[Homestead] L-o-o-ng compilation of prior posts---take warning

tvoivozhd tvoivozd at infionline.net
Thu Feb 10 17:08:37 EST 2005

Collectiom of business posts, 2004 and 2005

OK, this is Home-manufacturing p9st #2--specifically on home 
manufacturing,, not other home business opportunities.

http://www.ecomhelp.com/KB/business/kb_exporting.htm (easy to set up, my 
export business from my

factory manufacturing engine-generators in 1955 ran on automatic-pilot. 
American Steel Export

Company on the tenth floor at 101 Maiden Lane New York City had an 
exclusive on South American

sales---did a hell of a good job and I gave them an extra five percent 
discount because I had no

advertisement, no payroll overhead in South America .) Your export sales 
generally occur in a lot

less competitive climate than your sales in the United States---I did 
have to educate my clueless

banker how to handle export documentation and getting paid by their 
affiliate foreign bank---once

the stupid SOB paid my supplier in Taiwan without confirmed loading 
documents, while the load was

still sitting on the wharf, having been bumped by someone bribing port 
officials to load their

cargo ahead of mine. I learned all about export documentation from 
Citybank---still have the huge

and explicit instruction manual around somewhere.)

http://www.sba.gov/ga/ Georgia is a good place for "halfback" refugees 
from Florida to start a

business---and may have the best upper-education guarantee in the nation 
for yourhigh-achievement
high school kids. Just stay away from Atlanta---head for a small town 
with good road access and

lower land, factory building prices)

http://www.odod.state.oh.us/edd/osb/sbdc/ 9ohio SBDC centers)

(product life cycle is

always a problem---don't get caught with an obsolete product)

http://www.sba.gov/library/pubs/mp-4.txt (read all about

sba businessplans---and use of Score consultants)

(very good

commenttary on starting, running a small manufacturing business)

http://sbir.er.doe.gov/sbir/ (small business innovation research)

http://sbir.er.doe.gov/sbir/ (you're rural, study rural-applicable small 
business information


(Japanese perfected

the practice of constant incremental manufacturing improvement---damn 
near blew General Motors and

Ford out of busines--forget about huge product changes in a 
still-saleable product, huge changes

tend to bring with them a lot of bugs---law of unintended results)

http://www.usasbe.org/knowledge/proceedings/1999/spann.pdf (lean 
manufacturing is a competitive

necessity---don't even think about anything else.)

http://www.manufacturingnews.com/ (keep abreast of political problems 
that can blindside you--in
this era, they may even outweigh competition)

http://www.edd.state.nm.us/PRESS/news.php?_fn=view&_rn=20001020 9commit 
this to memory---ISO

9000, you can't live without it in the manufacturing business)

http://www.msue.msu.edu/msue/iac/econrura.html (long list of 
publications on rural business you

can order, from Michigan, Minnesota, Alabama,Virginia et. al.)

ttp://www.fao.org/DOCREP/W6882e/w6882e02.htm (rural entrepreneurship 
from FAO, one of kmy

favorite information sources)

http://www.deq.state.va.us/osba/links.html (Virginia business aids, huge 
number ofinformation


(well; guess the List

archives now work---have never accessed them, but stumbled across my 
august 26 post on backyard

cupolas and grey iron home manufacturing products---good idea, hope 
someone puts it to use--start

small,learn your way in patternmaking and sandcasting, get off the 
employee hamster wheel)

http://www.myownbusiness.org/s1/ (website covering a lot of aspects of 
choosing, planning, starting, operating a home

With very little capital, in a small manufacturing business, consider 
jobbing out EVERYTHING except handling the

incoming, outgoing money, i.e. component manufacture, assembly, packing, 

As an alternative, look at a Taiwan, Korean, Chinese trade catalog, pick 
a product that has merit, and has no

distribution in the U.S---import a few to test for quality ad 
saleability. It will usually take a year of

correspondence with your supplier to get to the point where it is safe 
to expand your operation---and you will have to

learn all about letters of credit, import brokers who handle your 
paperwork, and arrange transport from port of entry

to your warehouse. You will of course have to set up a website with 
secure payment to your credit card merchant

account so you have your money in full before or concurrent with 
shipment of merchandise to your customers.


All activated charcoal is not the same, and for different purposes need 
not be. But it keeps coming to mind as a good

flea market product for which no competition exists---something easy to 
package and romance for many uses. If it

takes off, set up a website to add to sales volume.


Internet Marketing Home Business Blog 

I really like a capacity for sideways thinking in its most creative 
form---differentiating a mundane product from

similar mundane products by simply altering packaging.

Selling cool in a bottle
How a startup called Method turned household cleaning

products into objects of desire.
January 28, 2004: 2:52 PM EST
By Bridget Finn, Business 2.0

San Francisco (Business 2.0) - Like many 20-somethings

during the dotcom boom, Eric Ryan and Adam Lowry ditched

their day jobs to start a business.

But instead of taking the Internet route, the pair headed

somewhere decidedly less glamorous: the grocery store. In

search of a bright idea, they walked the aisles looking

for a consumer product in need of a makeover.
Method's 25 oz bottle of dish soap -- hmmm, minty. Method's 25 oz bottle 
of dish soap -- hmmm, minty.

Their eureka moment? Shelves of dish soap and household

cleaning supplies were not only dominated by dinosaurs

like Procter & Gamble and Colgate-Palmolive but also

plagued by uniformity -- endless rows of identically

shaped bottles, distinguished only by their labels.

Just a year later, Ryan and Lowry launched Method, a line

of nontoxic cleaning products so sleekly packaged you want

to store them next to the sink instead of under it.

What began with the then-roommates mixing cleaning

solutions in their kitchen has since bubbled into an 18-

person San Francisco startup that reaps more than $10

million in annual revenue and goes head-to-head with the

heavy hitters in 10,000 stores nationwide.

While specialty retailers like Williams-Sonoma and Sur La

Table sell naturally derived, but expensive, cleaning

products, Method differentiates itself by offering cool

packaging and scents like lavender, mandarin, and cucumber

at affordable prices.

And by recruiting hotshot industrial designer Karim

Rashid, Method capitalized on the Target-led trend of

bringing cutting-edge style to mass-market products.
Head to head

So how do Ryan, 30, and Lowry, 29, battle it out with big

-name brands? It helps that they both hail from

entrepreneurial families and boast highly relevant


Ryan's advertising and branding experience included stints

at Fallon and other agencies, working with clients like

Saturn, Gap, and Colgate, for which he helped launch a new


Lowry, meanwhile, worked as a chemical engineer,

developing biodegradable trash bags and paint that bonds

to plastic.

Neither had much management savvy, so before Method

products even hit stores, they hired consumer-goods

veteran Alastair Dorward -- who had served for six years

as a consultant for Bain & Co. and had launched a soup

brand in the United States called Covent Garden -- to be

the fledgling company's CEO.

But Method was still largely a do-it-yourself operation.

Ryan came up with a transparent bottle design, and they

contracted with local manufacturers to make the solution

and containers.

At first, the pair filled the bottles themselves with 5-

gallon pails and funnels; for the labels, they took their

own photos featuring Lowry's hands next to a sink.

To get the first products -- glass, kitchen, shower, and

bathroom sprays -- on shelves, the duo took prototypes

door-to-door to San Francisco-area stores.

But when they made the first sale -- to local grocer

Mollie Stone's in February 2001 -- Method had only a

prototype, and the retailer wanted its first shipment in a

matter of hours.

The pair began frantically calling friends and family

who'd been testing samples of Method's spray cleaners. "We

wiped down half-used bottles, topped them off, and drove

to the store," Lowry recalls.

Crisis averted, Lowry then visited Mollie Stone's each

week to restock shelves and count the number of bottles

sold. Using that data, he persuaded more local stores to

carry Method.

And though venture capitalists had scoffed at Method's

business plan during the dotcom boom ("They said, 'Will it

be sold online?'" Ryan remembers), the local sales data

also hooked investors, led by an affiliate of the Simon

Property Group, a retail real estate firm.
On to the big leagues

With 20 stores onboard, Lowry and Ryan took their self-

collected sales figures to national chains. Despite

Method's small scale, major retailers agreed to give the

products a shot.

Method first scored shelf space at Albertsons, later

expanding to Safeway and regional retailers Wegmans and

Ralphs. To meet national demand but minimize shipping and

distribution costs, Method contracted in every region of

the country with manufacturers that could speedily bring

the products to market.

Method wanted to keep a low profile and a low budget, so

the company avoided advertising and let the packaging sell

the product.

But to get into Target, Method wanted a big-name designer.

Ryan and Lowry had an idea for an upside-down dish soap,

complete with a one-way valve like those used in ketchup

and salad dressing containers.

So they approached Rashid, an industrial designer who'd

worked with Prada and Armani. Ryan says, "We sent him an

e-mail and said, 'Here's a great opportunity to reinvent

this iconic shape that sits on every sink across America.


Rashid accepted the challenge, creating a 25-ounce bottle

resembling an oversize fluorescent chess pawn, plus a

smaller teardrop-shaped container.

With only Rashid's sketches to make the sale, Method

pitched to a roomful of Target execs in April 2002.

The company scored a trial run, but the product had to be

ready in just nine weeks. "We sold it before it was

designed, and we shipped it before they even saw it,"

Lowry says. To get the bottle ready fast, Method purchased

a one-way valve from a bottle-cap and closure manufacturer

called Seaquist. (Later the design was improved, with a

new valve from Zeller Plastik built into the base of the


Last February the line was extended to 1,100 Target stores

nationwide. Method soon realized that the soap -- which

sells for just $2 to $3 -- was doing something unheard of

in the cleaning space: prompting impulse buys.

In May, Method began selling a line of hand wash, also

packaged in Rashid-designed bottles, at Target and other

outlets, and it will soon launch a floor-care line and

cleaning wipes.

Because of its small scale and national manufacturing

network, Method can release products more rapidly than

corporate giants. But Lowry and Ryan worry that big brands

could eventually launch copycat designs. Though P&G --

maker of Dawn -- won't reveal how or if it plans to

respond, spokeswoman Lachelle Lewis says the company views

Method as a competitor.

In the meantime, Method hopes to stay under the radar

until its brand loyalty is so strong that ripoffs won't

have much effect. Already, the company has a following;

customers have started writing in to request new products.

And with double the number of offerings set for release

next year, Method could really start to clean up. Top of


Liquid, better baby formula


(nutritious, easy to harvest cattails---can replace wheat,

and being a disease-free perennial---get rid of nuisance

of annual planting and seedbed preparation)


pub_ww_babyboom.shtml (value of cattail wetlands to fish,

ducks, muskrats---damned muskrats raise hell with earthen

dams though)


.html (unexploited new crops of great utility---see the

Hairy Vetch section for your own weed-free garden. Peach

Palm and Moringa might do well along our Gulf Coast---I

like the idea of converting any starch to liquid baby food

with malted barley too---better ror babies and a lot

cheaper than the Nestle or Gerber crap.

I've had a lot of experience with Casuarina-watching---saw

it self-seed hundreds of barren sand islands in the

Bahamas, and grow ten feet or more per year to provide

fine shade. Greatly improved the esthetics with an

appearance like pine, firewood if desired---compost for

gardens that could not exist in former sand dunes. In

most of the Bahamas. gardening is confined to beans grown

in coral rock holes---no wonder so many kids have no teeth

at twelve years of age

Now that I think of it, there's a couple of good home

businesses here---liquid baby formula with a variety of

starches treated with malted barley. For instance, how

about liquid bananas? Low cost-of-entry too. You'd have

to evolve a rapid means of distribution to groups of new

health and nutrition-conscious mothers---party plan

probably, and run like hell to keep ahead of copy-cats a

year or two down the road.

The other one I like---have to live in the latitude of

Homestead, Florida for this is growing, selling papaya.
I used to buy strawberries from a farmer with twenty acres

near Homestead. That produced a high income in normal

years, but I noticed a ten-foot tall tree in front of his house, with 
twenty or

thirty big papayas on it. Couldn't help thinking the

farmer could simplify his life a lot, and avoid all price

-competition, short shelf life and picking problems of

strawberries if he grew papayas instead. As you might

guess, my years in Latin America made me really appreciate

a big delicious papaya for breakfast.

usiness, Hypertufa repost
Tvoivozhd tvoivozd at infionline.net
Mon Sep 6 17:29:34 EDT 2004

* Previous message: [Homestead] Re: Home Business, Hypertufa repost
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sasha wrote:

 >On Monday 06 September 2004 12:29 am, Tvoivozhd wrote:
 >>I'm pretty sure the prior Hypertufa post didn't make it into the
 >>archives. Hypertufa products are, however a very good home business.
 >Can paper (like in papercrete) be used instead of peat mos?

tvoivozhd---I think it could, at least in part, and there are other
natural fibers which should work better than paper, which has very short
fiber. Papercrete is very easy to produce, all you need to do is whip
newspaper and water together with a motor-driven propellor or
multi-bladed mixer, drain off excess water and add Portland Cement.

Peat moss has ideal characterists for hypertufa product appearance, but
almost no tensile strength, other fibers are used to provide tensile
strength where required, and acrylic latex lends strength also.

It seems to me that various kinds of grass, straw or cornstalk leaves if
chopped or run through a powered shredder having a large-diameter
screen, three-quarter or one-inch, would produce a fiber that could be
used as a substitute for peat moss.. Any of these grasses etc., would
have to be dried before shredding.

You would have to experiment to see what variety grass would work
best----I don't know what kind grasses you have in Serbia, here we have
a waxy-exterior very strong and resistant to weather-degradation fescue,
finer and less strong orchard-grass, (clover and alfalfa which probably
wouldn't be worth a damn). Farther south they have Bermuda Grass whidh
would certainly merit experimentation, as would perennial ryegrass or
rye stems---don't know whether you would have to remove the rye leaves
or not.

Make up some six-inch square test plaques of different thickness to
abuse with a wire brush to see how closely they resemble peat-moss mixes
in strength and appearance. You might come up with something better.

Updated hypertufa

OK, we're sliding toward spring and it's time you were thinking about a 
side business selling something to craft shows

and flea markets. I like hypertufa, though demolding is slow and unless 
you have a lot of molds it's not a high-

volume businessl
Nevertheless the profit margin is good and you are more likely to get 
hit by a meteorite than run into competition.

