[nafex] Encouraging lower scaffolds

Jwlehman at aol.com Jwlehman at aol.com
Tue Apr 29 22:41:35 EDT 2014

In a message dated 4/27/2014 2:21:55 P.M. Eastern Daylight Time,  
burdrs at gmail.com writes:

I have 3  to 5 year old apples that have few lower scaffolds. I want to 
encourage lower  scaffolds in these areas of bare trunk. I have not done 
scoring before and  would like to get advice on how best to proceed if this will 
be my best  option: timing, tips on how to do it, etc. I have found 
information on line  but the nuances of how to do it are  lacking.


Hello Randy,
An article was sent which may help you. It was sent as an  attached file. 
It didn't get through ibiblio. So Here it is in the message body:  

Jerry Lehman, 7780 Persimmon St. Terre Haute, IN 47802-4994
One of the places visited while on the 1991 NAFEX trip to Russia was the  
botanical gardens at Kiev. There we saw a lot of work being done with form  
gardening or espalier. Dr. Ivan M. Shaitan took us through the gardens and  
explained what we were seeing. He gave us copies of a book he had written  
titled, Beautiful Gardens that Bear. Professor Elena Merenova Who teaches the  
Russian language at a local college contributed by doing the direct 
translation.  Elena is an educator not a horticulturist, which made translating 
this subject  matter challenging for us. If there is sufficient interest within 
NAFEX members  we would be willing to translate more of Dr. Shaitan's book.
Dr. Shaitan; In form gardening we often need to fill empty space in the  
tree being formed. The following methods can be used.

CROSSWISE CUTS are made above the buds in order to  increase their 
vegetative growth. Cut a strip of bark (3-4 mm) with the wood. If  the cut is done 
under the bud it will prevent it from forming a vegetative  shoot. A cut 
under a strong branch will weaken its growth. We recommend to make  the cuts at 
the end of March or at the beginning of April. [Kiev is at about the  same 
latitude as Regina, Saskatchewan, with a slightly more moderate climate  
according to my atlas--GW, Pomona Editor]

GROOVlNG CUTS can be used to increase the growth in  thickness of trunk and 
skeleton branches. Make longitudinal cuts with the help  of an orchard 
knife, also remove some sap-wood with the bark. On the place of  the cut, new 
tissues will appear and this part will become thicker. This type of  cutting 
is made in a faltering line.
Grooving cuts could be used also to  treat wounds, tumor growths or 
mechanical damage of the bark. In such cases the  cuts are made approximately 10 cm 
(4 inches) above the wounds and end below the  wound.
Grooving cuts should be done in the beginning of the vegetative period  
from the northem (shadow) side of the tree. Do not use this method on the old  
trees with broken bark, which grow slowly.

CIRCULAR CUTS of the bark are recommended for strong  growing branches in 
order to turn them into fruiting limbs. The accumulation of  plastic 
substances [sugars?] (assimilants) results in the forming of flower,  buds, In case 
of the presence of pollinated flowers the fruits become bigger and  are 
ripened earlier. Circular cuts are also used in the formation of palmates on  
strong central bearers which have overgrown the height of the formation of the 
 next layer.
With the help of the orchard knife or special secateurs which can  take a 
part of the wood along with the bark, remove the bark (4-8 mm wide [0.25  
inch, more or less]) in the form of a circle or spiral cut. This operation is  
usually done in Mayor in 20 to 30 days after total blossoming of the trees 
to  favor the making of flower buds. The wounds from circular cuts heal up 
(close)  in one to two years. To improve this process you can cover them with 
grafting  wax.

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