raised bed organic gardening

Permacltur at aol.com Permacltur at aol.com
Fri Jul 23 12:38:08 EDT 1999

	Why are excessively expensive English digging tools more traditional 
than a fire-hardened pointed stick or a mattock hoe?   I thought permaculture 
was a worldwide thing, and not simply an extension of Anglo-Saxon tradition.  

	I have raised beds but I never manage anything only one way.   I use 
a two digging implements in raised beds.  I move soil with a $3 shovel from a 
discount place and I loosen soil and cut small roots with a flat-blade spade 
that is likely older than most people on this list and the price of which I 
do not recall.  It is not English.   I bought it when I was 17 for my 
landscape gardening business.  I'm now 60.  Doubtless it won't hold up as 
well as an expensive, mortgage-your-house-to-buy English model, but I'll limp 
along with it.  

	Try John Jeavons.   He has perfected what you are talking about.

Dan Hemenway

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