[pchealth] Diet and the human digestive tract microbiota and health.

Lawrence London lfljvenaura at gmail.com
Sat Mar 16 02:08:12 EDT 2019


1)

Overall, dietary changes could explain 57% of the total structural
variation in gut microbiota whereas changes in genetics accounted for no
more than 12%. This indicates that diet has a dominating role in shaping
gut microbiota : nutrition
https://www.reddit.com/r/nutrition/comments/b1npoy/overall_dietary_changes_could_explain_57_of_the/?st=jtb2yqco&sh=d78effe2

Really great roundup of various studies re: microbiome here

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3448089/

The influence of diet on the composition of the microbiota has been shown
during the initial colonization phase: breast fed infants have higher
levels of Bifidobacteria spp. while formula fed infants have higher levels
of Bacteroides spp., as well as increased Clostridium coccoides and
Lactobacillus spp. [44]. Beyond the postnatal period, the microbiota was
suspected to be relatively stable throughout life.

However, several recent studies have shown that dietary factors alter the
microbial community resulting in biological changes to the host (Table 1).
In fact, the composition of the gut microbiota strongly correlates with
diet as demonstrated by a study assessing the relative contributions of
host genetics and diet in shaping the gut microbiota and modulating
metabolic syndrome phenotypes in mice. In mice fed a diet high in fat,
there are many key gut population changes, such as the absence of gut
barrier-protecting Bifidobacteria spp.

Overall, dietary changes could explain 57% of the total structural
variation in gut microbiota whereas changes in genetics accounted for no
more than 12% [45].

*This indicates that diet has a dominating role in shaping gut microbiota*
and changing key populations may transform healthy gut microbiota into a
disease-inducing entity. For example, the “Western” diet, which is high in
sugar and fat, causes dysbiosis which affects both host GI tract metabolism
and immune homeostasis [46]. This was modeled in a humanized mouse model
where adult human fecal microbiota was transplanted into GF mice. The mice
were fed a low-fat, plant polysaccharide-rich diet and when switched to a
“Western” diet, the microbiota composition shifted to an overgrowth of
Firmicutes including Clostridium innocuum, Eubacterium dolichum,
Catenibacterium mitsuokai and Enterococcus spp., as well as a significant
reduction in several Bacteroides spp. [18]. In mice, carbohydrate-reduced
diets result in enriched populations of bacteria from the Bacteroidetes
phyla, [47] and calorie-restricted diets prevent the growth of Clostridium
coccoides, Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacteria spp., which are all major
butyrate producers required for colonocyte homeostasis [48]. Diets rich in
complex carbohydrates show less pathogenic species such as Mycobacterium
avium subspecies paratuberculosis and Enterobacteriaceae [49] than diets
higher in fat or protein [48,50,51,52].

Complex carbohydrates also increase levels of beneficial Bifidobacteria
spp. such as B. longum subspecies longum, B. breve and B. thetaiotaomicron
[53]. *Refined sugars, on the other hand, mediate the overgrowth of
opportunistic bacteria like C. difficile [54] and C. perfringens by
increasing bile output* [55].

Vegetarianism alters intestinal microbiota in humans because high amounts
of fiber result in increased short chain fatty acid production by microbes
which decrease the intestinal pH. This prevents the growth of potentially
pathogenic bacteria such as E. coli and other members of Enterobacteriaceae
[56].

Interestingly, it has been found that European children have a microbiota
depleted of Bacteroidetes and enriched in Enterobacteriaceae compared to
rural African children which the authors attributed to low dietary fiber
intake by Europeans

2)

Brain Maker: The Power of Gut Microbes to Heal and Protect Your Brain--for
Life

https://www.reddit.com/r/HumanMicrobiome/comments/b1gi4j/brain_maker_the_power_of_gut_microbes_to_heal_and/?st=jtb35ryi&sh=5286e7ed

I have finished reading *Brain Maker: The Power of Gut Microbes to Heal and
Protect Your Brain--for Life*. I give it three out of five stars for being
entertaining and accessible science writing. I give it four out of five
stars for actionable, take-home points of probiotics in relation to
cognition. I rate it highly because I am already a believer in the
probiotic enema, and this book gives instructions for and a medical case
study of probiotic enemas. This book was published in 2015, so the research
is already dated.

