[nafex ibiblio list] NAFEX fora

Lawrence F. London, Jr. lflj at bellsouth.net
Tue Dec 20 23:36:49 EST 2011

On 12/20/2011 9:11 PM, Claude Jolicoeur wrote:

> And as Rivka says, the Pomona printed journal has
> taken a lot of its material from the list - and
> as far as I recall, even issues not that old
> still used material from this list

For what its worth there are other forums where useful information may 
be gleaned and used in publications. Here are fruit archives I put 
together over the years, mostly back in the 1990's:
Among other documents this contains saved articles from two Usenet 
newsgroups, sci.agriculture.fruit and alt.agriculture.fruit, when they 
were active. There may be much useful material in this archive, all 
viewable online or downloadable. This kind of thing used to be freely 
distributed on the Internet often as arrays of FAQs. The Usenet 
newsgroup archives will need to be downloaded and viewed with an ascii 
text editor (wordpad, textpad or other). There's plenty of spam mixed in 
with the good articles, unfortunately.

Here are samples of the content:

	Dr.Razbys.Berry-News	19-Apr-1995 23:10	2.9K
	raspberry.faq	19-Apr-1995 23:08	 10K
	raspberry.growing+research	19-Apr-1995 23:09	4.5K
	wild-blueberry.faq	19-Apr-1995 23:08	 11K
	Dr.Razbys-berry-info/	20-Apr-1995 00:59	 -
	Fruit-Newsgroup.draft-FAQ	15-Aug-1996 23:06	1.7K
	INDEX	23-Apr-1995 23:28	268
	The-Mighty-Lingonberry.by-R.E.Gough	03-Oct-1994 10:45	9.6K
	blueberry.faq	18-Jul-1994 13:29	6.0K
	currant-facts.RB	03-Nov-1999 21:58	 17K
	fruit-tree-grafting.faq.1-95	30-Jul-1993 21:59	5.1K
	fruit.tree.grafting.faq	09-Aug-1993 19:03	4.8K
	gardening-FAQs.txt	31-Oct-1999 16:08	6.5K
	rare-fruit.faq	01-Aug-1993 22:04	2.0K
	some-gardening-FAQs-on-the-Web	31-Oct-1999 16:08	4.3K
	tangerine-mandarin.faq	03-Mar-1994 13:11	 32K
	tangerine.faq	17-Feb-1993 11:11	4.4K
	tangerine.faq.new	23-Apr-1993 22:43	 18K

Date: 23 Apr 93 17:29:13 EDT
From: Rick Harrison <71174.2735 at CompuServe.COM>
Subject: Tangerine FAQ [revised]

         Rick Harrison, PO Box 54-7014, Orlando FL 32854, USA
Internet e-mail: 71174.2735 at compuserve.com        phone: 407-645-3031

Mandarins/tangerines are citrus fruits and trees of the species
_Citrus_reticulata_ Blanco.  They are distinguished from other citrus
species by the relatively loose skin of the fruits, the relative ease
with which the segments can be separated, and (in most cultivars) the
green cotyledons.  Most varieties also contain chemical compounds not
found in other citrus species: _thymol_ in the leaves and _tangeretin_
in the fruits.  Some experts consider the varieties King, Satsuma,
Cleopatra and Ponkan to be separate species unto themselves.

If you live in an area that doesn't have hard freezes, you can grow
tangerine trees outdoors; they usually require little attention after
they have established themselves.  In colder areas, they can be grown
in greenhouses or in portable containers.  Although I am trying to
gather data on all known varieties, I have limited this list to
varieties readily available in the United States and varieties of
commercial importance elsewhere.