Some repetition here for you folks with a short attention-span, and a 
few new thingsl

[Homestead] Home business, more hypertufa links
Tvoivozhd tvoivozd at infionline.net
Sun Sep 5 19:58:07 EDT 2004

[ author ]

Probably some duplications of links on previous post. I

didn't cross-check them

http://faq.gardenweb.com/faq/hypertufa/ (hypertufa FAQ)


Lantern.html (tutorial on making a hypertufa Japanese Lantern)

hints, gloves, mask, colorants, fibers, acrylic in mix)


shtml (pictorial
and advice on filling a mold, drainage inserts, smoothing,

drainage inserts etc.)

http://gardening.about.com/cs/projects/l/aa091699.htm (

rubbing the peat moss through a hardware screen, and using

a wire brush
on surface)

http://www.efildoog-nz.com/hypertufa.htm (efildoog,

sculpting, totem poles)


second-day carving, mix dry ingredients first in large

batch, then
divide and mix small wet batches)

Hypertufa collection of links- recipies and ide



http://www.makersgallery.com/concrete/howto1b.html (

concrete for
artists, some hypertufa, some not)

http://www.alpine-art.com/ (garden art faces, no molds,

but ideas on
artistic images, price levels)


(don't know if I included these pictures of molds and

finished Oribe before)


(different lantern-maker, molds, mix recipe)


Misakistylelanternmadefromhypertufa.JPG (good picture)

(commercial concrete

statuary suppliers---my next door neighbor in Kingwood,

Texas made a good living making molds and statuary in his

garage---sold them elsewhere to avoid the traffic or else

Kingwood Kreeps would have shut him down)



detail in concrete castings by use of additives---

hypertufa does not take detail well.





4675426869663005708 (tufa totem pole---don,t know about
that---quite a departure from chainsaw carving of a wood


Microlivestock on back porch---pickled quail eggs


.html (price of pickled quail eggs)

Pure Cajun Products Pickled Quail Eggs
Picture coming soon!

New great taste, larger jar and cheaper price!
You will enjoy these spicy eggs!

Item #24-101S ea. -- $ 12.95


.html (price of quail hatching eggs, Coturnix, Chukar,

Bob White)



IYDEAIYAigCMAA4AEjPOZABA5gBnErIAQE&num=2 (Texas bobwhite



Issue # 16 - July/August 1972
How To Pickle Quail Eggs and Other Notes From Interior


We've been living in the Alaskan Interior for eleven years

. . . two teaching in the bush country and riding around

on dogsleds, the other nine near Fairbanks, where we are

now. This year we've gotten into animals for the first

tune and keeping quail, guinea hens, bantams, chickens,

geese, a goat and a pig or two has made things poetry

lively for us.

The quail have turned out to be very good homestead birds

(they're small and gentle enough for some of you city

folks to keep too). The eggs they lay are great, and we've

stumbled onto a fantastic way to fix them. Are you ready


First boil the eggs for five minutes, then soak them in

vinegar for at least an hour to soften the membranes (

which an quail egg.: are mighty tough). The spotted shell

coloring floats off in the vinegar--don't worry about it--

and after soaking, the membranes can be removed by gently

squeezing the eggs and peeling.

Now marinate the quail fruit in your favorite pickle juice

for two to three weeks in a cool place. Or make your own

special pickling juice . . . the possibilities are

limitless. We particularly favor beet juice and vinegar

spiced up with small whole onions, fresh garlic, dill, a

few peppercorns, a pinch of sugar and a clove or two. The

color's wild and the flavor's delicious.


Published by City Farmer, Canada's Office of Urban


Raising Quail for Food in Fredericton, New Brunswick,


By Jean Louis Deveau

"Man can keep quail in his backyard". This was the

headline, which appeared in Fredericton's Daily Gleaner,

Friday, December 18, 1998. That week, Jean Louis Deveau

made application to Fredericton's Planning and Advisory

Committee (PAC) for a zone amendment to keep 60 adult

quail in an aviary in his backyard in a Fredericton

residential area. Jean Louis had been keeping various

numbers of quail for consumption during the last four

years. On December 17, 1997, he was granted a one-year

temporary use variance to enable him to keep up to 60

quail. It had been necessary for him to get this variance

because quail are not defined as a domestic animal under

the zoning by-law for Fredericton and were therefore not

permitted in a residential area. This one-year variance

expired on December 18th and so Jean Louis applied for a

zone amendment to keep these birds on a permanent basis.

In order to provide a meal for his family once a month, 60

birds would only last five months as twelve birds are

needed per meal. In his application to the city,

permission was sought to keep the 60 adult birds and

enough young to provide his family with a meal each month.

During their presentation at the PAC meeting, city staff

reported that they had monitored the situation on the

property since the temporary use variance was granted and

could not identify any negative land use impacts

associated with accommodating the 60 birds presently on

the property. In their previous report, city officials had

raised concerns about possible noise and odour generated

by the birds. In addition, they had been concerned about

the removal of by-products associated with raising game

birds within a residential area. At the meeting on

December 16, 1998, city officials reported that all of the

above concerns had been satisfied. Furthermore, upon

inspection of the property, city officials had not noticed

any unusual noise or odour that would suggest 60 quail

were present. They recommended that the request be

approved as long as certain conditions were met, one of

which was that the sale of eggs and or birds be


Prior to this meeting, Jean Louis had spoken with Mr. Ron

Jackson, the Councillor representing his ward, and asked

if he could do something to have the above condition

rescinded. Mr. Jackson had previously shown support for

this project and commented at the meeting that Mr. Deveau

wanted to be able to sell eggs and some birds to other

hobbyists like himself. In the discussions that followed,

one of the Councillors indicated that in approving this

request, it might set a precedent and that other city

residents might also want to raise game birds in the city

including some larger species like pheasants and wild

turkeys. City officials responded that if other requests

are received, each would be treated separately and

evaluated on its own merits. Mr. Deveau commented that the

likelihood of receiving too many requests was small

because raising game birds is more time consuming and

requires considerable more effort than what's required to

grow a few vegetables in one's backyard.

In the end, councillors voted unanimously that the request

be approved provided that only 60 adults and 20 offspring

be allowed and that all by-products be removed from the

property. The restriction prohibiting the sale of eggs and

or birds was also dropped. The matter went for a vote

before City council on February 22, 1999 and was given

final consent.
Quail - How to get started

Japanese have raised them for centuries. They were called

"Bible quail" by the early American colonists. Modern

homesteaders like myself call them Coturnix (from their

generic name, Coturnix coturnix). As a wildlife biologist

by training, agronomist by profession, and urban farmer by

choice, I highly recommend to anyone wanting to raise

animals for food in the city to give quail a try. Their

small size makes them ideal for raising either in a

garage, the basement, or on a outside deck. Beginners

should start with the Coturnix quail . Six to eight of

these can be reared within a square foot. A good number to

start with is 20 birds: 12 females and 8 males. The males

are polygamous meaning they mate with any and all females.

The recommended ratio of females to male is 2 to 1 but I

usually put in a few extra males to ensure good fertility.

These quail possess a remarkable resistance to disease,

start laying at six weeks of age, and can be consumed at

four to five weeks of age. The meat is fortified with

nutrients and has a very low cholesterol percentage.

Dressed, the hens weigh about 4 to 5 1/2 ounces with the

male being slightly smaller. Eggs weigh about 1/3 ounce

which is about 8 per cent of the body weight of the hen as

compared to three percent for chicken eggs. After you've

been raising Coturnix successfully for awhile, the next

step is to try Eastern bobwhite . These are larger than

Coturnix quail, take about 14-16 weeks to start laying,

and are monagamous. This means that females pick their

mates so you need the same number of both sexes. Their

eggs are white and smaller than those from Coturnix. The

other species listed on the above web site are some of the

fancier species and are raised more for pleasure than for


By law, anyone raising quail needs to obtain a game bird

license from their local department of Natural Resources

as these birds are considered as wildlife. The license in

New Brunswick is $10 and renewable each year.
Where to find helpful information

Beginners should give some thought to joining one or more

game bird associations. As a member, you will receive a

monthly newsletter containing valuable information on the

different aspects of game bird breeding, find names of

breeders from whom you can obtain breeding stock or eggs

for incubation, and obtain lists of suppliers for

materials and equipment required for this hobby. In

Canada, there are at least five game bird associations and

quite a few more in the United States. I am a member of

the Canadian Ornamental Pheasant and Game Bird Association

and the American Pheasant and Waterfowl Society . After

becoming a member, you can request a breeder's directory

containing a list of all the names and addresses of

breeders as well as a listing of the different species of

game birds each member raises. By contacting these

breeders, you can make arrangements to have either live

birds or eggs for incubation shipped to you. If you decide

to start off with birds, ask a lot of questions from the

game bird breeder to make sure that he/she has disease

free stock and that male and female are unrelated. Hobby

game bird breeders are not required to have their birds

checked by a vet and sometimes you end up with animals

that are not in too good a shape so buyer beware.

Generally speaking though, most game bird breeders are

honest and will provide you with good quality breeding


The internet also has an abundance of information on quail

as referenced throughout this article.

Cages need to be ready prior to obtaining the birds.

People who are handy with tools can build their own cages

or you can buy a pre-fabricated cage. Rabbit hutches are

also ideal for quail. These are made of welded wire, are

strong and very durable. There's also a sliding pan

underneath for catching the droppings. I raise all my

quail on wire. This prevents them from eating their faeces

something which if left uncontrolled can result in a

condition known as ulcerative enteritis causing sickness

and even death.

I make all of my cages using one inch by one inch square

welded wire for the sides and top; for the bottom I use

one-half inch by one inch. You can buy the welded wire

from your local farm co-op as well as the hog rings to

attach the pieces together to form a cage. Size is a

matter of personal choice and budget. My cages for

Coturnix measure 24"W x 48"L x 16"H. For the door, you

simply cut a square hole in the middle. Make it large

enough for the biggest item you intend to place in the

cage. Quail love to dust bathe so in all of my cages, I

put a plastic stackable vegetable container from Canadian

Tire and fill the bottom with clean sand. Feed troughs

need to have a cover otherwise the birds will get in and

scratch all of the feed out. The birds also need water. To

provide water, the easiest thing I have found is a pop

bottle fountain. These are made of plastic, snap securely

on the neck of a bottle and project 2" through the cage.

It comes with a spring that you attach around the bottle

to hold it against the cage. If you should ever get into

this is a big way, then you will need to rig up an

automatic watering system. Cages, feed troughs and

watering devices may be obtained from any of the suppliers

listed below.
Cage location

Location of the cage is also important. Inside the aviary,

my cages are suspended on a wall using shelf brackets. Two

holes large enough to be able to slide the cage along the

metal brackets are cut on the back of the cage. I have

eight cages, four in each row with newspapers beneath each

cage on which to catch the droppings. Droppings are solid

in nature making them easy to be collected, bagged, and

dumped in a compost pile at a friends farm. If cages are

put outside, make sure the birds are sheltered from cold,

wind, sun, and rain. The birds will adapt well to cold

winter weather provided they're able to acclimatize to

seasonal temperature changes. Birds I want to stay

outdoors all winter are first put outside in the summer.

All of my outdoor pens were designed so that at least one

-third of the cage is surrounded on all three sides and

top with exterior grade plywood. It is suggested that

wooden parts be painted to facilitate cleaning.

Being a city farmer, it is important to invest a bit of

time and effort into building something that is

aesthetically pleasing not for the birds but for the

neighbours to enjoy. I could easily just slap a few sticks

together and wrap some wire around these but I don't think

I would have gotten very far with my request to keep quail

in the city if I'd chosen that route. I encourage all

urban farmers raising animals in the city to give due

consideration to this important detail.

Note that Coturnix quail kept outdoors will not lay past

autumn so if you want eggs year round, they must be kept

indoors. I keep them in an aviary inside my garage. And

the key to getting eggs year round is light. Mine are on a

15-17 hour photoperiod. A timer in the aviary provides

lighting from an incandescent light bulb.

Apart from being able to eat fresh eggs and have a good

meal once a month, one of the most fascinating aspects of

this hobby is to artificially incubate the eggs. Starting

around Easter every year, eggs are collected daily and put

in a cool humid spot; the basement is ideal for storing

eggs. Eggs are stored pointed end down and kept for no

more than seven days. The eggs are then placed in an

incubator for however many days are required for the

chicks to develop inside the eggs. Coturnix quail develop

in 17-18 days while Bobwhite quail require 23 days. There

are all sorts of incubators to choose from. The HOVA-BATOR

incubator was developed over 25 years ago and is the first

one I started with. This incubator is made of styrofoam.

It is very susceptible to changes in room temperature so

if you decide to purchase one of these, it should be

located in a room where the temperature stays constant.

Get one with a turbofan to increase the air circulation


If you ever get into breeding rare and endangered species,

you will probably want to invest into something a bit more

sophisticated like a Sportsman 1202, a cabinet style

incubator. Both the HOVA-BATOR and the Sportsman 1202 are

manufactured by GQF Manufacturing Company located in

Savannah, Georgia. Artificial incubation is both an art

and a science. To get good results when incubating, you

need just the right combination of good quality eggs, a

temperature which stays constant, good ventilation, and

right moisture conditions. Be sure to read the

instructions and either buy or pick up a book from the

library on incubation. And, if you decide to start with a

HOVA-BATOR, you should invest in an automatic turner

unless you want to turn the eggs yourself daily, at least

three times.

Once the eggs are ready to hatch, you need to increase the

humidity so that the chicks don't get stuck as they're

pushing out of their shell. This is done by filling the

troughs in the bottom of the incubator tray with water.

Three days prior to hatching, the eggs should be placed on

top of the hardware cloth (wire mesh) which comes with the

incubator. If a turner was used, it should be removed. The

hardware cloth gives them an excellent foothold when they

attempt to stand. Some people put newspaper on top of the

wire which is a bad mistake as it is too slippery and

leads to crippled chicks. As a matter of fact, I have even

started using something called "slip grip" on top of the

hardware cloth in the incubator. You can buy this at your

local Canadian Tire store. It's the same thing people use

for lining the shelves in their cupboards to prevent

expensive dishware from sliding off when positioned

vertically. It's completely washable and reusable. The

chicks should be left in the incubator for 24 hours.

During hatching, avoid opening the incubator because it

causes the moisture to escape and keeping that moisture in

is extremely important for a good hatch. Depending on what

model you're using, hatching can take place over a very

short or somewhat longer time period. Eggs developing in

the Sportsman will hatch within a few hours whereas those

from a HOVA-BATOR take a whole and sometimes two days.

That's because the Sportsman is a better machine than the

HOVA-BATOR. Don't invest in a Sportsman until you've been

doing this for a couple of years and you know that you

want to stick to this for awhile. A Sportsman incubator is

a huge capital investment if you're just trying this out

to see if you like it or not.


