jul 27 22:18:37 EDT 2002


Anyone interested in this please join in the discussion.
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 From trotmanw at bigpond.com Fri Jul 26 19:47:24 2002
Newsgroups: alt.permaculture
Subject: Ryzobium bacteria
From: "Wesley Trotman" <trotmanw at bigpond.com>
Date: Sat, 27 Jul 2002 12:17:24 +0930

In Oz soils there are not the  Ryzobium bacteria to form the symbiotic
relationships with non indigenous leguminous plants that are needed to form
nitrogen fixation nodules. The pasted bit below this give some information
on the different bacterii for agricultural plants.

These nodules can be easily seen as clusters of up to 1mm in diameter,
either pink or white on clovers or peas etc. , forming small grape like
clusters on the roots of legumes. The Oz native acacias and casurina trees
have their own specific strain of nitogen fixing bacteria
.
Can any one answer some questions;

What bacteria does Tagasasti need to fix nitrogen?

Once introduced how long will the bacteria persist in the soil, ie has the
bacteria evolved in association with say annuals therefore can only be
expected to last for 12 months?

What bacteria (see below) are needed for broad beans also known as faba
beans?

Perhaps someone has some references on these matters.



Inoculation Group and Rhizobium -Legume Association

Cross Inocualtion Group  Rhizobium Species Legumes Included
Alfalfa Group   R. meliloti  Alfalfa, Sweet Clovers, Fenugreek

Pea Group   R. trifolia  Clovers, pea, vetch, sweetpea, lentil
     R. legumino-sarum

Bean Group   R. phaesoli  beans, lupines, Serradella
     R. lupino

Soybean & Cowpea Group  R. japonicum  Soybeans, Cowpea, Lespedeza,
crotalaria, Kudzu, Peanut, Lima beans

from, "Introduction to Soil Microbiology" by Martin Alexander, Wiley press


Nitrogen - Fixing
A close parternship oe symbiotic relationship exists between legume plants
and nitogen-fixing bacteria (Ryzobia) for their murual benefit.
These ssingle celled organisms are aenerobic and live on the roots of legume
plants.
Legume plant roots release a substance which attracts these bacteria . Once
attached to the roots little knobs or nodules are produced on the roots and
hair roots of the plant
Each nodule makes a home for milllions of bacteria which extract nitogen
from the atmoshere, fix it in their bodies and make it available to the host
plant in a fornm it can use to build protein molecules. This is achieved
with the aid of an emzyme called nitogenase. When the plant dies it leaves
behind these compounds.
In exchange for the nitogen the legume plant supplies plant sugars to the
bacteria.
  Ryzobium bacteria are sensitive to chemical fertilisers.
--
Wes. Trotman

"If you think you are too small to make a difference, try sleeping with 
a mosquito." -- the Dalai Lama

 From LL at orgfarm.net Sat Jul 27 00:00:04 2002
Newsgroups: alt.permaculture
Subject: Re: Ryzobium bacteria
From: "Lawrence F. London, Jr." <LL at orgfarm.net>
Date: Sat, 27 Jul 2002 00:00:04 -0700

On Sat, 27 Jul 2002 12:17:24 +0930, "Wesley Trotman"
<trotmanw at bigpond.com> wrote:

 >In Oz soils there are not the  Ryzobium bacteria to form the symbiotic
 >relationships with non indigenous leguminous plants that are needed to 
form
 >nitrogen fixation nodules. The pasted bit below this give some information
 >on the different bacterii for agricultural plants.

 >These nodules can be easily seen as clusters of up to 1mm in diameter,
 >either pink or white on clovers or peas etc. , forming small grape like
 >clusters on the roots of legumes. The Oz native acacias and casurina trees
 >have their own specific strain of nitogen fixing bacteria
 >.
 >Can any one answer some questions;
 >
 >What bacteria does Tagasasti need to fix nitrogen?

http://fadr.msu.ru/rodale/agsieve/txt/vol2/9/art7.html
" It uses the same rhyzobium inoculant as cowpeas."

So from your post:
 >Bean Group   R. phaesoli  beans, lupines, Serradella
 >    R. lupino
 >Soybean & Cowpea Group  R. japonicum  Soybeans, Cowpea, Lespedeza,
 >crotalaria, Kudzu, Peanut, Lima beans
I would assume this to be Rhizobium lupini; its host plant is lupinus;

see: http://cmgm.stanford.edu/~mbarnett/rhiz.htm
and: http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/1492/grains.html
Andean Lupin
(Lupinus mutabilis)
Botanical name: Lupinus mutabilis Sweet
Family: Fabaceae
From: http://www.terramax.sk.ca/lupin/lupin.html
"Like other legumes, lupins can fix atmospheric nitrogen in symbiosis
with a lupin-specific Rhizobium-bacteria, Rhizobium lupini"

From: http://www.bacterio.cict.fr/qr/rhizobium.html
Rhizobium lupini (Schroeter 1886) Eckhardt et al. 1931, species.
Type strain: strain ATCC 10319 = DSM 30140 = VKM B-1965.  Synonym:
"Phytomyxa lupini"
Schroeter 1886.  Reference: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH
(P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst.
Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420.