I will walk through the book with you.

Page six says "We as neurologists are trained to focus on what goes on in
the nervous system, and specifically in the brain, in a myopic way. We
automatically end up viewing other bodily systems, such as the
gastrointestinal tract, as discrete entities that have no bearing
whatsoever on what goes on in the brain. After all, when you have a
stomachache you don't call a cardiologist or a neurologist. ... This
perspective is grossly out of touch with current science. The digestive
system is intimately connected to what goes on in the brain."

Page 15 says "Although microbial testing kits are starting to emerge on the
market, I don't think the research is there yet in terms of knowing what
the results truly mean (healthy vs. unhealthy) and which risk factors you
bear. In the future I have no doubt we'll be able to establish
evidence-based parameters and defined correlations between certain
microbial signatures and conditions. But for now this is tricky terrain;
it's still too early ... That said, these kits can be useful for gauging
the diversity and general composition of your microbiome."

Page 55 says "Dr. Alessio Fasano of Harvard ... [identified] the
now-established relationship among gluten consumption, increased gut
permeability, and widespread inflammation throughout the body. .... [New]
science is telling us that the inflammation brought on by a loss of gut
integrity can lead to leaky brains. ... You've probably heard about the
highly protective, fortified portal keeping bad things out of the brain:
the blood-brain barrier. ... It has just recently become clear, however,
that many substances can threaten the integrity of the blood-brain barrier,
letting inside various molecules that may spell trouble, including
proteins, viruses, and even bacteria that would normally have been
excluded. ... What's even more alarming is Dr. Fasano's recent discovery
that not only is there increased gut permeability when the gut is exposed
to gliadin, a protein found in gluten, but in fact the blood-brain barrier
also becomes more permeable in response to gliadin exposure. It's as if one
door mistakenly opened leads to the opening of another door. Intruders
galore."

Page 56 says "How can you test for a leaky gut? Every day I perform simple
blood tests on patients to help me get a sense of their gut lining's
integrity. I use what's called the Cyrex Array 2, which offers the most
sophisticated screening tests on the market today. The array, by Cyrex Labs
(www.CyrexLabs.com), measures antibodies produced by the immune system when
it is confronted by a molecule called LPS, short for *lipopolysaccharide*.
No conversation about the microbiome, inflammation, and brain health can
exclude the impact of this molecule."

Pages 72-74 say "Depression is now the leading cause of disability
worldwide, impacting more than 350 million people (according to the World
Health Organization, depression will displace heart disease in terms of
cost of caring for patients by the year 2020.) ... Whether it's Prozac,
Cymbalta, Zoloft, Elavil, Lexapro, Wellbutrin, or any of the other commonly
prescribed antidepressants, these medicines simply treat the symptoms, and
only minimally so. ... I am saddened by the fact that the billion-dollar
psychotropic pharmaceutical industry is predicated on the idea that people
will take a pill to treat symptoms, while the underlying disorder is
ignored. ... And you know where I am going with this[.] The research
exploring the connection between the gut and psychiatric issues is now
narrowing in on the microbiome. ... [G]round zero for all things
mood-related is the gut."

Page 76 says "Today, much of the focus is on studies that show a link
between gut dysfunction and the brain, and, more specifically, the link
between the presence of inflammatory markers in the blood (indicating that
the body's immune system is on high alert) and risk for depression. Higher
levels of inflammation dramatically increase the risk of developing
depression. And the higher the levels of inflammatory markers, the worse
the depression. ... Some of the studies have been downright eye-opening.
For example, when scientists give healthy people with no signs of
depression an infusion of a substance to trigger inflammation, ... classic
depressive symptoms arose almost instantly. Similarly, it's been shown that
when people are given interferon for the treatment of hepatitis C, which
increases inflammatory cytokines, a quart of those individuals develop
major depression. ... What's even more compelling is new research
demonstrating that antidepressant medications may work in some people by
virtue of their ability to decrease inflammatory chemicals. Put another
way, the actual mechanism for modern antidepressants may have nothing at
all to do with their effect on serotonin and everything to do with
decreasing inflammation."