Chicks should be placed under a brooding lamp after being

removed from the incubator. Again, there are all sorts of

sophisticated equipment on the market ranging in price

from $30.00 to $280.00. I use a cardboard box with a

brooder light base. The boxes used are fairly large ones

so that the chicks will not outgrow their accommodations

too quickly. For the beginner, this is what I suggest. Get

a Y-shaped electrical socket from your local hardware

store as well as a brooder lamp which comes with double

insulated electrical components. Screw the Y-shaped socket

inside the brooder lamp base and then mount two

incandescent light bulbs inside the socket. In early

spring, I recommend using two 60-watt bulbs; as summer

progresses, use two 40-watt bulbs. The reason for using

two bulbs is so that when one burns out in the middle of

the night or when you're away at the office or something,

the chicks still get heat from the other bulb. Always keep

a good stock in hand and replace the burnt one as soon as

possible. Also use two different aged bulbs so they don't

both burn at the same time.

One last thing about light bulbs. I use a spray can called

Beauti-Tone (Home Hardware brand) enamel and paint the

bulbs either red or blue. I have tried other brands but

the paint never seems to dry well on the bulb and produces

a burning odour after the lights have been on for awhile.

Chicks kept together in a relatively confined space such

as in a brooder have a tendency to peck each other, a

nasty habit which can lead to deformed beaks and sometimes

even death. Poultry and game bird breeders have discovered

that if you use coloured light bulbs, the chicks are less

prone to peck each other. The lights should be attached

about 16 inches off the floor. Wood shavings are used for

bedding for the first four weeks. After the chicks have

been in the brooder for 10 minutes or so, check their

behaviour. If you see them huddled together in one large

group with each of them trying to get to the centre, which

is the warmest part, then they're too cold. Put a cover

over the box leaving a space for air of course. If you see

them with their beaks open panting for breadth, they're

obviously too hot. Raise the light bulbs or remove the

cover if one is present. If they're randomly distributed

throughout the brooder or laying on top of the shavings in

a circle surrounding the outer periphery of the brooder

lamp, you've got the temperature just right.
Feeding chicks

Feeding these small chicks is relatively easy. I normally

start them off with Turkey Starter which is medicated with

Amprol to control coccidiosis. A non-medicated Turkey

Starter does not exist. Actually, it's not such a bad idea

to have a medicated feed to start them off with because

the first few weeks, they walk, play, and defecate in

their food and water all the time. The medication prevents

them from getting ill. Turkey starter crumble is too big

for the small quail chicks to eat, so for the first couple

of weeks, I pulverize the feed by putting two cups at a

time in a food blender. The food is then placed in a dish

made from the bottom of a two-litre milk carton. They'll

quickly learn where the food is if you lightly tap on the

food with your finger. It's important to teach them where

the food is during the first couple of days because after

three days, they'll be scared of you and your finger and

run off at the opposite end of the box whenever you come


To provide water, get a plastic quail base from one of the

suppliers listed below. These have a narrow drinking slot

to prevent the chicks from getting in and drowning.

Alternatively, you may use a Petri dish or something

similar and fill it full of marbles or small stones. The

disadvantage in doing this is that the birds will defecate

in the water which means more work for you as the water

will need changing often. After about four weeks, I start

introducing Purina Flight Conditioner in the food dish at

a ratio of 1 part Flight Conditioner to three parts Turkey

Starter. Seven days after that, I bump that up to two

parts Flight Conditioner to two parts Turkey Starter so

that after four weeks they're off the medicated feed and

are eating out of the same troughs used by the adults.

After the chicks have reached four weeks of age, I

transfer them into a cage of the same size and dimension

as that used for adults. In early spring, I move the

lights to this cage also and leave them there until I

start noticing that the birds no longer use them as a

source of heat. At six weeks of age, you will start

noticing small eggs in the bottom of the cage. Two weeks

after that, the eggs are more uniform in size and you can

expect one a day and in some cases, as many as 250 a year.

You can start setting eggs from those birds in your

incubator after the birds are about eight weeks old.

One of the most comprehensive sites containing useful

information on breeding quail, incubating eggs, and

brooding chicks may be found at http://www.thatquailplace

The Mango City: Urban Agriculture in Belém, Brazil
"It is a tribute paid to a hard working and ingenious

people, who against all odds survive in one of the poorest

metropolis in Latin America, frequently complementing

their monthly income with fruits, herbs, spices, medicinal

plants, and all sorts of animals, cropped or raised in

front and backyards, in idle public and private plots,

existent either within the urban tissue or in the wider

peri-urban areas." Posted September 24, 2002

. A favourite book on quail which I'd recommend is

entitled Quail, Their Breeding and Management by G.E.S.

Preparing the birds for the dinner table

The usual method of slaughtering the birds is to sever

the head in one quick movement. The most effective tool I

have found are a pair of sharp pruning shears. The bird is

then placed in a plastic pail with cover and allowed to

bleed. After preparing enough for a meal, which for our

family consists of a dozen birds, I take the bucket inside

the house. The bled birds are immersed in scalding water

(148 deg. F) for five seconds and then put in a large

bowl. After being scalded, the bird is skinned starting

from the neck down to the wings and the legs. Cut the

wings and legs just below the joint. To gut them, a pair

of scissors is used to slit the bird down the back. Don't

slit the breast because that's where the bulk of the meat

is located. Once gutted, with the neck cut off close to

the body, the birds should be chilled. I normally dump

them into a large bowl filled with cold water and some ice

cubes. After I have skinned and gutted all twelve birds

and left them in the bowl to be chilled, I pick each one

up again and give it a thorough cleaning picking off any

pin feathers left behind or any organs that didn't come

off during my initial gutting. I then either put them in

the fridge, freeze them, or prepare them for a meal. There

are all kinds of quail recipes available. The thing to

remember is that the meat has almost no fat so that if the

birds are roasted in the oven it is important to wrap them

in something like bacon.

The feathers and guts are taken to a local veterinary

clinic and incinerated for a nominal fee.

A favorite recipe of ours is to put a dozen birds in a

slow cooker with a couple of sliced onions, salt and

pepper and the whole thing topped off with water. Leaving

the birds to cook overnight or during the day while you're

at work allows the birds to produce and cook in their own

broth. Cooked this way, the birds are very tender and

absolutely delicious. We also use the broth for making

soup and as a base for fish chowder.

The eggs are consumed fresh. After they've been

refrigerated for a couple of days, use a steak knife to

saw through them and cook a dozen or so for your kids for

breakfast on the weekend. Quail eggs have long been known

as a good substitute for people who cannot eat eggs from

poultry and for people with allergies. They can be hard-

boiled and pickled also.
List of suppliers

Berry Hill Limited, 75 Burwell Road, St.Thomas, ON N5P

Tel. no.:1-800-668-3072

Cutler's Pheasant and Poultry Supply, Inc.
1940 Old 51
Applegate, MI 48401
Ph: (810) 633-9450
Fax: (810) 633-9178
E-mail: cutlers at greatlakes.net
Web page:http://www.cutlersupply.com

G.Q.F. Manufacturing Company, PO Box 1552, Savannah,

Georgia, USA 31498.
Tel. no.: (912)236-0651

Ranch Cunicole G.L.R. Inc., 515, Rapide Plat Nord, St

-Hyacinthe, Quebec.
Tel. no.: (514)799-5170

Seven Oaks Game Farm and Supply, 7823 Masonboro Sound

Road, Wilmington, NC 28409-2672. Tel. no.: (910)791-5352
E-Mail: gamefarm at isaac.net

American Pheasant and Waterfowl Society, W2270 US Hwy.

10, Granton, WI 54436

Canadian Ornamental Pheasant & Game Bird Association,

221 Sheridan Street, Brantford, ON N3S 4R2

Discussion Forum
City Farmer's Urban Agriculture Discussion Forum

http://home.earthlink.net/~mtkuo/quail.html (fellow who
has 100 quail, some good links)

http://home.earthlink.net/~mtkuo/quail.html (more good

info on Japanese Coturnix)


For those wanting specifics on hatching Bob White Quail

1. Eggs take 21 to 23 days to hatch.
2. Temperature: 99.5f., turn down to 99f. the last 3 days
3. Humidity: 85%, raise up to 95% the last 3 days.
4. Turn eggs twice daily.


http://www.lelandhayes.com/pubs/bookletdl.htm (download

the pdf version of Leland Hayes fine book)

http://www.shaywood.com/raising/ation.htm (brooder




















http://www.woodworkersworkshop.com/cadfiles/drawings/minishpr.zip (mini 
Dremel Shaper)

http://www.woodworkersworkshop.com/cadfiles/drawings/minilth.zip (mini 
Dremel lathe)

You don't want to produce mini-products on big equipment---anything that 
fits on a kitchen table is a candidate for a

cheap Dremel kit--I have one, forgot what it cost---thirty or forty 
dollars with some good accessories in s nice

plastic suitcase.

[Homestead] Home Manufacturing Business,recent Post #2
Tvoivozhd tvoivozd at infionline.net
Sun Sep 19 11:32:46 EDT 2004

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Toni Hawryluk wrote:

 >>From: tvoivozhd<mailto:tvoivozd at infionline.net>
 >>OK, this is Home-manufacturing p9st #2--specifically on home 
manufacturing,, not other home business opportunities.

view&_rn=20001020> 9commit this to memory---ISO 9000, you can't live 
without it in the manufacturing business)
 >Thanks, Tvo. Nosey Rosie here worked with it
 >for a company once, here's the main link :
 >ISO 9000 and ISO 14000 - in brief
 >The ISO 9000 and ISO 14000 families are among ISO's most widely known 
standards ever. ISO 9000 and ISO 14000

standards are implemented by some 634 000 organizations in 152 
countries. ISO 9000 has become an international

reference for quality management requirements in business-to-business 
dealings, and ISO 14000 is well on the way to

achieving as much, if not more, in enabling organizations to meet their 
environmental challenges.
 >The ISO 9000 family is primarily concerned with "quality management". 
This means what the organization does to

 > - the customer's quality requirements, and
 > - applicable regulatory requirements, while aiming to
 > - enhance customer satisfaction, and
 > - achieve continual improvement of its performance in pursuit of 
these objectives.
 >The ISO 14000 family is primarily concerned with "environmental 
management". This means what the organization does

 > - minimize harmful effects on the environment caused by its 
activities, and to
 > - achieve continual improvement of its environmental performance.
 >The vast majority of ISO standards are highly specific to a particular 
product, material, or process. However, the

standards that have earned the ISO 9000 and ISO 14000 families a 
worldwide reputation are known as "generic management

system standards".
 > a.. "Generic" means that the same standards can be applied:
 > - to any organization, large or small, whatever its product
 > - including whether its "product" is actually a service,
 > - in any sector of activity, and
 > - whether it is a business enterprise, a public administration, or a 
government department.
 >"Generic" also signifies that no matter what the organization's scope 
of activity, if it wants to establish a quality

management system or an environmental management system, then such a 
system has a number of essential features for

which the relevant standards of the ISO 9000 or ISO 14000 families 
provide the requirements.
 > a.. "Management system" refers to the organization's structure for 
managing its processes - or activities - that

transform inputs of resources into a product or service which meet the 
organization's objectives, such as satisfying

the customer's quality requirements, complying to regulations, or 
meeting environmental objectives.
 >Latest update September 2003
tvoivozhd---good-oh, you came up with something I knew I should have
included, but was too lazy to accomplish. It's so nice to have
slave---er-r-r, accomplices.

[Homestead] Home manufacturing business data ((#1, several others may 
Tvoivozhd tvoivozd at infionline.net
Sat Sep 18 01:33:47 EDT 2004

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As everyone on this list knows, manufacturing is my schtick, mostly in
metal and plastic products. Don't much care for wood products except
craft show and flea market products like twig Lincoln Log kits and log
furniture with your home foundry-cast K-D connectors so you can ship in
a compact shipping carton, and avoid labor cost by customer-assembly.

But all businesses have a lot in common, as illustrated by the following:

http://www.cbsc.org/english/howtos/busplanning.cfm (writing a business
plan for a grant, for investors, and most of all for you so you've got a
blueprint and timetable to follow.)

http://www.grants-loans.org/ (nothing wrong with a business in Canada
either---should write Sasha on this---Canada is more friendly to
desperately needed small business, some provincial governments will flip
over backwards to help you (and them), good idea to enlist help from a
newspaper editor or columnist, who in turn will influence governmental
departments, officers and possibly trade groups.)

http://www.gov.mb.ca/itm/sbcd/ (Manitoba is a Canadian Province rabid
to sponsor startup industries)

http://www.smallbusinessbc.ca/guides/ (British Columbia is a nice place
to live, land is cheap, lots of business help on this website)

http://www.nccommerce.com/servicenter/Manufacturing/ (be a "Half Back",
a northerner running away from Florida to North Carolina)

http://www.sba.gov/starting/faqs/busquest.html (31 business questions
for which you must have answers)

http://www.myownbusiness.org/s7/ (accounting, cash-flow are your
lifelines in starting, running a small business---a big company can
record them quarterly, a small startup almost has to construct a daily
balance sheet because you have little or no capital reserve to absorb

http://www.sba.gov/advo/research/ (Small Business Administration
information and help)

http://www.missouribusiness.net/library/startup.asp (Missouri startup
business information and help---just make it a safe distance from Zanoni
(upwind) so toxic beer doesn't do you in)


(Fed, State startup requirements, permits, tax I.D.'s---don't forget how
to legally get rid of your toxic waste.)

http://www.business.gov/business_development.html (managing your
hazardous waste---and definitely plan to use "Score" and SBDC services,
maybe a business incubator which provided joint accounting, guard,
janitorial and other services in the building complex)

http://www.thinkkentucky.com/kyedc/bguide14.asp (Kentucky business
incubators---Kentucky has a reasonable climate, low cost land, and for
raw material, finish product transport is central to the East Coast and
Midwest population.)

http://www.thinkkentucky.com/kyedc/bguide14.asp (more on Kentucky)

(Except for Alpine, Austin area Hill Country,around New Braunfels, Texas
is a terrible place to live---but money flows like wine from individual
investors and government. Stay the hell out of sauna-bath Houston with
its cancer-inducing polluted air and water.)

