[nafex] [nafex ibiblio list] Eleagnus umbellata, Autumn Olive - interested in sources for seedlings of this plant

Lawrence F. London, Jr. lflj at bellsouth.net
Tue Jan 17 13:48:53 EST 2012

On 1/17/2012 12:47 PM, Hector Black wrote:
> could you remind me in sept? and send address.  hector
> ----- Original Message -----
> From: "Lawrence F. London, Jr."<lflj at bellsouth.net>

>> Eleagnus umbellata, Autumn Olive
>> I am interested in sources for seedlings of this plant.
>> I would be interested in purchasing a few seedlings if anyone in this
>> list can ship them to me. I am in the Piedmont region of North Carolina.

Thanks Hector, I appreciate the offer. I will be sure to contact you in 
September 2012 with an order.

Have you see the information about Eleagnus in Plants For A Future?
It lists much information on its medicinal uses.

they spell eleagnus "elaeagnus"
Elaeagnus umbellata	Autumn Olive	Elaeagnaceae	E. crispa.
Edibility rating 4    Medicinal rating 2

More information from its page:

Common Name 	Autumn Olive
Family 	Elaeagnaceae
Synonyms 	E. crispa.
Known Hazards 	E. umbellata has the potential of becoming one of the 
most troublesome adventive shrubs in the central and eastern United States.
Habitats 	Thickets and thin woods in the lowland and hills[58].
Range 	E. Asia - China, Japan, Himalayas.
Edibility Rating 4
Medicinal Rating 2	
Fully Hardy 	Well drained soil 	Moist Soil 	Full sun


Physical Characteristics 	
  icon of manicon of shrub
Elaeagnus umbellata is a deciduous Shrub growing to 4.5 m (14ft) by 4 m 
(13ft) at a medium rate.
It is hardy to zone 3 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from May 
to June, and the seeds ripen from Sep to November. The flowers are 
hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by 
Bees.It can fix Nitrogen.
It is noted for attracting wildlife.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, 
requires well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil.The 
plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils..It cannot grow 
in the shade.It requires dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.The 
plant can tolerate maritime exposure.
Elaeagnus umbellata Autumn Olive 	

Elaeagnus umbellata Autumn Olive
Woodland Garden Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade; Hedge;
Edible Uses 	
Edible Parts: Fruit;  Seed.

Fruit - raw or cooked[2, 46, 105]. Juicy and pleasantly acid, they are 
tasty raw and can also be made into jams, preserves etc[160, 183, 194]. 
The fruit must be fully ripe before it can be enjoyed raw, if even 
slightly under-ripe it will be quite astringent[K]. The fruit contains 
about 8.3% sugars, 4.5% protein, 1% ash[194]. The vitamin C content is 
about 12mg per 100g[194]. Mature bushes in the wild yield about 650g of 
fruit over 2 - 3 pickings[194]. The harvested fruit stores for about 15 
days at room temperature[194]. The fruit is about 8mm in diameter[200] 
and contains a single large seed[K]. Seed - raw or cooked[194]. It can 
be eaten with the fruit though the seed case is rather fibrous[160].
Medicinal Uses

Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse 
effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional 
before using a plant medicinally.

Astringent;  Cancer;  Cardiac;  Pectoral;  Stimulant.

The flowers are astringent, cardiac and stimulant[240]. The seeds are 
used as a stimulant in the treatment of coughs[240]. The expressed oil 
from the seeds is used in the treatment of pulmonary affections[240]. 
The fruit of many members of this genus is a very rich source of 
vitamins and minerals, especially in vitamins A, C and E, flavanoids and 
other bio-active compounds. It is also a fairly good source of essential 
fatty acids, which is fairly unusual for a fruit. It is being 
investigated as a food that is capable of reducing the incidence of 
cancer and also as a means of halting or reversing the growth of 
Other Uses
Fuel;  Hedge;  Hedge.