hardiness = tolerance to cold; season = when the fruit is ripe (this
varies depending on climate); holds = how well the fruit lasts on the
tree after maturing; size, shape, base, apex, etc. = description of fruit

| mandarins |

    variety: Clementine (a.k.a. Algerian)
       tree: medium, spreading or weeping habit, nearly thornless
     leaves: dark green above and lighter on underside; dense foliage
     season: Dec Jan Feb
      holds: well
       size: medium, diam. 2 to 2.5, height 2 to 2.75
      shape: globose to ovoid, somewhat irregular
       base: evenly rounded to slightly necked, with radiating furrows
       apex: depressed
       axis: large, hollow
      color: deep orange-red
    surface: smooth, glossy, slightly pitted
       rind: medium thick, 1/8 to 3/16, loose
oil glands: prominent, large, elliptical, depressions over primary ones
   segments: 8 to 12, slight adherence
       pulp: tender, melting, deep orange
     flavor: sweet
      seeds: 0 to 6, medium size, oblong to fusiform; embryo pistache green
    history: discov in Algeria, came to FL 1909
      notes: seedless and self-fertile in some relatively arid climates, 
             requires pollination from Dancy, Kinnow, Orlando, Valencia 
in FL;
             produces best fruit in deserts of California and Arizona; an
             important commercial variety in the Mediterranean area

    variety: Cleopatra (a.k.a. Spice)
       tree: low, spreading, dense foliage, attractive
     leaves: small, dark green
     season: Jan Feb
       size: small, up to 2 inch diam.
      shape: oblate
       base: flat
       apex: depressed, generally navel marked
      color: deep red-orange
    surface: somewhat rough
       rind: very loose, up to 1/8 thick
       pulp: coarse-grained, orange
     flavor: tart
      seeds: numerous, small
    history: came from Jamaica to Florida before 1888
      notes: used as rootstock for other varieties; possibly identical
             with Ponki, which is used as a rootstock in Japan

    variety: Dancy (formerly a.k.a. Moragne, Bijou)
  hardiness: hardy
       tree: medium-large, erect, nearly thornless
     leaves: broadly lanceolate, 3 to 4.75 inches long
     season: Nov Dec Jan
      holds: fair
       size: medium, diam. 2.25 to 3, height 1.5 to 2.125
      shape: oblate
       base: usually necked, more or less corrugated
       apex: broadly depressed
      color: deep red-orange
    surface: smooth, glossy
       rind: thin, 1/8 to 3/16, leathery, easily removed
   segments: 10 to 14, easily separated
       pulp: melting, tender, dark orange
   vesicles: short, broad, relatively large
     flavor: rich and sprightly, pleasant aroma
      seeds: 6 to 20, short, blunt or beaked; cotyledons pistache green
    history: introduced into cultivation 1871
      notes: Does best in Florida.  Recently this variety's susceptibility
             to alternaria has been a problem in commercial groves.

    variety: Dweet
   category: mandarin (hybrid: Dancy x Mediterranean)
       tree: medium, open habit
     season: late
       size: medium-large
      shape: ovoid with a slight neck
      color: red-orange
     flavor: rich
      notes: does well in coastal and interior California

    variety: Emperor
     season: Nov Dec Jan Feb
       size: large, avg. diam. 2.5, height 1.75
      shape: oblate, sometimes has a "neck"
      color: pale orange
       base: sometimes necked
       rind: moderately thin, easy to peel
   segments: 9 to 10, sometimes irregular
       pulp: pale orange color
      seeds: 10 to 16, long and pointed
      notes: widely grown in Australia early in 20th century

    variety: Encore
   category: mandarin (hybrid: King x Mediterranean)
       tree: medium, upright/spreading habit, few or no thorns
     season: Mar Apr May Jun
      holds: well
      color: yellow-orange speckled with dark orange-to-brown spots
       rind: easily peeled
     flavor: rich
      seeds: many
    history: introduced by University of California at Riverside;
             consumers often assume the dark spots on the rind are
             a sign of decay

    variety: Honey
   category: mandarin (hybrid: King x Mediterranean)
       tree: medium-to-large, vigorous, spreading
     season: early
      holds: well
       size: small to medium
      color: yellow-orange
       rind: easily peeled
     flavor: very sweet
      seeds: many
      notes: beware of name confusion; Murcott tangors are sometimes
             called "Honey tangerines"; Minneola is a.k.a. Honeybell.
             Honey is a commercial variety in California.