Final note on this post----there is blizzard of new patents which you
should research to see what you could profitably manufacture. Damn few
inventors make a dime on their patent, for those who have become
resigned to this fact, it is fairly easy to draw up a licensing contract
that offers the inventor some hope. It can be exclusive with a
performance clause, or non-exclusive, take your choice.

http://www.sbomag.com/articals/pitfalls.html (avoiding 101 startup
pitfalls get your product liability, fire, auto insurance---don't bet
the farm on the fallacy "it can't happen to me")

(Midwest startup resources---number of states to choose from, and lots
of low-cost manufacturing sites.)

http://www.nhsbdc.org/ (New Hampshire---low tax, mostly local control.
Find a friendly town with an empty, properly wired deserted factory
building with water and sewer, The small town will most likely give you
reduced or free rent with purchase option--cultivate neighbors and town
officials first, then move in and crank up your production line and
marketing program.)

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[Homestead] Home manufacturing business recent post #3
Tvoivozhd tvoivozd at infionline.net
Sun Sep 19 23:30:03 EDT 2004

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Home Manufacturing Business, recent post #3.

http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=5472 (Mother Earth
News on he busineses in small Emporia, Kansas, notation of rural
manufacturing on the rise---almost no homesteaders relies on ag-related
income, though it is a good one if you set up a PYO near a town of ten
thousand or more---no more than fifteen miles from the city limits.)

http://www.startups.co.uk/Yd28xvhoS63Ijg.html (U.K. has same rural
problems and opportunities as the U.S.)


(U.K. rural statistics---rural manufacturing is where it's at.)

http://www.cfra.org/resources/strategies_2.htm (REAP a prinipal sponsor
of rural entreprener activiies)

http://www.bankrate.com/brm/links/business4.asp (large link library on
rural startup needs and their fulfillment.


(Saskatchewan startup help---believe me Saskatcewan government. industry
associations, private businesses, and newspaper editores, columnists can
be conned--erh, induced to support a startup with a good business plan.)

http://www.chinabusinessreview.com/public/0101/gregory.html (the most
relentless entrepreneurs in the world are Chinese)

http://www.arc.gov/index.do?nodeId=294 (Appalachian manufacturing
startups---my down-the-road machinist buddy, has almost no overhead and
an unbeatable electric power rate---he can kill any Northeastern or
Mid-Atlantic job shop on job bids, while still maintaining a very
profitable margin of profit. The only trouble he has had recently has
been American Electric Power bumping up the voltage with no notice
whatsoever---kicked off the machine switches and caused him to spend
$1200 to have a local electrician build him a new supplementary
transformer to drop the voltage back where it should be.)

http://www.alliedfoamtech.com/Appconc.htm (if I could look forward to a
few more productive years one of the products I would manufacture is
BBTBB (better than Butler buildings). K-D two-foot wide foamed and
fibered lightweight sections to bolt together at the building
site---pre-assemble them if they are fairly small, like for storing
lawnmowers, lawn tractors, tools, and take them to the building site on
a tilting flatbed trailer.)

Sell them to flea market dealers at a larger-than-normal discount---and
put them on a rretractable-wheel trailer to haul in and out on a
towbar. They can use the foam-concrete structure both as a display
booth for their other wares, and as a highly visible model passers-by
can look at and buy---have some literature printed for handouts, print
the dealer's name and address on it---you must assure them they will be
paid for their efforts and you will not steal the sales commission from
them. For a small startup manufacturer, honest is not just the best
policy---it is the ONLY policy.

Make fiberglass molds and spray the foam in them with a cheap Tirolessa
hopper-sprayer to start, shift to higher-capacity foam-sprayer after a
couple months in business.

If cheaper and better than Butler, this is a hell of a
business---year-around sales and a huge market. Fiberglass molds would
be your chief investment to kick up production. You first make a "plug"
(wood or molding plaster) pattern, hand layup glass fabric and polyester
resin on it (use a parting compound on plug surface), when cured lift
the mold off the plug. If it is hard to hand-strip, leave some tiny
holes in the plug and use compressed air to blow the mold away from the
plug. Do the same thing with the molds when pulling lipped-foam
concrete sections out of the molds.The purpose of the lips, beside
creating rigidity ane more strength is to seal out rain---you use either
a commercially-available flexible plastic cap-strip or buy a cheap metal
mold you can take to a plastic extrusion shop and extrude a UV-resistant
plastic cap-strip.

Again, can speed up fiberglass mold-making by using a fiberglass/resin
and catalyst-spraying chopper gun---we used to have one, think it was a
Binks, but can't remember what we did with it when making fiberglass
tanks lost its charm.)

You should use hand-retractable waxed wooden pins inserted in the
lip-mold---locate them accurately and pull them when the foam concrete
is pretty well set. You can drill (or better, use a hot piece of metal
rod (propane torch insert) to melt holes through the cap-strip through
which assembly bolts are thrust.

Figure out the cubic feet of foam fiber, the weight factor. Ideally the
individual sections would be light enough for one man to sdt them up and
bolt them together, but in any event don't build them so heavy two men
can't easily handle them.

http://www.baustoffchemie.de/en/db/concrete.htm (chemistry of foamed

Don't think it is the above, but be sure to incorporate pozzolans in the
concrete mix if it is available. Pretty cheap stuff from a coal power
plant ash residue. Also incorporate acrylic for stronger, tougher, more
shock-resistant polymer-concrete. Lots of fiber additives, aramid,
polypropylene, alkali-resistant glass---just be sure it is
alkali-resistant for long life.

http://johnvillegas.tripod.com/new_page_1.htm (Elastizell is a
principal foamer supplier)

Mearle was the first foam chemical supplier in the U.S.---forgot who
bought them out. Was pretty pricey, so I analyzed the foam chemical
once, mostly cheap hide glue. I presume there are equally cheap foam
ingredients now. Had a five horsepower gasoline engine foamer made in
Waukesha, retailing for $800 that worked fine, but they couldn't sell
dollar bills for fifty cents, so sold out to a Canadian firm which did
nothing with it either. such units at quite low prices now come from
Europe---Czechoslovakia if my memory is correct.

(Columbia University concrete research---HTML because I couldn't
download the pdf version.

http://home.att.net/~gallgosp/architec.htm (FINE third world cheap
housing website---most concrete small home manufacturing prodects in the
U.s. would be better classified as third world projects, third world
tooling and manufacturing techniques coupled with the limited capital
available to most homesteaders.)

[Homestead] Home Manufacturing Busiiness, recent Post #4
Tvoivozhd tvoivozd at infionline.net
Tue Sep 21 14:32:09 EDT 2004

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Home manufacturing, recent post #4

http://www.ers.usda.gov/Briefing/Industry/earningstrends/ (non-metro
business and employment grew slower than Metro---no wonder, needs of
metro areas for increasing both is overwhelming and response SHOULD be

But you are a rural resident, you don't have to subordinate YOUR needs
to anyone elses---get on the stick and crank up YOUR rural enterprise,
get off the employee hamster-wheel.

Self-employment is a mindset, hard to break because the emphasis has
been on being a good, docile, loyal (hah!) wage-slave. But the mindset
is breakable and all the tools needed to become self-employed are now
the most numerous and effective the world has ever seen---you may and
probably will take a job as a quickfix to a very thin wallet, that's all
right, but plan to get out of Dodge as quickly as possible on your
self-employment horse---try to double-dip, take home some kind of
paycheck and at the same time learn something useful in your own business).

http://www.ers.usda.gov/Briefing/Industry/FreeFall/ (manufcturing
decline in the U.S. affects ALL sectors---who cares about the
biggies---you aren't going to manufacture 747's in your backyard anyway,
imagineer your home manufacturing business---get there fustest with the

(a farm or farm community that produces only a commodity is doomed, and
so is a farm-factory. Pick a profitable niche-market and you can sleep
soundly at night and leave your kids comfortably well-off---wel not TOO
comforbly, the Idle Rich Syndrome that afflicts this society is very bad
for it.


(OK, there is a countercurrent of people moving to to rural and
small-town areas---you know all about that, you are part of it. furn it
to your advantage with a rural manufacturing activity---something you
don't have to feed and currycomb, and that can be made just-in-time---as
soon as you have the credit-card payment safely in hand.)

(yeah, the bankers want to get in the act---screw 'em, their only use is
to handle Letters of Credit and transferring the money from their
foreign affiliate banks to you if you are exporting your product (as you
certainly should) Be sure your banker knows what the hell he is doing
in handling export papers---most of them don't and to keep your pockets
from being picked, YOU will have to educate them---DON'T ever depend on
someone else to do what is really YOUR job or you will lose your tuppy.)

http://www.oycf.org/Perspectives/2_110299/dogmatism.htm (interesting
historical aside---you know my passion for history---Stalins fixation on
giantism instead of bfoad-based small, priately-owned, privately run
small business.) We still have Stalin's fixation on giantism in the
U.S.---stupid in the Soviet Union and stupid in the Oval Office.

http://www.nal.usda.gov/ric/resources/backgrnd/08cmfg/mfg.htm (good,
good,good---you will certainly want to read this to clarify your mind
and visualize your rural manufacturing prospects.)

http://www.danieldrezner.com/archives/000748.html (outsourcing will
kill you, but only if you let it. Your rural location is a gem for more
than one reason---not just a better way to live, but a better way to
make a living---if you give it serious thought and DO something about it)

(rural Minnesota analysis---but the Dum-Dums don't realise the necessity
for broadband in jet-propelling their business ahead---when Rob ran
away, maybe those he left behind were damaged-goods.)

http://www.agmconnect.org/libserv/sample_cover_letter.html (OK, OK, I
know it is unfamiliar territory, and the time expended might be a waste
compared to expending that time in other directions, but let me tell you
a story. My excessively smart and resourceful oldest daughter created
her very large income and, until graduation, permanent employment at the
University of Wisconsin (I won't even mention the Athetic Dept. paying
her $30 an hour for tutoring footboll and basketball players to keep
them eligible to play.)

However her main source of revenue was as a grant-rainmaker. Arch
Haller was head of the Brazil section of the Sociology
Department---budgetless of course until my daughter brought in grant
funds from the Brazilian Government, after which Arch could wallow in
money---a good share of which was diverted to care and feeding of my
daughter. Go thou and do likewise.---you simply can't believe how much
grant money is out there for the little effort expended in finding and
harvesting it---think about a good use for it, and study grantwriting
techniques and illustrations)

http://www.keysheets.org/red_14_non_farm_income.html (hell, get a grant
for your spin-off rural manufacturing business(they won't know about
until ex post facto anyway). Get a grant for lowering the cost of farm
and small town utility buildings, even residences by using my
previously-suggested concrete/foam/fiber/acrylic/pozzolan bolt-together
sectional panels. It doesn't even have to be a success (you can make it
so), merely offer the prospects of success. Change the external
appearance of a foam/fiber residence (no big deal, change the plug),
where esthetic appeal is as important as maximum economy.)

http://www.cityofwheaton.com/thewallstreetjournal.htm (The Wall Street
Journal is heavily under the heel of the National Association of
Manufacturers and biased beyond belief---but as any kind of businessman,
you absolutely must read it.---this time they've got it right for you,
the rural entrepreneur.)

[Homestead] Home Manufacturing Series, recent post #5
Tvoivozhd tvoivozd at infionline.net
Tue Sep 21 20:07:41 EDT 2004

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Home manufacturing, recent post #5

http://www.planetaryrenewal.org/ipr/ultralc.html (a little more
esthetically appealing than a modular-panel foamed concrete quonset, or
simple gable-roof (at least make it wide-overhang), but though this
design envisions use of a polyester-resin mix, it could use
foam/fiber/acrylic/pozzolan mix just as well---with a lot better
insulation factor.)

http://www.northcoast.com/~tms/stone.html (Northcoast has always been a
fine source for building low cost homes (and other buildings), still is,
and has some new books worth reading (at you local library first).
Buy the Ken Kerns of course, and you've GOT TO Own the Christopher
Alexander books on "Pattern Language"---no more boring,
marriage-destroying ninety-degree, unlit, no-vista Indiana Boxes.
"Making Concrete Ornaments' is a failsafe source of home manufacturing
income, and not discussed here, give real consideration to the cheap and
excellent India compressed earth blockmaker---nothing cheaper and few
things better that the dirt under your feet.)

http://www.earth-auroville.com/index.php?nav=menu&pg=auram&id1=7 (the
Auroville CEB press to which I referred to above. Makes lovely buildings
at cost little more than plain adobe, and much stronger,
insect-resistant, impervious to rain if a little asphalt is mixed in.)
This is the manual press version---used to cost about $800 laid into a
U.S. Port of entry. There are engine-hydraulic press versions for lazy
Americans---or those who want to make a business of seling compressed
earth block to building contractors at a fraction of the price of
concrete block) The engine-hydraulic presses as I remember, use a
rotary table to put earth mix in the molds, press it in next stage, and
eject the molded part in a third. A note as added economy, besides the
interlocking block, you only use one centimeter of earth-mortar between
blocks---same mix as the boocks are made but slightly wetter.)

(some new stuff on U.S. blockmaking machines---developed in past two or
three years.---from Pliny Fisk)

http://www.mountain.org/work/peak/earthblock/opportunity.cfm (Mountain
Institute photo of blockmaker)

http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=5256 (Ken Kern
excerpt from Mother Earth News---forget about the Cinva Ram
though---good in its time, it is now far-outdated)

http://www.gtz.de/basin/publications/earth.htm (lot of books on
CEB---French CRAterre started commercialization of compressed earth
block constructionl)

(most CEB is good enough for a government jot---GOOD CEB is a little
more complicated.)


(testing blocks by standard means to get meaningful result---if you sell
earth blocks to a building contractor, he is goint to want to see
building specs on them) 

(miscellaneous symposium notes)

Oh, yeah---you want to build any structure, build a model first, better
to build a dozen and select the best.

http://www.patternlanguage.com/pbrochure/purplebrochure.htm#10 (some
design innovations)

http://www.northcoast.com/~tms/wood.html (Old Northcoast photo of
cordwood masonry that any little old lady in tennis shoes can
build---especially if the house uses few posts, is round or hex, and has
a bond-beam to tie the cordwood and provide a component to which roof
members are attached (imbed L-bolts or steel plate tiedowns.) Someone on
the Homestead List built a cordwood masonry house, forgot who.

[Homestead] Subject: Get your small town while it is dirt-cheap, worth 
Tvoivozhd tvoivozd at infionline.net
Tue Sep 21 16:40:30 EDT 2004

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Tvoivozhd <tvoivozd at infionline.net>
Tue, 21 Sep 2004 12:05:00
homestead at lists.ibiblio.orgPP

Be the next John Jacob Astor
who clearly saw the opportunity in Manhattan---as a one-time tract-developer
and mass-builder of houses, I assure you the same opportunity exists in 
downtrodden and decently well-located small towns---not in housing or 
suitable for factories (they have a surplus), but in rural manufacturing

Entrepreneurs are often slow on the uptake before understanding
of new economics registers on grey matter, but a huge opportunity now exists
to buy low, sell high in small-town America. Of course, you need to put
small-town purchsaes to use immediately or have unlimited capita; You aren't
going to put housekeepers in many of them---put manufacturing buusinesses
in them. Local Chambers of Commerce, old property owners wanting to provide
local opporunity to keep their kids and grandkids nearby, and 
manufacturing entrepreneurs and your natural allies---put together a 
and keep a good piece of the action.