Very tolerant of maritime exposure, it makes a good informal hedge, 
succeeding even in very exposed positions[75]. The plants make a 
reasonable wind-protecting screen, they are about as wide as they are 
tall. They make a good companion hedge, enriching the soil and 
fertilizing neighbouring plants[K]. The wood is a good fuel[146].
Cultivation details 	
Succeeds in most soils that are well-drained[11, 200], though it 
dislikes shallow chalk soils[98]. It prefers a soil that is only 
moderately fertile, succeeding in very poor soils and in dry soils[11, 
200]. Prefers a light sandy loam and a sunny position[11]. Established 
plants are very drought resistant[1]. A very hardy plant, tolerating 
temperatures down to at least -40°c[200]. This species is somewhat 
similar to E. multiflora, but it flowers a few weeks later[182]. 
Sometimes cultivated for its edible fruit, there are some named 
varieties[183]. 'Cardinal' and 'Red Wing' are very good fruiting forms 
(developed for ornament and not for fruit quality)[182]. 'Jazbo' has 
been bred for its edible fruits which are said to be ripe when 'they 
drop into your hand'[214]. This makes them valuable in breeding 
programmes to develop easily harvested fruits[214]. Flowers are rich in 
nectar and very aromatic, they are much visited by bees. Polymorphic[11, 
275]. This species is notably resistant to honey fungus[88, 200]. Plants 
can fruit in 6 years from seed[160]. This species has a symbiotic 
relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on 
the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is 
utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants 
growing nearby[160, 200]. An excellent companion plant, when grown in 
orchards it can increase yields from the fruit trees by up to 10%.

Seed - best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame[78]. It should 
germinate in late winter or early spring, though it may take 18 
months[K]. Stored seed can be very slow to germinate, often taking more 
than 18 months. A warm stratification for 4 weeks followed by 12 weeks 
cold stratification can help[98]. The seed usually (eventually) 
germinates quite well[78]. Prick out the seedlings into individual pot 
as soon as they are large enough to handle and plant out when they are 
at least 15cm tall. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 7 - 10cm with a heel, 
July/August in a frame. Good percentage[78]. Cuttings of mature wood of 
the current year's growth, 10 - 12cm with a heel, November in a frame. 
Leave for 12 months. Fair to good percentage[78]. Layering in 
September/October. Takes 12 months[78].
Expert comment 	


Botanical References 	

Links / References 	

   [K] Ken Fern Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A 
Future and on field trips.

[1]F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956
Comprehensive listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat 
outdated, it has been replaces in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).
[2]Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World.
Lots of entries, quite a lot of information in most entries and references.
[11]Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and 
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
[46]Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants.
An excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short 
descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the 
plants. Not for the casual reader.
[58]Ohwi. G. Flora of Japan. (English translation)
The standard work. Brilliant, but not for the casual reader.
[75]Rosewarne experimental horticultural station. Shelter Trees and Hedges.
A small booklet packed with information on trees and shrubs for hedging 
and shelterbelts in exposed maritime areas.
[78]Sheat. W. G. Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers.
A bit dated but a good book on propagation techniques with specific 
details for a wide range of plants.
[88]RHS. The Garden. Volume 112.
Snippets of information from the magazine of the RHS. In particular, 
there are articles on plants that are resistant to honey fungus, 
oriental vegetables, Cimicifuga spp, Passiflora species and Cucurbits.
[98]Gordon. A. G. and Rowe. D. C. f. Seed Manual for Ornamental Trees 
and Shrubs.
Very comprehensive guide to growing trees and shrubs from seed. Not for 
the casual reader.
[105]Tanaka. T. Tanaka's Cyclopaedia of Edible Plants of the World.
The most comprehensive guide to edible plants I've come across. Only the 
briefest entry for each species, though, and some of the entries are 
more than a little dubious. Not for the casual reader.
[146]Gamble. J. S. A Manual of Indian Timbers.
Written last century, but still a classic, giving a lot of information 
on the uses and habitats of Indian trees. Not for the casual reader.
[160]Natural Food Institute, Wonder Crops. 1987.
Fascinating reading, this is an annual publication. Some reports do seem 
somewhat exaggerated though.
[182]Thomas. G. S. Ornamental Shrubs, Climbers and Bamboos.
Contains a wide range of plants with a brief description, mainly of 
their ornamental value but also usually of cultivation details and 
[183]Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants.
Excellent. Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional 
food plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly 
N. American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other 
nurseries from around the world.
[194]Parmar. C. and Kaushal. M.K. Wild Fruits of the Sub-Himalayan Region.
Contains lots of information on about 25 species of fruit-bearing plants 
of the Himalayas, not all of them suitable for cool temperate zones.
[200]Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992.
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly 
mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
[214]Matthews. V. The New Plantsman. Volume 1, 1994.
A quarterly magazine, it has articles on Himalayacalamus hookerianus, 
hardy Euphorbias and an excellent article on Hippophae spp.
[240]Chopra. R. N., Nayar. S. L. and Chopra. I. C. Glossary of Indian 
Medicinal Plants (Including the Supplement).
Very terse details of medicinal uses of plants with a wide range of 
references and details of research into the plants chemistry. Not for 
the casual reader.
[275] Flora of Japan
An on-line version of the flora - an excellent resource.