Page 81 says "Although the studies showing the gut-brain axis and the
relationship between the intestinal microbiome and mental health do go back
many years, it seems that only recently have scientists really begun to dig
deep into studying this connection and how one can manipulate gut bacteria
to improve mental health. ... In another study, this one published in
*Gastroenterology*, the researchers showed that they could switch a mouse's
gut bacteria with that of another and significantly alter behavior. They
transplanted microbes from a timid group of mice into the guts of
risk-taking mice and watched their personalities change. The shy mice
became outgoing; the brazen mice become apprehensive. In the words of the
study's lead author, Jane Foster: 'It's good evidence that the microbiota
houses these behaviors.'"

Page 82 says "A team of UCLA researchers conducted a nifty little
experiment published in 2013[.] ... Thirty-six women were split into three
groups: Group 1 consumed, twice daily for four weeks, a yogurt mixture
containing several probiotics; Group 2 ate a dairy product that looked and
tasted like yogurt but didn't have any probiotics; and Group 3 ate no
specific product at all. ... At the four-week point, participants were
shown images designed to induce an emotional response. Specifically, they
viewed a series of pictures of angry of frightened people and matched them
to other faces showing the same emotions. ... What scientists found was
remarkable. The women who ate the yogurt that contained the probiotics
showed decreased activity in both the insula and the somatosensory cortex
during the emotional reaction task. ... These women also had less activity,
or excitability, in the brain's widespread network related to emotion,
cognition, and sensory processing. The women in the other two groups, on
the other hand, exhibited stable or increased activity in this network,
indicating that they were emotionally impacted and disturbed by the images."

Pages 143-44 read "In a beautifully written and well-cited review of what
we know so far about he complex diet-gut-microbes-health equation, Canadian
researchers stated the following: "Overall, dietary changes could explain
57% of the total structural variation in gut microbiota whereas changes in
the genetics accounted for no more than 12%. This indicates that diet has a
dominating role in shaping gut microbiota and changing key populations may
transform healthy gut microbiota into a disease-inducing entity. ... Let me
repeat: *Diet has the dominant role in shaping gut microbiota, and changing
key populations may transform healthy gut microbiota into a
disease-inducing entity.*"

Page 145 reads "Fructose has long-term effects when it's consumed in large
quantities from unnatural sources. Numerous studies have shown that
fructose is associated with impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance,
high blood fats, and hypertension. ... [N]ew research shows that obesity
might be a reflection of changes in the microbiome *brought on by fructose
exposure*."

Page 146-47 read "Professor Eran Segal, a computational biologist at the
Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel, led his team on a series of
experiments to answer one question: Do artificial sweeteners affect healthy
gut bacteria? Segal and his colleagues started by adding the fake sugars
saccharin, sucralose, or aspartame to the drinking water of different
groups of mice. They gave other mouse groups the real sugars glucose or
sucrose ... in their water. Their control group drank plain, unsweetened
water. Eleven weeks later, the mice that received the artificial sweeteners
exhibited signs that they weren't able to process real sugar well, as
measured by higher levels of glucose intolerance compared with the others.
To see whether gut bacteria had anything to do with the link between
drinking fake sugar and developing glucose intolerance, the researchers
gave the mice antibiotics for four weeks to essentially exterminate their
gut bacteria. Lo and behold, after the annihilation all the mouse groups
were able to metabolize sugar equally well. ... Next, the researchers
transplanted gut bacteria from mice that had consumed saccharin into
germ-free mice with no gut bacteria of their own. Within just six days, the
tainted mice had lost some of their ability to process sugar. The genetic
analyses of the gut colonies spoke for themselves, revealing a shift in
composition of the gut bacteria upon exposure to the artificial sweetener.
... Research is now underway on humans, and so far preliminary results
indeed show that ... gut bacteria of people who regularly consume
artificial sweeteners look different from gut bacteria of people who do
not."