    variety: Kara
   category: mandarin (hybrid: Owari Satsuma x King)
  hardiness: sensitive
       tree: medium, vigorous, spreading, nearly thornless
     leaves: large, dark green, with drooping habit
     season: Mar Apr May
      holds: fair
       size: medium, diam. 2 to 3, height 2.125 to 2.75
      shape: medium oblate to nearly globose, often somewhat conical
      color: orange
    surface: moderately grained
       rind: thin-to-medium, 1/8 to 1/5, loose, tough
oil glands: numerous, medium size; oil is abundant, aromatic
     flavor: rich flavor, strong pleasant unique aroma
      seeds: 12 to 20, plump, yellow-tinged or yellow-green cotyledons
    history: H B Frost, CA Citrus Experiment Station, 1935
      notes: best in interior California; sometimes grown for its juice

    variety: King (a.k.a. King of Siam)
  hardiness: hardy
       tree: upright, medium size, relatively open foliage
     leaves: large, 3 to 4.25, broadly lanceolate, margins slightly crenate
     season: Mar Apr May
       size: large, diam. 2.5 to 3.75, height 2.25 to 3.5 inches
      shape: oblate to near spherical
       base: rounded or somewhat necked, wrinkled with short radiating 
       apex: flattened or depressed, marked by characteristic areole
      color: yellow-orange to orange
    surface: rough and bumpy
       rind: thick, 3/16 to 5/16, tight but easily removed
oil glands: large, depressions over main ones give finely pitted appearance
     flavor: rich and sprightly
      seeds: 5 to 15 or more, fusiform, plump, beaked, white cotyledons
    history: from Saigon to Riverside CA 1880; to Winter Park FL 1882
      notes: susceptible to sun scald due to thin foliage, limb breakage 
             to over-bearing; might be identical to Kunenbo grown in Japan

    variety: Kinnow
   category: mandarin (hybrid: King x Willow-leaf)
  hardiness: very hardy
       tree: vigorous, large, erect, dense
     leaves: medium size, rather thin and pliable
     season: Jan Feb Mar Apr
      holds: well
       size: medium, diam. 2.125 to 3, height 2 to 2.5
      shape: slightly oblate
      color: deep yellow-orange
    surface: smooth, glossy, easily scars
       rind: thin, 1/8, leathery, fairly easy to peel
oil glands: conspicuous, oil is abundant and aromatic
     flavor: rich, high sugar and moderate acid, unique pleasant aroma
      seeds: 12 to 24, medium size, yellowish cotyledons
    history: H B Frost, CA Citrus Experiment Station, 1935
      notes: reportedly has outstanding flavor, attractive appearance;
             probably will do better in CA and AZ than in FL

    variety: Pixie
   category: mandarin (offspring of Kincy)
       tree: medium-large, with erect open habit
     season: Apr May Jun
       size: small to medium
      color: yellow-orange
       rind: easily peeled
     flavor: mild
      seeds: none

    variety: Ponkan (a.k.a. Warnurco, Chinese Honey Orange, Batangas)
  hardiness: hardy? tender? (different sources give different data)
       tree: small, upright
     season: Nov Dec
      holds: fair
       size: large, diam. 2.75 to 3.25
      shape: globose to oblate
       base: flattened or somewhat necked, with irregular furrows
       apex: deeply depressed, with radiating furrows, sometimes with navel
       axis: large, hollow
      color: orange
    surface: smooth or finely papillate
       rind: medium thick, loosely adherent
     flavor: sweet, aromatic
      seeds: few, small, plump, nearly smooth; green embryos
    history: from China to FL 1892

    variety: Satsuma (a.k.a. Unshiu)
  hardiness: very hardy (to 12'F when dormant)
       tree: small to medium, spreading, slow-growing
     leaves: (depends on strain)
     season: Sep Oct Nov
       size: medium to large
      shape: oblate to spherical or slightly conical
      color: orange to yellow-orange
    surface: slightly rough
       rind: thin, 1/8 to 3/16, tight but easily peeled
oil glands: large and numerous
     flavor: good, low acid
      seeds: few
    history: originated in Japan circa 1600, Japan to USA 1876
      notes: pulp ripens before rind changes color; there are many 
             strains, including Owari, Wase, Ikeda, Mikado; rootstock and
             soil influence fruit quality; mutations and throwbacks common