Readers comment 	

Elizabeth H.
Jim Watkins 	Sun Aug 20 2006
Sorry, you have it backwards. Many people do this. If the fruit is red 
its Autumn Olive. Russian Olive is Elaeagnus Angustifolia. It has yellow 
flowers and yellow fruit.
Elizabeth H.
Jonathan Kohrman 	Sun Apr 22 2007
WE have several elaeagnus umbelata grown from small bareroot plants. 
After only three years they are getting very large, great handsome 
plants. Last summer they were all covered in berries. Once they turned 
deep red they were delicious, like sweet sour cherries or even 
pomegranate seeds. Our children (and we) loved them and would pop great 
big handfuls in our mouths. They hung on the bushes and stayed fresh for 
well over a month. Great fun! We are in zone 5 Western Massachusetts.
Elizabeth H.
Kevin Feinstein 	Mon Sep 3 2007
This plant is amazing! It's considered to be invasive in many parts of 
the United States, although I believe this label arises out of 
misunderstanding. It's a pioneer plant, and offers such an amazing food 
source, containing Omega 3 fatty acids! If it were a tropical species, I 
believe it would be marketed as a gourmet health food, or superfood. 
Instead, the economies of the more "developed" world make their income 
from this Elaeagnus by spraying poisons to eliminate it. I also find it 
interesting that it's considered invasive at all because I can't get any 
of the seeds to germinate.

feralkevin video and commentary from the emerging sustainable culture
Elizabeth H.
Stewart Forrester 	Sat Sep 8 2007

USDA Agricultural Research Site Researchers have analyzed these berries 
and found very high lycopene content-averaging between 15 and 54 mg per 
100 g of the fruit.
Elizabeth H.
Mark 	Tue Sep 18 2007
I have 4 of these trees/bushs(?) and I the deer and the birds find them 
delicious. I live in Rhode Island and am now trying to make Mead out of 
the berries. I am also considering introduceing them to an edge along a 
new construction that has cut off the deer from my property :( I have no 
problems with them spreading like weeds and they don't have any thorns 
or tendrils. So I am unclear on what exact species I have. Here they are 
refered to as Deer Berries. Which is one reason it has taken me a year 
to find out what they actually are. This is a great picture of what my 
plants look like. http://www.hort.uconn.edu/Plants/e/elaumb/elaumb07.jpg 
http://www.fw.vt.edu/DENDRO/dendrology/syllabus/factsheet.cfm?ID=269 I 
will be trimming one of these to tree shape and see how it does next 
year. At the moment it droops to ground when bearing fruit. Rhode Island 
2 inches soil sand underneath. Grows healthey and none invasive. Approx 
15ft tall 13 ft wide. Refered to as:Deer Berry, DeerBerry,Deer Berries, 
Elizabeth H.
Rob 	Thu Dec 6 2007
I am wondering about using autumn olive as a animal forage (goat). Has 
anyone tried this?
Elizabeth H.
	Mon Dec 8 2008
how did the elaeagnus umbellate come to new england
Elizabeth H.
Scott DiLoreto 	Sat Feb 14 2009
Is anyone out there aware of any active autumn olive breeding efforts, 
either for human food or forage purposes? Thanks
Elizabeth H.
Robert Gergulics 	Sat Apr 11 2009

Elizabeth H.
	Fri Dec 4 2009
What date did Elaeagnus Umbellate (Autumn Olive) arive in New England?
Tibi D.
	Sep 26 2011 12:00AM
Eleagnus Umbellata grows very fast here in Pacific Northwest. My 3 year 
old plants are already more than 4m tall. The problem with my 2 bushes 
is that they have not produced any fruit yet. I also have Goumi and it 
produced fruit when it was one year old.

Thanks again and thanks to PFAF,

Lawrence London

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