Page 149 reads "[W]hile a small percentage of the population is highly
sensitive to gluten and suffers from celiac disease, it's possible for
virtually everyone to have a negative, albeit undetected, reaction. Gluten
sensitivity--with or without the presence of celiac--increases the
production of inflammatory cytokines, which are pivotal players in
neurodegenerative conditions. And as I've been implying, the brain is one
of the most susceptible organs to the deleterious effects of inflammation."

Pages 150-51 read "Gluten is made up of two main groups of proteins the
*glutenins* and the *gliadins*. You can be sensitive to either of these
proteins or to one of the twelve different, smaller units that make up
gliadin. ... It's quite possible that the entire cascade of adverse effects
that take place when the body is exposed to gluten starts with a change in
the microbiome--ground zero. Before I explain this cascade, let me remind
you of a few important facts. ... Gluten's 'sticky' attribute interferes
with the breakdown and absorption of nutrients, which leads to poorly
digested food that can then sound the alarm in the immune system,
eventually resulting in an assault on the lining of the small intestine.
... This process can damage tissues, leaving the walls of the intestine
compromised,a condition that you know by now is called 'leaky gut.'
According to Harvard's Dr. Alessio Fasano, exposure to the gliadin protein
in particular increases gut permeability *in all of us*. ... In fact, the
same company--Cyrex Labs--that does the blood screening tests for LPS also
performs high-tech tests for gluten sensitivity (go to
www.DrPerlmutter.com/Resources for more about these important tests."

Page 153 reads "[R]esearchers also noted a measurable impact of the gluten
on the bacterial flora of the mice, leading the scientists to conclude that
'the presence of gluten is directly responsible for the pro-diabetogenic
effects of the diets and it determines the gut microflora. Our novel study
thus suggests that dietary gluten could modulate the incidence of [type 1
diabetes] by changing the gut microbiome."

Page 153 also reads "Research shows that modern wheat is capable of
producing more than 23,000 different proteins, any one of which could
trigger a potentially damaging inflammatory response. While we know the
harmful effects that gluten can have, I predict that all future research
will reveal more injurious proteins that travel with gluten in modern
grains that have equally, if not more, deleterious effects on the body and
brain."

Page 155 reads "Let's get a little closer to the science of what else
threatens your gut's community from the perspective of drugs and
environmental chemicals:" antibiotics, the birth control pill, NSAIDs,
environmental chemicals, and herbicide-laden GMO foods.

Antibiotics - the studies cited seemed commonsense about the long-term
deleterious effects of antibiotics on gut flora.

The birth control pill - This does not apply to me

NSAIDs - Page 168 reads "In the past, multiple studies dating as far back
as the 1990s have shown that people who have taken non-steroidal
anti-inflammatory medications such as Advil ... and Aleve ... for two or
more years may have a 40% reduced risk for Alzheimer's and Parkinson's
diseases. This makes sense when you consider that these are principally
inflammatory diseases, so when you control inflammation you control risk.
... But newer studies are now emerging to reveal a twist in the story. It's
been shown that these medications can increase the risk of damage to the
gut lining, especially in the presence of gluten."

Environmental Chemicals - Pages 169-70 read "For example, take the
ubiquitous compound bisphenol-A (BPA). More than 93 percent of us carry
traces of this chemical in our bodies. ... The BPA found in plastic food
containers has been shown to generate hormonal imbalances in both women and
men."

Page 171 reads "Chemicals found in our water supply, principally residual
chlorine, can also be destructive to the microbiome. Chlorine is
bactericidal; it effectively kills a large variety of microbial waterborne
pathogens."

Herbicide-laden GMO foods - Page 173 reads "The two top GMO crops in the
U.S. are corn and soy (and, by extension, all the products that contain
these ingredients; it's estimated that GMOs are in as much as 80 percent of
conventional processed food.) ... America's farmers now spray a
weed-killing chemical, glyphosate (RoundUp), on their crops. The harvested
crop is prevented from also being targeted by the herbicide because the
seeds used are genetically modified to be resistant to the herbicide's
effects. It the world of agriculture, these seeds are known as 'RoundUp
ready.' ... It is estimated that by 2017 farmers will apply an astonishing
1.35 metric tons of glyphosate to their crops. But here's the problem:
Glyphosate residues represent a threat to human health. In the wheat
industry in particular, farmers saturate the fields with RoundUp a few days
before harvest to generate bigger and better yield. This suggests a new
perspective on gluten sensitivity: It just may be that the rise in gluten
intolerance and celiac disease is largely due to the increased use of
RoundUp. When you chart the incidence of celiac and the levels of
glyphosate applied to wheat over the last 25 years, a stunning parallel
pattern emerges." On page 174 there is a chart mapping Celiac incidence
nearly 1:1 with glyphosate on wheat.