    variety: Wilking
   category: mandarin (hybrid: King x Willow-leaf)
  hardiness: hardy
       tree: medium, vigorous, columnar, dense
     leaves: medium size, up to 4.75 inches long
     season: Jan Feb Mar Apr
      holds: fair
       size: medium, diam. 2.125 to 3.125, height 1.75 to 3
      shape: oblate
      color: deep yellow-orange
    surface: coarsely grained to nearly smooth
       rind: thin to medium, 1/8 to 1/6, brittle, loose
oil glands: medium size, numerous, conspicuous; oil abundant, aromatic
     flavor: rich, good, high sugar, moderate acid, distinctive aroma
      seeds: 10 to 17, mostly plump, yellow-green cotyledons
    history: developed by H Frost, CA Citrus Experiment Station, 1935

    variety: Willow-leaf (a.k.a. Mediterranean, China)
  hardiness: hardy
       tree: small to medium, broad, with fine willowy branches
     leaves: small, narrow, lanceolate
     season: Nov Dec Jan
      holds: poorly
       size: medium, diam. 2 to 2.5, height 1.75 to 2.25
      shape: oblate to globose
      color: yellow-orange
    surface: smooth, glossy, segmentation visible
       rind: thin, 1/16 to 1/8, loose
     flavor: sweet, flavorful, distinctly aromatic
      seeds: 15 to 20
    history: from Italy to Louisiana circa 1845
      notes: needs a hot, non-humid climate for best fruit

| tangerine x tangelo hybrids |

    variety: Fairchild
   category: (hybrid: Clementine x Orlando)
       tree: medium, rounded, dense, nearly thornless
     season: early
      holds: fair
       size: medium-size
      color: deep orange
     flavor: sweet, rich
      seeds: many
    history: developed by J R Furr, released 1964
      notes: does best in the low deserts of California and Arizona;
             needs to be pollinated by other mandarins for best production

    variety: Lee
   category: (hybrid: Clementine x Orlando)
  hardiness: hardy
     season: Oct Nov Dec
       size: medium
    surface: smooth
       rind: adherent
     flavor: good
    history: developed by F E Gardner, released by USDA 1959
      notes: pulp ripens before peel develops full orange color

    variety: Nova
   category: (hybrid: Clementine x Orlando)
     season: early
       size: medium to large
      shape: oblate
      color: orange
       rind: medium-thick, adherent but peelable
    history: developed by F E Gardner, released by USDA in 1964

    variety: Page
   category: (hybrid: Minneola x Clementine)
       tree: medium, round, dense foliage, few thorns
     season: Nov Dec
      holds: well
       size: small-to-medium
      shape: nearly spherical (can pass for an orange)
      color: orange
       rind: medium-thin
     flavor: rich
    history: developed by F E Gardner, released by USDA 1963
      notes: produces best fruit when pollinated by other varieties;
             "great choice for fresh juice lovers"

    variety: Robinson
   category: (hybrid: Clementine x Orlando)
  hardiness: hardy
     season: Oct Nov Dec
      color: yellow-orange to orange
       size: medium
     flavor: mild (actually _bland_ in my humble opinion)
    history: developed by F E Gardner, introduced in 1959
      notes: best when pollinated by a tangelo or tangor; susceptible to
             twig and stem dieback

    variety: Sunburst
   category: (hybrid: Robinson x Osceola)
  hardiness: hardy
     season: Nov Dec Jan
     flavor: sweet
    history: introduced in 1979, developed by Dr. C. Jack Hearn
      notes: best when pollinated by other varieties; resistant to
             citrus snow scale; vulnerable to citrus rust mite

| tangelos |

    variety: K-Early
   category: probably a tangelo
     season: early -- the earliest mandarin
      notes: developed by H J Webber and W T Swingle; fruit tends to
             be bitter, with low sugar and low acid; grown by unscrupulous
             producers who get a high price for early fruit; K-Early looks
             like Orlando tangelo, and the resulting guilt-by-association
             has reduced the commercial market for Orlando tangelos