And:
http://www.cas.psu.edu/docs/casdept/agronomy/forage/docs/species/bft.html
Birdsfoot trefoil requires careful management for successful
establishment because of its small seed size and poor seedling vigor.
Before seeding, trefoil seed should be
inoculated with Rhizobium lupini bacteria, which are specific for
birdsfoot trefoil. This will ensure sufficient nodulation of the root
system and adequate atmospheric nitrogen
fixation.

From:
http://farrer.csu.edu.au/AFVL/tagasaste.htm
http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&ie=ISO-8859-1&q=Tagasaste&btnG=Google+Search

 >Once introduced how long will the bacteria persist in the soil, ie has the
 >bacteria evolved in association with say annuals therefore can only be
 >expected to last for 12 months?
 >
 >What bacteria (see below) are needed for broad beans also known as faba
 >beans?
 >
 >Perhaps someone has some references on these matters.

Wes, have a look at this Oz website:

http://wwwcomm.murdoch.edu.au/synergy/0302/rhizobium.html
also:
http://www.ecol.kvl.dk/~sto/gf/orglist.htm
http://honeybee.helsinki.fi/users/lindstro/rhizobium/

http://farrer.csu.edu.au/AFVL/tagasaste.htm


all from:
http://images.google.com/images?q=Rhizobium&ie=ISO-8859-1&hl=en&btnG=Google+Search

 >Inoculation Group and Rhizobium -Legume Association
 >
 >Cross Inocualtion Group  Rhizobium Species Legumes Included
 >Alfalfa Group   R. meliloti  Alfalfa, Sweet Clovers, Fenugreek
 >
 >Pea Group   R. trifolia  Clovers, pea, vetch, sweetpea, lentil
 >    R. legumino-sarum
 >
 >Bean Group   R. phaesoli  beans, lupines, Serradella
 >    R. lupino
 >
 >Soybean & Cowpea Group  R. japonicum  Soybeans, Cowpea, Lespedeza,
 >crotalaria, Kudzu, Peanut, Lima beans
 >
 >from, "Introduction to Soil Microbiology" by Martin Alexander, Wiley press
 >
 >
 >Nitrogen - Fixing
 >A close parternship oe symbiotic relationship exists between legume plants
 >and nitogen-fixing bacteria (Ryzobia) for their murual benefit.
 >These ssingle celled organisms are aenerobic and live on the roots of 
legume
 >plants.
 >Legume plant roots release a substance which attracts these bacteria . 
Once
 >attached to the roots little knobs or nodules are produced on the 
roots and
 >hair roots of the plant
 >Each nodule makes a home for milllions of bacteria which extract nitogen
 >from the atmoshere, fix it in their bodies and make it available to 
the host
 >plant in a fornm it can use to build protein molecules. This is achieved
 >with the aid of an emzyme called nitogenase. When the plant dies it leaves
 >behind these compounds.
 >In exchange for the nitogen the legume plant supplies plant sugars to the
 >bacteria.
 > Ryzobium bacteria are sensitive to chemical fertilisers.


 From trotmanw at bigpond.com Sat Jul 27 05:27:31 2002
Newsgroups: alt.permaculture
Subject: Re: Ryzobium bacteria
From: "Wesley Trotman" <trotmanw at bigpond.com>
Date: Sat, 27 Jul 2002 21:57:31 +0930

Hi larry

thanks for that wealth of info, . I like to think the web of life is 
simple but that sure isnt the case when one looks at the huge number of 
varieties of rhyzobium bacteria. Interestingly some of these group form 
crown gall in plants. In practical terms the bacteria listed on my post 
are those which are commercially available.

In my post the original layout was a table however this layout was lost 
on posting. , from the info I have there are two rhyzobium bacteria 
which can be used for inoculating the bean group, ie R. phaesoli  and
R. lupino.

The faba beans are Vicia faba which from the web site
http://cmgm.stamford.edu/~mbarnet/rhiz.htm points at   R. legumino-sarum 
as the bacteria for these plants. Just to complicate it a bit more I 
learn from this that some bacteria have been renamed. But then all i 
want is to purchase some inoculant.

My only question left here is the persistance of the bacteria when there 
is no host plant , that may be harder to answer.

Wes.




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