Feeding Your Microbiome: Six Essential Keys to Boosting Your Brain by
Boosting Your Gut

Key #1: Choose Foods Rich in Probiotics

Key #2: Go Low-Carb, Embrace High-Quality Fat

Key #3: Enjoy Wine, Tea, Coffee, and Chocolate

Key #4: Choose Foods Rich in Prebiotics

Key #5: Drink Filtered Water

Key #6: Fast Every Season

Key #1: Choose Foods Rich in Probiotics - Pages 179-80 read "For much of
the world, fermented foods provide probiotic bacteria in the diet. ...
Civilizations didn't understand the mechanism behind the fermentation
process for centuries, but the health benefits associated with fermented
foods were well recognized. ... Kimchi, a popular and traditional Korean
side dish, is considered the national dish of Korea. ... Sauerkraut,
another form of fermented cabbage, remains popular throughout Central
Europe. Then there are fermented milk products like yogurt that have been
consumed for centuries around the world."

Pages 181-82 - read "Elie Mechnikov ... [recognized] a correlation between
the longevity of Bulgarian peasants and their consumption of fermented milk
products. ... He was a prolific writer, authoring three groundbreaking
books [including *The Prolongation of Life: Optimistic Studies*], ... which
documented in detail the unusually lengthy life spans of several
populations that regularly ate fermented foods and bacterial cultures
called kefirs. He made numerous observational records of centenarians who
were still leading active and healthy lives. And it was he who coined the
term 'probiotic' to describe beneficial bacteria."

Page 182 lists foods rich in probiotics: live-cultured yogurt; kefir;
kombucha tea; tempeh; kimchi; sauerkraut; pickles; pickled fruits and
vegetables; cultured condiments; fermented meat, fish, and eggs.

Pages 182-83 also read "Kefir. This fermented dairy product is very similar
to yogurt. It is a unique combination of kefir 'grains' (a combination of
yeast and bacteria) and goat's milk that's high in lactobacilli and
bifidobacteria. It is also rich in antioxidants. For those who are
sensitive to dairy or lactose intolerant, coconut kefir, a non-dairy
version, is also delicious and equally beneficial.

Kombucha tea. This is a form of fermented black tea that has been used for
centuries. Fizzy and often served chilled, it's also believed to help
increase energy, and even help you lose weight.

Tempeh. Many people, especially vegetarians, eat tempeh as a substitute for
meat. Tempeh is fermented soybeans is a complete protein, with all of the
amino acids. Overall, I'm not a big fan of soy products for a number of
reasons, but small amounts of tempeh are acceptable."

The rest of the list of probiotic foods is common sense commentary.

Key #2: Go low-carb, embrace high-quality fat. Page 188 reads "If you
haven't been able to connect the dots between low-carb, high-fat,
high-fiber, and the microbiome, let me spell it out for you. This
particular diet supplies the ingredients to nourish not only healthy
biology (and thus a healthy microbiome) but also a healthy brain. A diet
that keeps blood sugar balanced keeps gut bacteria balanced. A diet high in
sources of fiber, which you'll get from whole fruits and vegetables
[Editor's Note: Tablespoons chia seed are high in fiber, at times too much.
It, too, shall pass.], feeds the good gut bacteria and produces the right
balance of those short-chain fatty acids to keep gut lining in check. A
diet devoid of injurious gluten with further tip the scales in favor of
healthy gut ecology as well as healthy brain physiology. And a diet that's
intrinsically anti-inflammatory is good for the gut and brain."

Page 189 lists "Brain Maker foods:" vegetables, low-sugar fruit, fermented
foods, healthy fat, protein, and herbs, seasons, and condiments. The
commentary seemed to be very common sense.