Snowball your newly-acquired small-town

Content-Type: text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1; format=flowed
Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit


Be the next John Jacob Astor who clearly saw the opportunity in
Manhattan---as a one-time tract-developer and mass-builder of houses, I
assure you the same opportunity exists in temporarily downtrodden and
decently well-located small towns---not in housing or buildings suitable
for factories (they have a surplus), but in rural manufacturing
itself---buying up buildings fof that purpose---put your own or
coalition manufacturing enterprises in them, or rent the buildings to
out-of-town manufacturers looking for a nest..

Entrepreneurs are often slow on the uptake before understanding of new
economics registers on grey matter, but a huge opportunity now exists to
buy low, sell high in small-town America. Of course, you need to put
small-town purchsaes to use immediately or have unlimited capita; You
aren't going to put housekeepers in many of them---put manufacturing
buusinesses in them. Local Chambers of Commerce, old property owners
wanting to provide local opporunity to keep their kids and grandkids
nearby, and bargain-hunting manufacturing entrepreneurs and your natural
allies---put together a coalition and keep a good piece of the
action---snowball your asserts..


[Homestead] Home Manufacturing Series, recent post #5 addendum
Tvoivozhd tvoivozd at infionline.net
Tue Sep 21 20:47:01 EDT 2004

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Wanted to make sure nobody overlooked the fact that the first #5 post on
Botswana earthen block, was Botswana #2, here is Botswana #1 so you
don't forget to click on it. This is very valuable information.


[Homestead] Home manufacturing business series, recent post #6
Tvoivozhd tvoivozd at infionline.net
Wed Sep 22 12:45:49 EDT 2004

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A lot of red meat here, I will confine the subject to the Critical Path
Method---applicable to almost any business behone use of an Irish Steam
Shovel---round-point shovel and wheelbarrow.

Home Manufacturing Business Series, recent post #6

Management tool---the Critical Path Method writ large on your office
wall. Those annoying little laptop screens have their place---you don't
have to carry around a box of records with you, but as reference to what
you have to do for the day, the week and month, they are damn near
worthless---what you need is real visual impact and nothing provides it
as well as a huge wall-chart. As a 1950-s tract developer and builder
of mass-housing, I found CPM to be invaluable, even in its early stages
where less than a dozen tract builders in the United States adopted this
style of project management.

Of course, you can still buy four-foot high and wide sheets of paper at
your local office supply store, but when Hewlett Packard came out with
its capacity for printing banners in color, it made life much easier for
Building Contractors, to whom a wall-mounted Critical Path chart is a

http://www.netmba.com/operations/project/cpm/ (Dupont originator,
quickly adopted by real estate tract developers and mass-builders

http://www.buildersnet.org/cpmtutor/cpmtutor.html (your Critical Path
method tutorial)

http://www.ifors.ms.unimelb.edu.au/tutorial/about/cpm_about.html (CPM
tutorial, Gantt Chart refinement)

http://www.robertluttman.com/Week4/page5.htm (Process Thinking as
applied to Healthcare)

http://www.thebluebook.com/cl/all1350.htm (CPM info from Blue Book of
Construction and Building


(CPM transparency and reconciling two CPM charts)

http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/C/Critical_Path_Method.html (Webopedia on
the CPM project manager technique)

http://recenter.tamu.edu/soft/sw1017.html (small, simple, easy to
learn, free real estate CPM application)

http://hadm.sph.sc.edu/Courses/J716/CPM/CPM.html (network analysis of


(CPM for turnaround specialists---you have a failing business, someone
elses (or your own), CPM is where you start to rectify the problems and
convert failure to success.)

http://www.pmforum.org/library/glossary/PMG_C12.htm (glossary of CPM

http://www.maxwideman.com/pmglossary/PMG_C13.htm (Wideman Glossary)

http://www.mycoted.com/creativity/techniques/cpm.php (this and
following websites for informational redundancy and comparison---this is
specifically related to Housebuilder Contractor projects)


(CPM algorithm)


That means hurricant-proof, fire and flood-resistant---you can
self-insure a really safe house and your unspent insurance premiums will
pap for any added construction cost---and you don't have to fight a
promise-to-pay insurance company in court to force them to pay, either.

go to csmonitor.com's homepage <http://www.csmonitor.com/>

[Homestead] Houses, tiny and solar collection
Tvoivozhd tvoivozd at infionline.net
Fri Sep 24 00:40:18 EDT 2004

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Divert from the home manufacturing business series momentarily---to
housebuilding, preferably small ones.

http://www.wauu.de/Arts/Architecture/Minimum_Cost_Housing/ (houses are
too damn big to economically build and maintain, to say nothing of
taxes---make tiny houses act and feel like big ones by opening up
angles, vistas, getting rid of interior partitions and those cursed
second stories, basements with their space-robbing staircases, and
occupant-killing hot, poisonous gases if a fire starts. Make any and all
houses wheelchair-accessile---you may be in a sheelchare next week and
for the rest of your life. Use large,insulated-pane windows (think
French Doors) both to contain heat and provide ventilation---and don't
forget a tall window will only throw light inside twenty feet---beyone
that you should think about transparent roof panels and piping light
inside with fiber optics or cylinders containing reflective mirrors) 

(McGill has always been a pioneer in minimum-cost housing---mostly for
Third World, but applicable in the U.S.)

http://www.mchg.mcgill.ca/mchg/thesis/thlist1.htm (McGill themes in
greater detail)


(examples of tiny houses)


(Even if you think it will kill you, pay as you go---a compound interest
mortgage absolutely WILL kill you. In the unlikely event your house is
too tiny, add-on in stages, also pay-as-you go.)

http://www.fsec.ucf.edu/bldg/fyh/ratings/why.htm (minimum cost means
passive solar heat and protection against unwanted summer heat, both
requiring a good insulation factor. Don't forget termite protection
too---you don't want wood elements collapsing around your ears.)

http://www.womens-finance.com/budget/heatmaxcomfort.shtml (reduce your
utility costs---it is not to your advantage to make your electric, oil
or gas supplier rich)


(minimum cost housing web links)

http://www.akf.dk/eng/wind0.htm (the economics of wind-electricity in
Denmark---which has elimated its reliance on fossil fuel to two percent)

http://www.super-e.com/html/english/general/gen-what.html (other
countries have more fervently embraced energy-efficient than the U.S.
Canada and Japan among them.)

http://answers.google.com/answers/threadview?id=19057 (low-cost
discussion forum suggestions---stay away from anything with asbestos in
the name---and pounding dirt in tires is too labor-intensive.)

http://features.aroundcarolina.com/architecture/shotgun.asp (shotgun
houses, Yoruba heritage)

http://www.nahn.com/hph.htm (cold-climate housing, recapture heat from
exiting air with a heat-exchanger to you don't pay twice for heatin it.)

http://msnbc.msn.com/id/5830575/site/newsweek/ (bedZED houses)

(Panchayat programs---some of the most brilliant, economical and
practical housing illustrations occur in India)

http://www.fas.org/housing/eps.htm (extremely low cost, durable Afghan

http://www.habitatforhumanity.org.uk/html/houses.html (Habitat For
Humanity houses take many forms---most cheaper than better than
stickbuild U.S. Habitat For Humanity homes)

http://www.phys.ufl.edu/~liz/design.html (passive solar Florida Cracker

http://solarsensedesigns.com/ (small, 1040 sq. feet passive solar,
passive cooling house---don't use cooling air tubes any place except a
dry climate---think mold, allergies and Legionaires Disease)

(passive solar air preheater for south-facing walls)


http://www.ourcoolhouse.com/designs.htm#plan2 (open up the angles,
don't be afraid to enlist a college professor and his architectural
student class, or post on an architectural student bulletin board a
first, second, maybe third prize for redoing your favorite house design.)

http://www.ki7xh.com/house.htm (probably too-expensive for yor or me,
but some interesting features)

http://www.mountainhomeshow.com/houseplans/mypageDiary2.htm (this is
even more interesting and described in greater detail---a two-story
house though, which I despise)

http://www.envirolink.org/articles/jul97-1.html (erector set with a
roof for $10,000, by Pliny Fisk, the best of the best)

http://www.taunton.com/store/pages/fh_toc_123.asp (good small houses
described in Taunton Press, Fine Homebuilding 1999 magazine)

http://www.taunton.com/store/pages/fh_toc_147.asp (2002 Fine
Homebuilding magazine---have your librarian get a bunch of them for you)

http://www.buildinggreen.com/elists/furnacefree.cfm (your furnace-free
house in chilly Vermont)

(long list of houses you can get from your librarian on interlibrary
loan---don't know a thing about them, except every time I hear Frank
Lloyd Wright my ears prick up---spent a lot of weekends at Spring Green
talking to Olga in Russian, and FLW in English.)

http://www.housealive.org/article_sand-straw-clay.htm (cob, Fix-all,
wattle and daub)


(Tumbleweed in Natural Home magazine)


(Nick Pine, one of the quickest and most competent numbers-men I have
ever run across, expert on solar chimneys, thermal storage in concrete
septic tanks under a house. Back in 1997 and for a few years later when
I was on many energy and construction forums, I had voluminous
correspondence with Nick) Look him up, he has lots of stuff in his
persoal archives.)

(465 sq. foot portable dome---I like cluster domes---used to be a
cluster at University of Wisconsin that friends lived in and
loved---lots of light, views and idiot-simple, cheap to make---lot
easier to make and much more useful than a giant, single dome.)


(house built into a canyon rock wall, Natural Home magazine_

[Homestead] Homestead survival plan
Tvoivozhd tvoivozd at infionline.net
Tue Sep 28 12:57:59 EDT 2004

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clanSkeen wrote:

 >I have reread TVO's survival plan and can say that to a certain extent 
I can
 >verify that it is on target. We paid cash for this land and moved up 
an old
 >(older than me but made of good materials) mobile home that I overpaid 
 >for and lived in that for almost three years. The first thing we built was
 >a workshop into which was hoarded tools and every sort of materials
 >(electrical, plumbing, fasteners, wire, etc.). We built the house with a
 >stone foundation, stone and brick for several feet around the stoves 
in all
 >directions, and an enameled metal roof (over top of 1" sheeting). It is
 >under a grove of huge oak trees which requires constant vigilence but 
it is
 >cool all during the summer. We are in the middle of huge forest (the
 >Cherokee National Forest) where dead standing wood is free for the taking
 >(asking and then taking) so the house is heated and food is cooked with
 >wood. We are twenty miles from small cities and almost 140 miles from 
 >cities (Roanoke and Knoxville). Taxes (at present) are cheap and insurance
 >is cheap. For example the property taxes on the 20 acre farm and house 
 >up hugely this year to $280 ( a year).

tvoivozhd---the $1000 mobile home that HAS to be moved keeps
recurring---not often, but periodically in the newspaper ads. but you
can always find them by visiting trailer parks and talking to residents
or managers. Two days ago (I keep watching for such things), in the
Roanoke Times, there was an ad for a 72' x 14' foot mobile home in good
shape for $1000. The principle cost would be moving it. Since you as a
new owner would not be under time-compulsion to get rid of it when your
new house was built, you will at least break even, more likely make
money on a resale. Not a bad idea of using it as a cheap workshop or
storage for tools, stuff you don't want in or around your new house either.

 >We seem to have been attending the Tvo school of homestead survival 
 >even in some of the small details. For example, my father and I are 
 >radio buffs and I have two of the old Heathkit HW-12 trancievers that
 >operate off a 12v car battery (just about forever). If I can find a few
 >more, I'll get them. In the event of a meltdown, they provide periodic
 >communication even globally. In the event of a meltdown, we will be little
 >concerned about licenses. Gotta keep that code up to speed though. Used
 >to do nearly 50 wpm but I'm not in that much of a hurry now of days. (That
 >is, I couldn't do it now!)

tvoivozhd---I really HATED IT when Heathkit shut down. They produced
some marvelous kits, the construction of which was an unmatched learning
experience. There were a couple of other kit-producers too that no
longer exist---I built quite a few to test electronic circuits that were
helpful in the days when I was scavenging for old radios and restoring
them to their original condition, and when I had a small side-business
repairing the easily-repairable black and white television sets.

 >Also we are located in a "holler" whose access is a narrow mountain 
road if
 >it should ever need defending, and our own "driveway" is 2000' through a
 >notch so deep and narrow we call it "the Valley of the Shadow of 
Death" ...
 >all according to the Gospel of Tvoivozhd.
 >So Tvo isn't just blowing steam with his plan. It is the backbone of a
 >workable life's plan, we are in some way the workshop of same.
 >I'd add a couple of things: don't trim your homesteading boat so that any
 >wave or wake will upset it. What I mean by that is that you need food and
 >fuel and water on a continuous basis. Even a short time without them puts
 >you at the mercy of things outside your infuence. So I want to make sure I
 >can grow corn next year and have kale and turnips this winter (and 
milk and
 >eggs and such too). I am happy to rely on wood for fuel since I can go out
 >to the woods any time and renew it. But clothes, nails, tools, pipes, and
 >such are much longer term prospects. It is easy to keep your boat even in
 >the water for a very long haul with a little planning. When times are 
 >put away blankets, jeans, shorts, towels, shoes, nails, wire, etc. so that
 >if evil (or interesting) times come, you can ride them out for years until
 >better times come. Better times always come just as evil times always 
 >That is, prividing youself with coveralls is not the same thing as 
 >yourself with soup and bread.

tvoivozhd---the gospel of Tvo certainly has its counterpart in the Sgian
episode. I don't think anyone on the Homestead List is better prepared
for all exigencies, while maintaining a reasonable, if reduced cash-flow
while he eyes the horizon for storm clouds or clearing skies. He and
Denise have done exactly what I would be doing if I were twenty years
younger and wiser. Chasing , and occasionally catching the multi-million
dollar rainbow all over the world was exhilarating and I would regret
missing the experience (even of getting shot at in the less
financial-rewarding Air Force), but in balance I now feel the Sgian
plan and course is the best to follow for them and their family.

