[nafex] Encouraging lower scaffolds
Jwlehman at aol.com
Jwlehman at aol.com
Tue Apr 29 22:41:35 EDT 2014
In a message dated 4/27/2014 2:21:55 P.M. Eastern Daylight Time,
burdrs at gmail.com writes:
I have 3 to 5 year old apples that have few lower scaffolds. I want to
encourage lower scaffolds in these areas of bare trunk. I have not done
scoring before and would like to get advice on how best to proceed if this will
be my best option: timing, tips on how to do it, etc. I have found
information on line but the nuances of how to do it are lacking.
An article was sent which may help you. It was sent as an attached file.
It didn't get through ibiblio. So Here it is in the message body:
USING CUTS TO INFLUENCE FRUIT TREES
Jerry Lehman, 7780 Persimmon St. Terre Haute, IN 47802-4994
One of the places visited while on the 1991 NAFEX trip to Russia was the
botanical gardens at Kiev. There we saw a lot of work being done with form
gardening or espalier. Dr. Ivan M. Shaitan took us through the gardens and
explained what we were seeing. He gave us copies of a book he had written
titled, Beautiful Gardens that Bear. Professor Elena Merenova Who teaches the
Russian language at a local college contributed by doing the direct
translation. Elena is an educator not a horticulturist, which made translating
this subject matter challenging for us. If there is sufficient interest within
NAFEX members we would be willing to translate more of Dr. Shaitan's book.
Dr. Shaitan; In form gardening we often need to fill empty space in the
tree being formed. The following methods can be used.
CROSSWISE CUTS are made above the buds in order to increase their
vegetative growth. Cut a strip of bark (3-4 mm) with the wood. If the cut is done
under the bud it will prevent it from forming a vegetative shoot. A cut
under a strong branch will weaken its growth. We recommend to make the cuts at
the end of March or at the beginning of April. [Kiev is at about the same
latitude as Regina, Saskatchewan, with a slightly more moderate climate
according to my atlas--GW, Pomona Editor]
GROOVlNG CUTS can be used to increase the growth in thickness of trunk and
skeleton branches. Make longitudinal cuts with the help of an orchard
knife, also remove some sap-wood with the bark. On the place of the cut, new
tissues will appear and this part will become thicker. This type of cutting
is made in a faltering line.
Grooving cuts could be used also to treat wounds, tumor growths or
mechanical damage of the bark. In such cases the cuts are made approximately 10 cm
(4 inches) above the wounds and end below the wound.
Grooving cuts should be done in the beginning of the vegetative period
from the northem (shadow) side of the tree. Do not use this method on the old
trees with broken bark, which grow slowly.
CIRCULAR CUTS of the bark are recommended for strong growing branches in
order to turn them into fruiting limbs. The accumulation of plastic
substances [sugars?] (assimilants) results in the forming of flower, buds, In case
of the presence of pollinated flowers the fruits become bigger and are
ripened earlier. Circular cuts are also used in the formation of palmates on
strong central bearers which have overgrown the height of the formation of the
With the help of the orchard knife or special secateurs which can take a
part of the wood along with the bark, remove the bark (4-8 mm wide [0.25
inch, more or less]) in the form of a circle or spiral cut. This operation is
usually done in Mayor in 20 to 30 days after total blossoming of the trees
to favor the making of flower buds. The wounds from circular cuts heal up
(close) in one to two years. To improve this process you can cover them with
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