Key #3: Enjoy Wine, Tea, Coffee, and Chocolate. Page 191 reads "In multiple
studies, adding polyphenols to the diet has been shown to significantly
reduce markers of oxidative stress, which in turn reduces the risk of
neurological ailments. The main dietary sources of polyphenols are fruits
and vegetables; plant-derived beverages, including coffee, red wine, and
tea; and chocolate. ... In one one particularly prominent four-week study,
subjects received either a high or low dose of flavonoids from the cocoa
plant. ... The group that consumed high doses of flavonoids had striking
increases in bifidobacteria as well as lactobacilli species, along with
pronounced decreases in Clostridia counts. These changes in gut bacteria
were accompanied by an unmistakable reduction in C-reactive protein, that
famous marker of inflammation associated with risk for disease."

Key #4: Choose foods rich in prebiotics. Page 194-96 read "It has been
estimated that for every 100 grams of consumed carbohydrates that qualify
as prebiotics, a full 30 grams of bacteria are produced. ... Below is the
list of top food sources of natural prebiotics. Acacia gum (or gum arabic),
raw chicory root, raw Jerusalem artichoke, raw dandelion greens, raw
garlic, raw leek, raw onion, cooked onion, raw asparagus."

Key #5: Drink filtered water. Page 196 reads "To avoid the gut-busting
chemicals like chlorine that are found in tap water, I recommend buying a
household water filter."

Key #6: Fast every season. Page 198 reads "One critical mechanism of the
human body is its ability to convert fat into vital fuel during times of
starvation. We can break down fat into specialized molecules called
ketones, and one in particular -- beta-hydroxybutyrate (beta-HBA) -- is a
superior fuel for the brain. ... Researchers have determined that beta-HBA,
which is easily obtainable just by adding coconut oil to your diet,
improves antioxidant function, increases the number of mitochondria, and
stimulates the growth of new cells."

Pages 199-200 read "But intermittent fasting--a complete restriction of
food for twenty-four to seventy-two hours at regular intervals throughout
the year-- is more manageable and can achieve the same results as calorie
restriction. ... My fasting protocol is simple: No food but lots of water
(avoid caffeine) for a twenty-four-hour period. If you take any
medications, by all means take them. ([P]lease consult your physician
first.) When you've established this Brain Maker diet for life and want to
fast for increased benefits, you can try a seventy-two hour fast. ... I
recommend fasting at least four times a year; fasting during the seasonal
changes (for example, the last week of September, December, March, and
June) is an excellent practice to keep."

Page 202-06 read "Go Pro - The Guide to Supplements" "Before I get to the
details of shopping for supplemental probiotics, let me share a story drawn
from my own patient files. ... Christopher came to se me when he was
thirteen years old. He had been diagnosed with Tourette syndrome at age 6
... [I]ssues commonly seen in Tourette patients include the following: ADHD
63 percent, depression in 25 percent, autistic spectrum disorder in 35
percent, and anxiety in 48 percent. There's also a profoundly increased
risk of Tourette syndrome in children with allergies. And allergies are a
hallmark of an imbalance in the gut bacteria and an increased risk of leaky
gut." "Back to Christopher." He had been put on antibiotics several times
as a child, in addition to being allergic to certain foods. A diet to
eliminate those foods seemed to make progress at first, but the promise
quickly faded. "I recommended to Christopher and his mother that instead of
taking probiotics orally, that they consider using a simple drug-store
enema enriched with six capsules of a probiotics supplement. ... She told
me that they did administer the enema and that within hours 'his body had
become calm.' She immediately asked me if they could increase the dosage. I
gave her the go-ahead, and she began administering 1200 billion units of
the probiotics daily by enema. Christopher's Tourette symptoms virtually
disappeared. ... I present this story not to offer up a 'cure' for the
disorder, for every individual's case is different. Rather, I use it to
illustrate the fundamental role of gut bacteria and the intricate
connections between a mysterious brain disorder -- in this case, Tourette
syndrome -- and the immune system."