 >Plan for 94% of your life. People used to ask what we would do if a storm
 >filled our notch full of snow, how would we get out? The answer is "we
 >wouldn't." The world won't come to an end if we bow out for a few days.
 >Planning for 100% of your life is ten times more expensive than 
planning for
 >94% of it. The other 6% isn't that important. This holds true for the
 >question "What will you do when you are alone on that mountian, all your
 >children are gone - not interested in homesteading, you can't garden 
and you
 >can't do your luthier work, you are too old to look after chickens and 
 >the cow and make bread (or - gasp - run a pint of 'shine) .. what will you
 >do then? The answer is: then? We will die. But by the gods that other
 >94% is gonna be something!
 >One more thing. You have to have a vision. Now Tvo is very good a plans
 >and with him not being all that far away I've been tempted once or 
twice to
 >shamelessly pick his brain more than decorum would deem seemly. For 
 >I've got this plan for an injection molding system using recycled soda 
 >I want to set up for my eldest and can you even imagine what Tvo has 
 >forgotten about that! Tempting. But all that Teultonic and Slavic
 >precision must also have a vision. There's no doubt it's there, but it
 >isn't the side of equation that is as easily expressed as the 
 >It is summed up in this:

tvoivozhd---there he goes again below with the word-music that I so
envy. If I could reorder my education I might attend Jesuit school too.

 >A vision without a task is and empty dream
 >A task without a vision is drudgery
 >In the survival plan, have the task honestly laid out before you and
 >evaluate it coldly; but have a vision as well. Then you won't need that
 >last 6% ... or more likely you will get that last 6% with interest. Now
 >there's MY investment plan.

[Homestead] Homestead survival plan
Tvoivozhd tvoivozd at infionline.net
Tue Sep 28 13:04:22 EDT 2004

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clanSkeen wrote:

 >Oh, I forgot to add that Tvo's best point on the survival plan was that
 >part about lots of red wine. The wisdom is irrefutable!
 >"The grape whose logic absolute
 > The two and seventy jarring sects confutes
 > The enchanted alchemist that in a trice
 > Life's leaden metal into gold transmutes"
 > (From the Rubbaiyyat)
 >tvoivozhd---uncanny---the Rubaiyat is all that got me through Primary 
flying school in Tulare, California. I had the

best of instructors, world-renowned acrobatic pilots, even the best 
parachute-rigger I have ever seen. But the washout

rate was over 50% which was demoralizing. I carried a copy of the 
Rubaiyyat in my left rear pants pocket at all


[Homestead] Homestead survival plan
Tvoivozhd tvoivozd at infionline.net
Tue Sep 28 00:16:26 EDT 2004

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Gene GeRue wrote:

 > I changed the subject line so this material is more easily found in
 > the archives and copied Tvo's present post below this next piece,
 > which he wrote earlier and I saved. Some redundancy of course, but
 > that just underlines importance.
 > Earlier post:
 > tvoivozhd---as I said before, building a mostly self-sufficient rural
 > homestead is the most drastic political statement you can
 > make---providing you really do it.

tvoivozhd---Just back from tanking up at the VA----fortunately
AB-Positive is a near-universal recipient.. The post and repost are
generic advice. I have been only in verbal stage of survival planning
(the income problem) with my oldest son, who acts as an information
relay-station to his two brothers. He was down here for a week, and
flew back to Wisconsin last Sunday.
The three boys have a lot of similarities, but have different
businesses, which I suspect will affect their receptiveness to my
advice. However the oldest "lived engines" when he was eight or
nine---did a better job of disassembling and rebuilding them than I
thought possible---a gratifying surprise, since I did not teach him
anything about model aircraft engines, or for that matter, about
automobile engines..

If I can batter this computer into submission---(problem with RAM sticks
and slots), I'll see what I can come up with MY preferred integrated
rural income solution, allocation of always limited capital and time,
and from which income comes creeping back---both using the Critical Path
Method---don't know if I can post the last, since I have never had the
occasion creating charts on my computer---maybe my oldest daughter will
help me, she does this all the time in her line of work.

I like diversity, so I will include both rural manufacturing and quick,
plus quicker high-profit ag endeavors. have to remind myself that these
have to include the insufficiently emphasized packaging and
advertising flyers, advertising on the package too. Selling ag
commodities to middlemen was no intellectual challenge, but put the vast
majority of farmers out of business.

[Homestead] Innumeracy and housebuilding
Tvoivozhd tvoivozd at infionline.net
Sat Sep 25 14:45:39 EDT 2004

Odds are meaningless to the general public---the idiots build
stickbuilts in Hurricane Alley and where they can expect both high
storm-surges and and waist-high flooding for weeks.

If people are stupid enough to build in in such areas, their houses
should be concrete domes or hexagons. Those who don't, find out that
stupid people and their fortunes, stupid people and their lives are soon

[Homestead] need new and different construction skills
Tvoivozhd tvoivozd at infionline.net
Tue Sep 28 13:38:15 EDT 2004

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Toni Hawryluk wrote:


tvoivozhd---Gaudi and Nervi were and are heroes of mine.

[Homestead] Home manufacturing, some workshop tools and kitchen table 
jewelry startup
Tvoivozhd tvoivozd at infionline.net
Wed Sep 29 14:41:26 EDT 2004

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The Chinese workshop tools relate to more ambitious rural manufacturing
than the kitchen-table jewelry busines, but useful if your vivid
imagination encompasses larger projects.

http://www.aardvark.co.nz/pjet/tools.htm (ostensibly on making a small
jet engine, but focussed on the workshop tools necessary to that and
similar machine shop work.)

I do not like jewelry, although a friend running a welding shop and I
cranked up a great piece of coin-bracelet jewelry, and a magnificent
color-brochure samples of which I am certain are somewhere out in our
West barn..Our bracelents had a gold and chromium option, and I got the
electroplating cost down from almost three dollar quotations to nine
cents. Was prepared to do our own electroplating if the final jobshop
bid had not gone to nine cent---too cheap to consider our alternative
labor and tooling costs.

Jewelry has been popular and profitable for thousands of years, it has
an enormous number of variants---metal-based stampings, centrifugal
castings, lost-wax, , ceramic-based (baked or unbaked) jewelry,
decorated by many means, electroplated, paint-imprinted.

Its major virtue is that it can be started on the kitchen table with
near-zero investment, your knowledge and tooling expanded as far as you
want to go. Like every other jewelry product it has to be artistically
good, preferably novel, and well-packaged. A single product is usually
insufficient, you have to make and package related jewely to create
real sales volume.---and make or buy a foldout modular, well-lit
craft-show booth-display for jewelry and literature, dealer-contracts
etc. Make dealer display booths too, in several sizes they can
buy---the more you do for dealers, the more they will do for you. Craft
shows and flea markets is where you start out, of course you will
progress to a website and mearchant-dealer credit card acceptance (with
a SECURE site to protect customer records and your records)..

Everything and everything about jewelry is available in jewelry supplier
catalogs, in thousands of books, and on the Internet.. The number is
overwhelming---you have to cut the information flow down to a size you
can digest, and to a sub-section of jewelry that meets your initial home
workshop level of skill, tools and your initial investment, production,
marketing capital.


*How To Operate a Successful Jewelry Business*

copyright 2004
by Rena Klingenberg

I've always loved earrings, and this love has turned into my dream
career. It has also led me to great experiences and personal growth,
along with a nice income.

Several years ago, after two decades of buying earrings everywhere I
went, I received the birthday gift that changed my life - a book called
"You Can Make Your Own Earrings". I was electrified at the realization
that I really could make earrings for myself!

Obsessed, I sent for dozens of jewelry supply catalogs, ordered jewelry
making supplies and tools, and began turning out dozens of pairs of
handcrafted earrings. I made far more earrings than I could ever wear
myself, so I gave earrings to everyone I knew and kept on making more of
them. It was the most addictive hobby I'd ever had!
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Real-world, common sense strategies for small and home based business
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Finally, when my earring supply reached critical mass, my husband said,
"I think you're going to have to either stop making those earrings or
start selling them." And so my jewelry business was born. It's been an
enjoyable process that has brought me experiences I wouldn't trade for
anything. Thanks to my jewelry business, I've learned new skills,
created my own solutions to challenges, and met kindred spirits.
(Almost) every step of the journey has been fun!

I started selling my earrings at small art and craft shows, and
consigned my work to gift shops and galleries. I made a lot of mistakes,
and also had some early successes.

One of my earliest lessons was that you have to make what people want to
buy, not just what you like to make! I found that I could make a lot
more sales by offering other pieces of jewelry to match my earrings, so
I diversified and began designing bracelets, necklaces, and pendants
too. And although custom orders are not my favorite work to do, they can
be very profitable, so I began accepting them too.

After doing a few shows, I learned that a professional looking display
can sell ten times more jewelry than just a scattering of earrings on a
table cloth. In the process of making that discovery, I found out that
elaborate displays are a pain to set up and take down, and require a lot
of closet space to store at home! So gradually I evolved my displays to
my current setup, which looks professional, is lightweight and compact
to store and transport, and stays loaded with my inventory and ready to
go at all times. It takes me only half an hour or so to set up and take
down my booth when I do shows, and if a customer calls wanting to come
to my house to look at jewelry, I can just whip out a nice display on
the guest bed in only a few minutes.

Offering my customers free gift wrap increased my sales, so I provide a
selection of different types of elegant pouches, boxes, and bags. This
is an especially important selling point around the holidays, when
people are so busy. They appreciate my beautiful complimentary gift wrap
so they don't have to go home and hunt for a tiny box and wrap the
jewelry themselves. I even offer to ship the gift for them if the
recipient lives out of town. Anything you can do to simplify your
customer's life will make them remember you the next time they need to
purchase a gift!

Other jewelry packaging is also important. I found that the earring
cards and jewelry hang tags I designed myself give my pieces a much more
professional appearance, and I print my contact info on them as well as
specific information about the stones used in the jewelry.

Another crucial selling point is accepting credit cards. I found that
was my ticket to really big jewelry sales and profits. People will buy
more if they can put it on their Visa or MasterCard instead of shelling
out the cash right then and there, and many customers don't have their
checkbook with them anyway. So if you're serious about making money from
your handcrafted jewelry, it's essential to accept credit cards.

I dabbled in selling my jewelry on eBay, and had some spectacular flops
along with some thrilling successes. Jewelry is a very competitive niche
on eBay, and success in the online auction market takes time to develop.
To be a successful eBay jewelry seller you need to have a constant
presence there, with at least a couple of auctions up at all times for
your repeat customers to find. Clear, closeup photos of your jewelry are
also crucial for eBay success.

I learned through a great deal of trial and error how to get
professional-looking photographs of my jewelry. I finally figured out
that my cheapie digital camera just isn't designed for close, clear
pictures of jewelry, so I've mastered jewelry photography with my
computer's flatbed scanner. You can get some beautifully artistic
jewelry photos with a scanner, and it's a quick and simple way to get
great shots for your website, auction listings, or other literature.

Home jewelry parties are one of the most profitable ways to sell
handcrafted jewelry, and I spent some time figuring out how to make
parties rewarding for the hostess without cutting into my profits too
much. I also found that an open-house type of party with just light
snacks and no party games gets the highest attendance and sells the most
jewelry. And the number-one way to increase your home jewelry party
profits and attendance is to have the hostess call all guests a day or
two before the party to remind them about it and secure their commitment
to attend.

Customers and shop owners assumed that since I was in business, I would
have a website. So I learned how to build and promote my own site, how
to set up a shopping cart, and how to accept online payments. A simple
website design is best, so that your jewelry stands out. Although neat,
flashy website features are fun to play with, you should resist the
temptation to put them on your site. At best they distract visitors from
your jewelry, and at worst they slow down the page's loading so that
visitors on a slow Internet connection will give up and hit the back
button. And most especially, do not use any background images. They make
it very hard to see photos and read text. Just a plain, preferably
light-colored background is best for your visitors!

I discovered that keeping my jewelry dazzlingly clean and shiny catches
customers' eyes and increases the perceived value of my work, so I
bought an ionic jewelry cleaner and tarnish-prevention strips and
devised a tarnish-free way of storing my jewelry inventory. Now all my
pieces have that spectacular "jewelry-store" sparkle!

One of the opportunities my jewelry business has brought me is teaching
jewelry making workshops, which is very rewarding. However, I learned
the hard way that workshops are a lot easier for me if everyone works on
the same type of project at the same time, instead of each person doing
a totally different thing! From jewelry workshops I discovered the
market niche of providing bracelet-making birthday parties for girls,
which is a fun way to spend a few hours and make some good money for
your time.

I have to attribute the biggest leap in my professional development to
online jewelry-making forums, where I've been immeasurably enriched by
the professional information exchange and friendships. If you have any
interest in operating your own jewelry business, participating in
jewelry-making forums is a fun and important element of your success!

For your own jewelry business success, I encourage you to follow your
artistic heart and think with your business brain. I recommend that you
study jewelry trends and styles, learn everything you can about jewelry
making materials, set up your business recordkeeping so that you stay
organized, and concentrate on providing solutions to your customers'
problems. Don't try to make all jewelry for all people; focus on your
own style or niche and build a client base.

About the Author*

Rena Klingenberg's website, Home Jewelry Business Success Tips
<http://www.home-jewelry-business-success-tips.com>, has thousands of
success tips and techniques for jewelry artists of all levels. Her site
includes in-depth articles on jewelry packaging and display,
photographing jewelry, home jewelry parties, building your jewelry
business website, selling jewelry on eBay, and dozens of other topics.
Visit her jewelry business blog

for daily gems of jewelry business info, and subscribe to her Jewelry
Business Success News

ezine for more innovative techniques on marketing your handcrafted jewelry.