    variety: Minneola (a.k.a. Honeybell)
   category: tangelo (Duncan x Dancy)
  hardiness: hardy
       tree: medium-large, vigorous, round
     leaves: dark green, large
     season: Dec Jan Feb
      holds: well
       size: large
      shape: globose-ovoid with distinct "neck"
      color: red-orange
       rind: thick, brittle
     flavor: rich, tangy
      seeds: less than 10 on average
      notes: best when pollinated by Dancy, Clementine, Kinnow, Temple

    variety: Orlando (a.k.a. Lake)
   category: tangelo (Duncan x Dancy)
  hardiness: "more cold-tolerant than Minneola"
       tree: dark, distinctively cupped leaves
     season: Nov Dec Jan
       size: medium-large
      color: orange
       rind: strongly adherent
     flavor: mildly sweet
    history: bred by W T Swingle in 1911, released in 1931
      notes: best when pollinated by Dancy, Clementine, Kinnow, Temple;
             will grow in deserts of CA and AZ

    variety: Seminole
   category: tangelo (Dancy x Duncan)
       tree: medium to large, vigorous
     season: Feb Mar Apr
      holds: fair
       size: medium-large
      color: red-orange
       rind: easily peeled
     flavor: sprightly, tangy
      seeds: many (22 average)
    history: released 1931

| tangors |

    variety: Ambersweet
   category: tangor+ ([Clementine x Orlando] x sweet orange)
  hardiness: hardy
     season: Oct Nov
       size: 3 to 3.5 diam.

    variety: Fallglo
   category: (hybrid: Bower x Temple)
     season: Oct Nov
    history: released by USDA 1987

    variety: Murcott
   category: tangor
  hardiness: semi-sensitive
       tree: medium, upright
     season: Jan Feb Mar
       size: medium
      color: yellow-orange
    surface: smooth and somewhat glossy
       rind: thin, tight but peelable
     flavor: sweet, rich
      seeds: 18 to 24
    history: probably the result of Swingle's breeding experiments,
             the parent tree lost its identification tag in transit to
             Safety Harbor FL in 1913.
      notes: slightly susceptible to scab fungus and xyloporosis

    variety: Tangerona
   category: tangor
  hardiness: sensitive
     season: Sep Oct
       size: small
      shape: roundish oblate
      color: yellow-orange
       rind: tight
     flavor: (reportedly) excellent
      seeds: many
    history: from Brazil to FL circa 1890

    variety: Temple
   category: probably a tangor (parents unknown)
  hardiness: tender
       tree: spreading, bushy, somewhat thorny
     leaves: medium size
     season: Jan Feb Mar Apr
      holds: fair
       size: medium-large, diam. 2.5 to 3.25, height 2.25 to 2.5
      shape: oblate to spherical
      color: orange to red-orange
    surface: slightly pebbled or rugose
       rind: medium thick, 1/8 to 3/16, loose and peelable, leathery
oil glands: spherical to elliptical
   segments: 10 to 12
       pulp: tender, melting, orange
   vesicles: medium size, fusiform
     flavor: rich and spicy
      seeds: average 20, medium, plump
    history: originated in Winter Park FL, distrib Buckeye Nurseries 1917
      notes: somewhat susceptible to scab

    variety: Umatilla
   category: tangor (Owari Satsuma x Ruby orange)
     season: late
       size: large
      color: red-orange
    surface: smooth
    history: bred by W T Swingle in 1911, released in 1931
      notes: good quality; fruit is size and shape of King

| bibliography |

Hume, H. Harold; Citrus fruits and their culture; 1904
Jackson, Larry K.; Citrus growing in Florida; 3rd edition, University
   of Florida Press, 1991
Sturrock, David; Fruits for southern Florida; Southeastern Printing Co, 1959
Webber & Batchelor, editors; The citrus industry -- history, botany and
   breeding; University of California, 1943

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