Pages 206-07 read "Probiotics: Five Core Species" "To make the task of
finding and purchasing the right formulas as easy as possible, I've
simplified my recommendations to just five core probiotic species that are
widely available: *Lactobacillus plantarum*, *Lactobacillus
acidophilus*, *Lactobacillus
brevis*, *Bifidobacterium lactis*, and *Bifidobacterium lognum*. Different
strains provide different benefits, but these are the ones that will, as
we've been discussing since the beginning of the book, best support brain
health in these ways:

-Fortifying the intestinal lining and reducing gut permeability

-Reducing LPS, the inflammatory molecule that can be dangerous if it
reaches the bloodstream

-Increasing BDNF, the brain's growth hormone

-Sustaining and overall balance to crowd out any potentially rogue
bacterial colonies"

Page 208 reads "It's critical to take probiotics with filtered water,
otherwise you'll defeat their purpose. Chemicals, such as chlorine, that
are added to many sources of water to kill bad bacteria will also kill
good, probiotic bacteria."

Pages 211-12 read "Try a probiotic enema, with permission." "This won't be
for everyone, but I can't tell you how many patients have benefited from
this at-home procedure. It's the best way to introduce the probiotic
bacteria directly into the bowel. Enemas, one of the oldest remedies on the
planet and dating back to the ancient Egyptians and Mayans, are used to
flush out the lower bowel by injecting fluid into the rectum. (The word
enema is Greek for '*inject*.') They are also used to administer certain
medicinal therapies directly into the colon. It's imperative that you get
clearance from you doctor before using an enema so that you don't harm
yourself. Once you've gotten the go-ahead, here's what you'll need:

-enema bag

-3-6 probiotic capsules or 1/8 teaspoon powdered probiotic (Make sure they
include bifidiobacteria, as these are the dominant flora in the colon,
whereas acidophilus prefer the small intestine.)

-filtered (chlorine-free) water

-Lubricant (optional)

-Privacy

Plan to perform your enema in the morning after having a bowel movement.
Fill a large cup with 12 ounces of lukewarm, filtered water. Break open the
probiotic capsules and empty the probiotics into the water, stirring to
dissolve. Fill the enema bag with probiotic mixture, and close the bag
using the clap that comes with the device. Lie down flat on your side
(either side is fine) on a towel or in the bathtub. Instet the nozzle tip
into your recutm (use a lubricant if that helps). Holding the bag higher
than the nozzle, release the clamp so that the water flows into the colon.
Try to hold the enema for 30 minutes if possible.

How often I recommend this procedure depends on the specific needs of the
patient. In someone who has had aggressive antibiotic therapy, for example,
I'd prescribe probiotic enemas as often as three times weekly for 4 to 6
weeks and then reassess the situation. Your personal treatment plan will
depend on your own situation; ask your healthcare provider for a
recommendation."

Pages 214-15 read "Additional Supplements to Consider" They list DHA,
turmeric, coconut oil, alpha-lipoic acid, and vitamin D. Except for vitamin
D, none of their commentary is especially insightful when compared to
Google as an encyclopedia. I am already on all of them except for turmeric.

The exegesis on vitamin D stands out as exceptional, however: We "know
there are receptors for vitamin D throughout the entire central nervous
system; we also know that vitamin D helps regulate enzymes in the brain and
cerebrospinal fluid that are involved in manufacturing neurotransmitters
and stimulating nerve growth. Both animal and human studies have indicated
that vitamin D protects neurons from the damaging effects of free radicals
and reduces inflammation. And here's a most important fact: vitamin D
performs all of these tasks through its regulation of the gut bacteria.
Only in 2010 did we find out that gut bacteria interact with our vitamin D
receptors, controlling them to either increase their activity or turn it
down."

Page 217 is the Brain Maker 7-Day Meal Plan with recipes. It is a reason to
purchase the book.

Editor's conclusion: I started out to study /r/nootropics
<https://www.reddit.com/r/nootropics> for clarity of mind. What I needed
was a total health program of action. I ran the gauntlet of complementary
healthcare. If you will please pardon my soapbox, it would be my privilege
to share with you the best of what I learned: https://docdro.id/yEo9oWY
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