[Homestead] Home Workshop tools, homemade foam wire-cutter
Tvoivozhd tvoivozd at infionline.net
Wed Sep 29 15:08:53 EDT 2004

* Previous message: [Homestead] Home manufacturing, some workshop tools 
and kitchen table jewelry startup
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For a lot of things like making your own wind-turbine propellors, a
hotwire foam cutter is the best way to go---what would normally take
you a couple of days is accomplished in an hour---and much more
accurately, which is essential to the balance you have to have to avoid
shaking your wind-turbine apart and having it fall (dangerously) to the


[Homestead] Home workshop tools, equipment, some distantly-related
Tvoivozhd tvoivozd at infionline.net
Wed Sep 29 18:14:35 EDT 2004

* Previous message: [Homestead] Operation Truth
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Distantly related, but useful tools and products---the penalty you have
to pay for my disorganized mind. Some good moneymakers here though.

http://www.geocities.com/PicketFence/Garden/5461/ (homemade tools to
make lapstrake, woodstrip boats. No plans, just pictures, including
beautiful decked sailing canoe. These are rarities, bring thousands of
dollars when they come up for sale.)

http://www.taunton.com/finewoodworking/pages/w00126.asp (run
three-phase electric motors on single-phase current)

http://www.taunton.com/finewoodworking/pages/w00051.asp (HVLP turbine
paint sprayers)

http://www.ganoksin.com/ (jewelry makers forum on materials, tools,
processes---a must-see website for wannabe jewelry goniffs))

(since the Homestead archives recently came into being, I keep stumbling
into this stuff on home workshop tools and projects)

http://geoparent.com/home/food/homemadebabyfood.htm (little far afield,
tools for babies, make your own baby food, with some sage advice on
taking it slow and easy)

http://wireless.gumph.org/articles/homemadeomni.html (per the recent
Homestead List discussion with James Skeen and Don Bowen on now mostly
useless electronic knowledge and equipment, some newer variants are
alive and well---for example homemade 2.4 GHA Omni Antenna here
http://wireless.gumph.org/articles/homemadeomni.html and a
mini-wireless antenna for your laptop in the sidebar reference.

http://www.stretcher.com/stories/970606a.cfm (kid stuff, play-dough and
bubblemaking recipies---latter great for a cheap, animated
attention-getter at flea markets and craft shows.)


(more playdough and fingerlicking paint)


(cam't repeat too often or too much about the utility of a homemade
vacuum-forming machine---the Armorama is tiny, larger two-stage
vacuum-pump and vacuum storage tank which I have posted in the past, are
more practical, more productive and more expensive---there are
occasional uses for a tiny cheapy though)

(and a laptop wireless antennae

http://www.stuartnye.com/about.htm (dammit, should have incorporated
this article on Depression-Era jwwelrymaking in the previous post. If
you can make it in a home business during the Depression, you can make
it anytime, anywhere---six mile wide comet permitting)

http://www.righthook.com/fahome.html (if you're really pissed about Big
Brother and want to keep a low profile until D-Day, books on making your
own automatic weapons and gunpowder)

http://www.uniqueprojects.com/projects/paper/paper.htm (be a
papermaker, you are surrounded by free-for-the-gathering papermaking
supplies---the most beautiful paper is homemade and any thickness,
texture, color you choose+

http://www.sare.org/publications/core_info.htm (SARE data on improving
your soil, your garden, fields, farm income, pest-control, composting,,
the cultivation equipment available for the farmer, Creamline for the
small private-consumption or small commercial dairy. Try it, you'll
like it.)


(State Fair List---about 1946 my Mother and i ran a Wisconsin Fair
cafdteria concession, fed four thousand customers a day)

http://www.primitiveways.com/pt-composite_bow.html (make an Asiatic
Composite Bow)

http://pennswoods.net/~zigbug/ (for a lot of homemade woodlot products,
you've GOT to have a bandsaw, whether it is homemade or a WodMizer with
all the bells and whistles, or the take-it-to-the-log
I've had the Rake bandsaw plans for years---now vefy much improved and
more expensive at $1200 for materials---his first version cost $600.

http://www.bmumford.com/cncindex.html (homebrew CNC machine tools, lie
down and take a nap while the machine does all the work)

http://nv.essortment.com/claytileshandm_rzfz.htm (homemade baked clay
tiles, stroll into Architects office with samples, into Interior
Designers studios with a picture-tile wall decoration under your
arm---my youngest boy with a large regional floor and wall-covering
business would be interested.)

http://www.flyrockets.com/websites.asp (I dunno, I posted plans and
prices on a %5000 cruise missile which is the equivalent of any
medium-range U.S. Military cruise-missile---the free plans are no longer
posted on the designers website, bu available for a reasonable fee.
Heres some stuff on less ambitios rocketry)

http://www.backyardmetalcasting.com/castingpulleys3.html (casting and
turning a metal vee-belt pulley---click on articles #1 and #2)

http://www.torotrak.com/variator.html (if ou run a speed-dependent
drive in your small factory, you will have to drive it with a variator.
You can machine a variator, but you won't save any money,these are
pretty cheap. Forgot the brand, but I used to buy them for my factories
as low as $17.95)

http://www.csgnetwork.com/pulleybeltcalc.html (ratio-calculator for
drive and driven pulley)



(A Chrysler-assigned CVT (continuously variable transmission, no
drawings here, only claims, but you get the

http://www.gokartsupply.com/tcterms.htm Comet drive CVT used in
motor-scooters, as I remember Salsbury was the first, or at least one of
the first to do this.)

A CVT is used a lot in an air-to-air whole house heat exchanger, where
you want to fine-tune the the amount of air exhausted and bro brought in
for the correct number of turnovers across a twenty four hour
period---the flow volume depends on the cubic footage of the house)

Also used in stirring liquids where the viscosity changes, or it is
desirable to change the shear-rate of the blades---as in stirring papier
mache, papercrete, mixing paint etc.

[Homestead] Mother Earth News Archives, Projects
Tvoivozhd tvoivozd at infionline.net
Thu Sep 30 15:29:14 EDT 2004

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* Next message: [Homestead] URL for fun and education
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Look for the dual-fuel woodgas and gasoline carburetor here in back
issues, designed by Clarence Goosen in the 1980's apex of MEN ingenuity
and usefulness.


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Issue #81

*Bits and Pieces

*Mother's Lifers
Numbers 5787 through 5816

*Bow and Arrow Can Hunting
Drinking containers can be used like clay pigeons for archery enthusiasts.

*In Praise of a Patchwork Garden
Planting a country organic garden with city space constraints, including
strawberry, pumpkin, potato and asparagus patches.

*Wealth at Your Fingertips
An economic analysis of home gardens.

*Swarming Season
Cultivating and keeping bees for a sweet honey crop.

*The Plowboy Interview
Elisabeth Kubler-Ross discusses life, death and everything in between.

*Mother's Children: More Than Just a Summer Job
A young girl has fun driving the swather tractor on the family farm.

*The Auto Transport Business
Moving cars for money makes for cheap travel.

*Fish Farm with Cages!
Aquaculture made easier with mosquito netting on all kinds of ponds,
includes obtaining fish and types: bullheads, catfish, trout, sunfish,
carp, eels, tilapia.

*Run, Chicken, Run
Building a poultry enclosure with wood and chicken wire, with
instructions and pictures.

*Ask Our Experts
Orchard ground cover; keeping a well safe from contaminants; finding an
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cordwood structures; earth sheltered building methods.

*New Directions Radio
Connecting a personal computer to a HAM rig.

*Build a Bye Bye Blackbird Feeder
Constructing a wooden birdhouse including materials list, diagrams.

*Finally '- Findhorn Buys Its Birthplace
Buying land for an environmental residency and vacation community.

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Experience natural gardens, Disneyland and airplanes in Japan.

*Successful Swaps

*Citizen Groups Can Make A Difference
Grassroots protesting of the sole-source aquifer and the Yellow Creek
Concerned Citizens.

*We Discovered Self-Reliance on a Maine Island
Buying land and building a rural home in the Northeast.

*Become an Eggs-Pert
How to buy, store and prepare quality eggs with recipes for ham and
mushroom quiche, Swiss pie Florentine, stir fry garden omelet, confetti
scramble, chicken waldorf blossom, day ahead dinner salad.

*Country Lore <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=3527>*
W.W. Donovan fixes a dead battery with Epsom salts; Norma Sizemore saves
rice thrown at weddings to cover her sprout jars; Thelma Mahoney
recommends dropping an expired driver's license in the car door to prove
ownership in case it's stolen; Virginia McQuitty stores spoons on her
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brass fixtures; Sherry Miranda says vegetable bins make excellent barn
storage bins; Morrow Olcott suggests that discarded seat belts make
great gate latches; Owen Bradford makes fluffier omelets by adding a
pinch of pancake mix to the egg batter; Doug Smith stores his spare
hooks and leaders in a wallet-sized photograph holder while fishing; Don
Carroll suggests running jewelry through drinking straws to prevent
tangling; Mrs. Arthur E. Norah browns oatmeal in butter as a substitute
for nuts in food; Charlotte Pierce puts a colored light bulb in her
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the baskets of old grocery carts into rabbit hutches; Country Monia
discovered green and blue colors make eaters less hungry, while orange
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*The Appalachian Moth Bow: Easy To Make and Play
Building a homemade, wooden oral instrument, music.

*A Rendezvous with Rainbows

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History, training and riding a helpful trial mate and animal.

*If You Are Sprayed With Pesticides
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*Report From: <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=3517>*
Building a house in the country turns into a permanent home.

*Set Sail Aboard A Windjammer
A weeklong diary of travel on a wind powered boat.

*Make Superlative Soups All Year Long
Cooking advice and recipes for vegetarian, vegetable medley, cream of
broccoli, clear and lima bean soup.

*Hurdles <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=3514>*
Building homemade, country, wood fences.

*Learn While You Play '- With Stacofax!
Using old playing cards as memory, teaching and learning devices and games.

*Patching for Pleasure and Profit
Sewing and stitching advice for making custom clothes.

*An Unparalleled Posthole Digger
An angled shovel makes digging holes for posts easy.

*Best Bets for Cage Aquaculture
The best fish for farming including: catfish, trout, bluegill, tilapia,
carp, eels, bullhead.

*Mother's Herb Garden: Garden Sorrel

*Taking Care of Each Other: The Work of Eva Salber
Doctors keeping communities healthy.

*Energy Flashes <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=3509>*

*A Collapsible Cardboard Pet Carrier
Building a cheap dog or cat transport device including diagrams and

*Shelterbelts for Privacy
Using trees, shrubs, vines and hedges for home, yard and garden cover.

*Bootstrap Businesses

*Friends of the Earth

*A Solar Heated Church
Passive heat building constructed through donations, collections, now
saves money.

*Building the Sun Cottage: Part One, Site Selection
Finding the perfect plot for a in ground home, including water, shade
and soil makeup.

*Biscuitroot: A Spring Bonus for Western Foragers
Dried roots can be made into tasty pastry, cooking.

*An Owner Build Yard Card for Under $50
Metal brackets, plywood and wheels form excellent farm materials carrier.

*Probing the Mysteries of the Inverter, Part II
Power rating, installation, wire sizing, remote switching, safety,
circuit protectors.

*Terracing with Tires
Using rubber to prevent erosion, roof sliding on underground home.

*China's Population Crisis
Reproduction, overpopulation, land use and other problems in the Orient.

*Profiles <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=3496>*

*Make Your Own Nets
Building a fishing net including techniques, know examples, pictures,
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*Sugar Shack A 20th Century Yurt
Building a wood, wall and rafter supported home.

*Chapters Update

*Local Self-Reliance

*Homegrown Music: A Potpourri for '83
Making a whistle, books for beginners, new instruments and bluegrass

*Mother's Cut Rate Recumbent Bike
Building a functional recreation vehicle including diagrams, materials
and tool list, diagrams.

*My Bicycle Wheel Bean Tower
Hanging vines from bike spokes great growth in garden.

*A Snake in the Grass
Reptiles ward off pocket gophers.

*Build a Personal Pressure Sprayer
Making a sprayer with a refrigerant canister can steam clean an engine
and is a great tool for the garage.

*Build Your Own Parts Washing Tank
A barrel and sink make an excellent place to wash tools and work
materials, includes materials list, diagrams.

*Report From: <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=3486>*
Moving to Wisconsin, restoring and fixing up a farm home, planting a garden.

*The Last Laugh <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=3474>*

*A Thermos Bottle Carrier from Old Jeans by Mrs. J. Schwartz
Sewing denim to support drink containers.

*A Backyard Bag Holder
Lumber and metal clamps secure garbage out of animal's reach and keeps
the home and yard looking nice.

*Nursery Tales <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=3478>*
Sources for antique fruit varieties, including apples, orchards, blackberry

*Spring Cleanings
Throwing out the garbage and unwanted plants in a spring garden.

*The Weird Humor of Jack Vaughan

*Soft Pretzels <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=3481>*
Cooking recipes and advice.

*Mr. Digwell <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=3482>*

*Photoelectric Smoke Detectors
Keeping safe from fire with a detector free of radioactive material,
includes: sources and advantages.

*Down on the Farm

*Go Sail a Canoe!
Building a boat that uses wind power on the water, with motor options,
diagrams, pictures, instructions.

Issue #82

*Drown Those Fleas
Placing a pan filled with water and a touch of soap will kill animal

*Mother's Lifers
Numbers 5817 - 5846.

*Bits and Pieces

*The Plowboy Interview
Russell Peterson discusses environmentalism and taking care of nature.

*And Ground Those Flies
Trapping flies with syrup in a jar.

*Economic Outlet: Is the Sky Falling?
The bleak financial future.

*Ginseng: Green Gold
Planting, preparing, storing, fertilizing and harvesting the ginseng
herb in the garden.

*A Drip At A Time
Irrigation with a trap ensures a well watered garden.

*Mother's Children: Make (and Sell) Herb Vinegars!
Growing basil, dill, garlic, parsley, sage, oregano, savory, chives and
mint in the garden.

*Raising Goats My Way (If I Could Do It Over Again): Part One
Herd size, buying, milking and other animal tips.

*A Flatlander's Root Cellar
Store vegetables underground safely buy building a concrete wall structure.

*Build A $1 Livestock Scale
Weigh animals with two scales and a wood plank.

*Homestead on a Shoestring
Building a passive solar, earth sheltered house on a budget.

*A Century of Good Life
Farmer Scott Nearing recalls his century of living.

*Report From: <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=3299>*
The single parent raises two children, gets a college degree and settles
on country family land.

