[monkeywire] For Retired Chimps, a Life of Leisure
francisco at tweakfilms.com
Tue Jan 7 21:06:06 EST 2003
For Retired Chimps, a Life of Leisure
By SHERYL GAY STOLBERG
LAWRENCEVILLE, Ga. — The chimpanzees at the Yerkes National Primate
Research Center were acting up.
Jessie, a pink-faced 20-year-old, slapped her ample belly and hooted
wildly from behind a steel gate. Dover, a mischievous 4-year-old, spied
an unfamiliar human and served up his standard greeting for strangers,
a fistful of feces, pitched with remarkable accuracy.
Jessie and Dover do not really have to be at Yerkes, but there is
nowhere else for them to go. Bred for biomedical research, they are now
unemployed, a result of a vast surplus of laboratory chimpanzees. They
pass their days in small steel-and-concrete enclosures, playing with
burlap bags and shredding old telephone books for entertainment.
But there may be better times ahead for these great apes and hundreds
of their captive kin. Acting on a mandate from Congress, the National
Institutes of Health announced last year that it would spend $24
million to help build and operate a chimpanzee sanctuary, in essence, a
taxpayer-supported retirement home for research chimps.
"It's a good moment for chimps, a very good moment," said Dr. Frans de
Waal, a Yerkes primatologist who is on the board of Chimp Haven, the
organization that received the contract for the sanctuary. "If we are
not going to use them for biomedical studies, let's move them to a
situation that is attractive to the chimps for retirement."
Of the 1,600 laboratory chimps in the United States, N.I.H. officials
estimate that more than 400 are not involved in experiments. Chimp
Haven, which officials hope to open in 2004, will be on 200 acres of
donated land near Shreveport, La. It may eventually be home to up to
300 chimps. Others may retire to a private sanctuary in Florida.
Some scientists, however, including Dr. Stuart Zola, the Yerkes
director, fear that the federal government is setting a bad precedent
by giving its imprimatur to the retirement concept.
"I see the retirement community idea as simply another ploy by the
animal rights community to reach their eventual goal of abolishing the
use of animals in research," Dr. Zola said. "I'm not opposed to it. But
I think it is being driven by an animal rights point of view."
Advocates for animal rights are angry because the legislation that
authorized the sanctuary included a provision permitting the animals to
be returned to laboratories in a public health emergency.
"They cannot call a place a sanctuary if what it really is is a holding
pen for when they need the chimps the next time," said Holly Hazard,
executive director of the Doris Day Animal League, a lobbying group in
Washington. Still, Ms. Hazard said, "Any day the chimps have enjoying
the sunshine is one day more than before."
The surplus is an unexpected legacy of AIDS. In the early days of the
epidemic, scientists theorized that the chimp would be a useful model
to study the disease in people.
In 1986, the health institutes began an aggressive breeding program
that doubled the laboratory chimp population, only to find that
although chimpanzees could contract the AIDS virus, they rarely became
sick from it.
That distinction makes it hard to use the animals to test treatments or
With their striking genetic similarity to people — chimps and humans
share the same blood types, and their DNA is more than 98 percent
identical — the apes are attractive to scientists. The vaccine for
hepatitis B, for instance, was developed in chimps, and they are still
used to study hepatitis C and malaria, among other diseases.
Moreover, Dr. Zola said, the scientists who mapped the human genome are
now planning to do the same for chimpanzees, an effort that may make
the apes even more valuable to science. "They may provide us with very
important information," he said, "about what makes us human."
The similarities have also created a growing sentiment, even among
scientists, that chimps, the only great apes still used in medical
research in the United States, should not be treated like other lab
In 1997, a panel of scientific experts said reducing the chimp
population by euthanizing excess apes would be unethical. Citing the
genetic similarities, the experts said the government had "a moral
responsibility" for chimpanzees' long-term care. The report prompted
Congress, in 2000, to pass the law that led to the sanctuary.
