[permaculture] Guilds + Shrubs in Tropical Forest Ecosystems: India

Steve Diver steved at ncatark.uark.edu
Fri Aug 23 21:54:43 EDT 2002

The Permaculurists Bookshelf:  resources on guilds and shrubs

The Agriculture and Forestry Systems Division (AGRAF) | The
World Bank | Publications by Series

Agriculture Technology Notes
World Bank Technical Papers

The Ecology and Management of Non-Timber Forest Resources
World Bank Technical Paper; no. WTP 322 | 1996

Excerpts .....

Ecological types. Species that can be grouped together based on
their similar ecological characteristics or requirements (for
example shade tolerant species or light demanding species).

It has long been noted, that tropical tree species can be
grouped into distinct ecological categories based on
similarities in the regeneration and growth strategies they employ.
Light tolerance (shade-tolerant or light-demanding), for example,
is one of the most frequent ecological characteristics used to
group species.

It is useful to define three guilds of canopy species based
on their regeneration requirements and overall life-history
patterns: primary, "climax," or mature forest species; early
pioneer or "secondary" species; and late secondary species.

Shrubs in Tropical Forest Ecosystems: Examples from India
World Bank Technical Paper ; no. WTP 103 | 1989

The first part of this paper concentrates on shrubs' presence in
nature, their characteristics, their growth features and their
usefulness. Propagation methods to multiply shrubs and shrub
management are also dealt with in this part. In the second part,
81 shrubs are briefly described with respect to distribution,
phenological characteristics, nursery and planting methods and
appropriate locality factors.

Lists of shrub guilds and shrub uses .....

Grouping of Naturally Growing Shrubs:

Low elevation wet and water logging soil tolerant shrubs
Low elevation moist soil tolerant shrubs
Low elevation semi-arid soil tolerant shrubs
Low elevation arid (including desert sand) soil tolerant shrubs
Low elevation alkaline and saline soil tolerant shrubs
Low elevation mangrove soil tolerant shrubs
Middle elevation shrubs
Upper elevation shrubs

Utilization of Shrubs:

Shrub Species for Live Fence
List of Trees Suitable for Management by pollarding as
Tree-Shrub Live Fence
Tree-shrub Combination Recommended in Man-made Social Forests
Species Suitable for Contour Hedge Planting
A list of nitrogen fixing Leguminous species suitable for

"One of the most interesting things about many shrubs is
the extreme harmony in which they co-exist with each other."

Also see:

Organic and Compost-Based Growing Media for Tree
Seedling Nurseries
World Bank Technical Paper ; no. WTP 264.

Two hard cover books on trees and shrubs of India that
come to mind:

Plants for Reclamation of Wastelands edited by Tenjarla C.S.
Sastry et al.  1990.  Publication and Information Directorate,
Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi.
684 p.

Multipurpose Trees for Agroforestry and Wasteland
Utilization by R.K. Gupta.  1993.  International Science
Publisher, New York.  562 p.

Steve Diver

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