"They are animals that have powerful emotions and powerful intellects,
and it is really quite inhumane to keep them contained in little
enclosures," said Representative James C. Greenwood, the Republican of
Pennsylvania who sponsored the bill. The sanctuary, Mr. Greenwood said,
will allow the chimps to "feel comfortable and socialize as repayment
for all the service they have rendered to science."
With life spans of 50 years or more, some chimps may outlive the
scientists who do research on them.
Big and strong, they are expensive to maintain. Yerkes, which has 174
chimps at three locations, budgets $500,000 a year for their care.
In addition to housing and veterinary care, the apes also need
activities. Federal regulations demand "enrichment programs" for
captive primates, whether or not they are used for experiments. At
Yerkes and elsewhere, experts say, television is a favorite
"There are some that like soap operas," said Dr. Linda Brent, a
behavioral researcher and director of enrichment at the Southwest
Foundation for Biomedical Research in San Antonio. "I knew one named
Sammy. He liked to watch Barney. Sometimes, they like shows like Jerry
Springer, because it looks like the people are fighting. They like the
In 1993, while completing a doctoral dissertation on the development of
infant chimpanzees, Dr. Brent visited Gombe National Park, near Kigoma,
Tanzania, where Dr. Jane Goodall has studied chimps for more than 40
years. "It was a life-changing experience," she said.
Two years later, Dr. Brent founded Chimp Haven.
Relocating the chimps will not be easy, she added. Chimps reared apart
will have to be carefully introduced to one another, a process that
could take months. "Biohazardous" apes, those that carry infectious
diseases, will be the last to move.
Nearly all research chimps in this country were born in captivity. Dr.
Brent said she intended to push the labs to quickly retire the
remaining apes born in the wild. She hopes they will pass on their
knowledge to chimps born in captivity.
"We'd like to see them in a place where they can use their smarts," she
said. "They know how to build nests. They know how to search for
termites. They know the things they need to do to live in the wild. I
think we have a really unique opportunity to help the chimps become
Although the Chimp Haven sanctuary will be the only one with taxpayer
support, it will not be the first of its kind.
Three years ago, the Center for Captive Chimpanzee Care opened a
sanctuary on 190 acres near Fort Pierce, Fla., with 20 former Air Force
chimps that were descendants of the "chimponauts" that flew into space
in the 1950's.
"I've never worked with chimps more screwy, more altered, more
disturbed than these chimps," the director of the center, Dr. Carole
Noon, said. "Each one came in with some kind of crazy behavior."
In September, the center took over a colony of 266 chimps and 61
monkeys that had been maintained by the Coulston Foundation, a private
laboratory in Alamagordo, N.M., whose checkered history included
citations by federal animal welfare officials for mistreatment of
chimpanzees. Eventually, Dr. Noon said, she hopes to retire the
Coulston apes to Florida.
At Yerkes, the nation's oldest primate center, about 100 chimpanzees,
including nine infected with the AIDS virus, live in the biomedical
research compound in Atlanta, which is off-limits to reporters. An
additional 20 are in New Iberia, La., and 55 are here in Lawrenceville,
at a 117-acre field station where Dr. de Waal studies their social
The 40 or so apes in his studies are clearly the more fortunate ones.
They live in two separate spacious outdoor yards, each with playground
equipment for swinging and climbing. On a fall morning, they lolled
about in the sun, grooming and picking nits from one another's fur. Dr.
de Waal, who studies how chimps fight and reconcile, has been teaching
them to use a joystick to identify pictures on a computer screen.
Jessie and Dover, however, are not part of the behavioral research, and
despite their unemployment, they are not likely to be among the first
Yerkes chimps to relocate; Dr. Zola, the Yerkes director, said the New
Iberia chimps will probably move first. While Dr. Zola said he would
love to build similar large outdoor enclosures for Jesse, Dover and
other unemployed apes, the hard reality is that he has neither the
space nor the money to do it.
Of their current living situation, he said, "It isn't optimal."
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