*Country Lore <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=3298>*
Daniel Warner uses an air pump to separate meat from the bone in hunted
animals; Doug Quail throws chicken feed around fencing to let the fowl
pick weeds for him; Eileen Jingo recycles sunflower stalks to support
string beans; Badger Stator reports sunflower stalks make great
shepherds' staffs in Christmas pageants; Linda Biracial grows seaweed to
feed to her goldfish; Mrs. Dennis Austin plans city travel by laminating
a map and drawing her route with a grease pencil; D. Leverets says a dry
ballpoint pen works well on carbon paper; David Ennis shares a honey
candy recipe; Gale Flag uses a cotton cloth and liquid lecithin instead
of no stick spray; Charles Craig makes his own reflective pet collars;
Nancy Perry uses rocks to support fence posts; wine vinegar can be used
to eliminate tobacco and other household odors according to Shirley
McHenry; Tom Kennedy finds vinegar handy when patching concrete; Billie
Durham dashes vegetables with vinegar instead of butter and salt; tire
inner tubes can be recycled as water hoses, gaskets and a variety of
other purposes; Fran Beckon saves money by having everyone in the family
use the same natural shampoo; Every Love grows tomatoes upside down in a
bucket; Zen Colterjohn wraps fragile gifts in disposable diapers for
shipping; Nancy Piccioni-Hann found masonry wire supports make excellent
frames for beans and grapes in the garden; Joseph J. Stearn drops an
alcohol/vinegar mixture in his ears to prevent infection after swimming;
Dixie McCullough trades her worn vegetable peeler to a friend who uses
the opposite hand; Ray Anderson rubs crushed garlic on his feet to keep
them dry; David Byrd sprinkles borax in his shoes to prevent athlete's
foot; Janis Simmons traps fleas in petroleum jelly; Dennis and Donna
Cheathem bath their dogs in crushed pennyroyal leaves to prevent fleas;
Emma Minors keeps her plants healthy by pouring water leftover from
boiling eggs in the pots; Patricia Vought brews tea in the sun in
two-gallon glass condiment jars she gathers from restaurants.

*Ask Our Experts
Growing a garden in rocky ground; using gray water in the garden;
growing rice in marshy land.

*Recycle Fabric Scraps Into a Picnic Cloth
Simple sewing and quilt patterns turn rags into outdoor material.

*Successful Swaps

*New Directions Radio
Invest in used equipment and low cost, low power rigs for beginner HAM

*Snipping For Gold
Panning for gold flakes and nuggets including: equipment, getting
started, reading the river, techniques.

*Avoiding Foreclosure
Taking stock of assets and staying out of financial, economic hardship.

*Queen of the Bramble Fruit
Planting, planning and growing raspberries in the home garden.

*Overcome the Summertime Solar (Greenhouse) Blues!
Keeping temperatures tolerable for plants, cultivation and watering.

*Kayaking Off British Columbia
Recreational river travel, including: packing the boat, gear.

*Tepary: The Bean that Laughs at Drought
Recipes and cooking suggestions for beans, including: refried beans,
tepary soup, zuni stew.

*Shelling by Foot!
Soaked beans are husked easier.

*Quillwork: An American Indian Heritage
Origins, techniques, preparation and how to perform sewing, craft hobby.

*Get Yourself a Toad
The benefits of amphibians in the garden.

*Self-Loading Pigs
Self-Loading Pigs by Jerry Genesio Teaching pigs to enter the truck
directly from the pen.

*Mom's Two Liter Bottle Rocket
A plastic bottle, pump and compressed air make fun, cheap toy for children.

*Fresh Ideas for Summer Vegetables
Recipes for onion pie, traditional bean salad, garden vegetables, salade
andalous, vegetable salad, vinaigrette dressing, Indian squash.

*Dog Packing <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=3284>*
Sewing a backpack for dogs, includes instructions, diagrams, materials list.

*Scentsational Rose Beads
Growing fragrant flowers in the garden.

*Turn Your Turnips into Kraut
Peeling and pressing turnips make great canned toppings.

*The Stacklumber House
Efficiently building a wood home with buying advice, tools, foundation
and floor, walls and roofing.

*Mother's Herb Garden: Sassafras

*A Home Business Business (It Pays to Advertise!)
Advertising for home businesses, including pricing, directory design,
prospects, making contacts, promotion, assembly, distribution.

*Energy Flashes <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=3274>*

*How To Save Money on Prescription Drugs
Substitute medicine, investigate costs, generic and alternative pills
while maintaining health.

*Passive Solar Plus
Alternative sun energy efficiently powers house.

*Mother's Biplane Glider
Making a cheap, light airplane toy, with patterns.

*A Successful Lawn Service
Starting a mowing and tree trimming business, includes starting out,
getting and keeping customers, protection and clothing.

*Friends of the Earth

*20/20 Vision without Glasses
Optical exercises improve eye strength including: palming, blinking,
sunning, swinging, central fixation, shifting, myopia, astigmatism,
squint, hyperopia, presbyopia.

*Bootstrap Businesses

*Creature Comforts: Picking the Perfect Pup
Finding the right dog, selection, sensitivity, veterinary examination.

*The Backyard Jungle: Part One, Spider Mites
Small arachnids can damage plants in a garden or orchard.

*A Recumbent Pedal Boat
Building wood, reclining water transportation, includes materials and
tools list, diagrams.

*Down on the Farm

*A One Of A Kind Waterwheel
Building a wheel in a river or stream provides alternative water energy,
with planning, framing, diagram and materials list.

*China: On the Brink
Water control, agriculture, communism, innovations and other pieces of
Oriental history.

*The Return of the Autoharp
Folk music embraces wooden, stringed instrument.

*Progress Makes Perfect
Improving a passive solar house for ventilation, cooling, weatherization.

*Proper Hoof Care (For the Long Run!)
Finding the right shoe design for horses, hoof structure, trimming, care
and common ailments.

*A Shade Tree Lathe
Building a homemade wood tool.

*The Picnic Table Evolves
Building a homemade, hexagonal, folding, outdoor table, includes
materials and tool list, instructions, diagrams.

*How Healthy is Your Water Well
Making sure drinking water, pipes and well construction is sound and
free of contaminants and pollution.

*Let Worms Eat Your Garbage
Constructing a wood worm box, lets worms compost trash and waste.

*Spring Steel Paint Scraper
Carbon steel rods make removing paint, remodeling easier.

*Building the Sun Cottage, Part Two: Cost Control
Efficient money management of solar passive house, including planning a
mortgage and utility hook ups.

*Stand Alone: Striving for Energy Independence
Adding alternative energy generators, solar panels to a home, including
shopping, equipment information.

*The Case for Environmental Mediation
Taking care of the planet without compromising progress.

*Weld A Simple Screw Jack
A baseplate, nut, bolt and pipe form easy homemade tool.

*Beltsville Freebies
The hornfaced honeybee pollinates garden plants and trees more
efficiently than ordinary bees.

*A Rolling Dock <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=3247>*
Building a sloping pier for the pond.

*The Weird Humor of Jack Vaughan

*The Last Laugh <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=3245>*

*Please Eat the Marigolds
Cooking and preparing edible flowers.

*Mr. Digwell <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=3210>*

Issue #83

*The Dow Jones Has A Problem
Problems with the stock market and financial investing.

*Bits and Pieces

*The Plowboy Interview
Gordon Feller discusses voluntary simplicity, disarmament and the world
of the future.

*Make a Jack-O-Lantern... And Eat Pumpkin Pie Too!
Carve and paint a pumpkin and cooking desserts, including recipes for
pumpkin cheesecake, pie and bread.

*The Aerobics Way
An introduction to cardiovascular exercise and health.

*Raab: The Uncommon Cole
Broccoli raab is important in the garden by being a healthy, distinct
vegetable that is related to mustard and turnips.

*New Directions Radio
Broadcast enthusiasts make most of new amateur, HAM directory.

*Okara: A Meal for the Asking
Making and cooking this tasty soy based food, including vegetarian
recipes for crunchy carobola, apple anarchy, soyburger supreme, raisin
soy cookies, no meat sausage rolls, corn bread.

*Access <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=3196>*

*Cast Iron Ware: The Good Cook's Companion
The pros and cons of metal cookware in the kitchen, what to look for and
where to buy, preparing the pans and maintenance.

*Build A Bellows Business
Making a wood and leather air pump for the fireplace inexpensively,
including diagrams, instructions.

*Profiles <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=3198>*

*Ask Our Experts
The effectiveness of superinsulated homes in the Southeast; keeping
creosotes out of the chimney from a wood stove; developing a healthy
vegetarian diet.

*Country Lore <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=3200>*
Lance Mellon sows spinach in autumn for fuller growth; Gary Coffey lines
plant holes with potatoes before setting shrubberies in place; Charlotte
Pierce saves Halloween masks to scar away garden pests and birds; B.
Alice Shipley squirts light machine oil in rabbits' ears in the summer
to keep mites away; Barry Raygor soaks new jeans in cold water with salt
to add life to the material; Dave and Julie Piourde pour melted salt
free butter and peanut butter over popcorn instead of salt; Paul
Williams converted a dog house to a woodbox; Barbara Burr says an
animal's gum color can be an indication of health; Lisa Murray doesn't
prebake her lasagna noodles and they hold up stronger; Sara McGinnis
makes her own seasoning salts at home; Melvin Gates splits damaged doors
and uses them for storage shelves; Barbara Angersbach keeps kitty litter
in her trash can to avoid bad smelling garbage; Mary Siegert bakes
cupcakes in ice cream cones; Al Smith improves AM radio reception by
connecting the radio to a broken car radio and tuning both to the same
frequency; Russell Skinner reports cotton soaked in lard or bacon grease
is great mouse bait; Mrs. John Schwartz uses a plastic bag for bonding
in appliqu'^, hemming or other sewing chores.

*Cabbage Magic <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=3194>*
Planting multiple heads in the garden.

*Mother's Children: A Pig Bladder Ball
Hog slaughtering and creativity lead to a fun new toy.

*Transplanting Asparagus
Finding the right plant, planting techniques, preparing the garden.

*Mother's Lifers
Numbers 5847 through 5924.

*Buying an Existing Earth Sheltered Home
Inspecting an underground home, including: structural soundness and
waterproofing, leakage, heating and cooling, code compliance, questions
and conditions.

*Raising Goats My Way (If I Could Do It Over Again), Part Two
Birthing, raising kids, kid care, milking, feeding and medical care.

*R. Buckminster Fuller: 1895-1983
A look back on the life of the late inventor, author and visionary.

*Gurzo's Gizmo <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=3186>*
A 5 gallon container makes an effective garden hose hanger.

*Report From <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=3187>*
Cutting back on energy consumption and saving money from utility companies.

*We Fought the Energy Bandits'- and Won!
Cooking recipes including skillet stew, American-style Chinese fried rice.

*Canning Meat the Right Way
Cooking and preparing meat for storage, including cleaning, facts and
recipes for canned roast, hot packed steaks or chops, cold or raw packed
steaks or chops, wild rabbit and squirrel, boned bird and hot packed
bird on the bone.

*The Practical (and Profitable) Sign Language
Learning the language of the deaf can be enjoyable and raise extra
money, includes alphabet, dictionary.

*Watertest Corporation Makes A Breakthrough
The importance of a scientific drinking water analysis.

*Mother's Insolation Monitor
Keeping track of the efficiency of alternative, passive solar energy
consumption, including construction, site surveying, power production

*Mother's Herb Garden: Angelica

*Falling for Apples
Making cider.

*Introducing our Environmental Hall of Fame
Biographies of inductees John James Audubon, Henry David Thoreau, John
Muir, Theodore Roosevelt, Rachel Carson.

*Bootstrap Businesses

*Try A Posture Desk
Building a work space from an old bicycle and plywood.

*How to Save Money on Medical Tests
Questions to ask: necessity of testing, cost of diagnosis, what can go

*Creature Comforts
Keeping dogs and cats healthy with pet vaccinations.

*A River Run Ferryboat
Making a wooden river boat with a pulley and hand winch that runs on
water power.

*Friends of the Earth

*Leaning Toward the Future: the 3VG, Part One
Driving a futuristic three wheel vehicle that combines aspects of the
motorcycle with the car.

*Save that Sweater
Patching a moth eaten sweater, clothing with colorful yarn into creative

*The Spud Gun Revisited
Making a air powered potato gun toy from piping and wood dowel plunger.

*Relining Masonry Chimneys
Restoring a fireplace, wood stove chimney with Ventinox stainless steel,
insulcrete, includes relining sources.

*The Anyone Can Make It Copperhead Survival Knife
A easy, all metal camping tool, including shaping the handle, shaping
the blade, construction and diagrams.

*Mom's Marketplace

*Dry Your Own Corn with Wood
Building a grain dryer gas tank, water heaters and firebox for the farm.

*Small Scale Trout Farming
Growing tiny fish commercially, including water advice, facilities, care
and feeding, ailments.

*Warm Your House With Wall Coverings
The thermal and insulation values of material for energy efficiency.

*The Weird Humor of Jack Vaughan

*Down on the Farm

*Wrap Yourself in a Rabbit
Skinning a rabbit and sewing a blanket for winter.

*Gleaning Those Supermarket Fields
Discarded produce can provide cheap food.

*How To Make And Play A Hammered Dulcimer
Building a wood music instrument, including materials, instructions,
tuning and playing, diagrams.

*Building the Sun Cottage, Part Three: Footings, Foundation and Slab
Installing the foundation, concrete footing and flooring for the house.

*Wholesome (and Free!) Bird Seed
Autumn weeds, wildflowers fruit and grasses make great bird feed.

*Who Put the Western in Country
Jimmie Rodgers, the Carter Family and the early days of country music.

*Japan: The Miner's Canary

*Keep that Saw Running Right!
Sharpening, cleaning and repairing a chainsaw and engine maintenance
ensures it will have a long life.

*Dome'-estic Bliss
Building a dome house from a kit, including manufacturers list.

*Mr. Digwell <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=3147>*

*Last Laugh <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=3148>*

*The Sperm Crisis
While sperm counts are dropping, fertility, culprits, genotoxic effects,
health and medicine.

*The Backyard Jungle: Part Two, Cabbage Loopers
This small caterpillar is a garden pest that feeds on plant lives.

*Hoe, Hoe, Hoe <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=3151>*
The effectiveness of a power hoe in the home garden.

*Energy Flashes <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=3137>*

*A Dandy Double Fronted Hunting Vest
Sewing a handy top, including gathering the materials, cutting fabric,
assembly and patterns.

Issue #84

*Make Pinatas For Profit
Construction and design ideas for paper mache pi''atas and decorating
and marketing them.

*The American Bashkir Curly
The history, myths and reality behind the rare breed of horse.

*A Year In Mom's Solar Greenhouse
How to effectively use a greenhouse year round, including winter greens,
fall fumigation, summer beans and spring starts.

*Springtime When It's 30 Below!
A greenhouse helps plants flourish in winter weather.

*Economic Outlook

*Gingerbread Geodesics
Cooking and constructing pastry domes, homes and igloos.

*Bits and Pieces

*The Plowboy Interview
Ralph and Rita Engelken discuss the advantages and wealth that come with
organic farming.

*Profiles <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=2665>*

*Build an Egg Candler
A coffee can, light fixture and rubber will allow you to see inside an egg.

*New Directions Radio
An amateur satellite radio allows activists to communicate and broadcast.

*Successful Swaps

*Ask Our Experts
Cleaning a Lakewood stove; insulating the walls of a cordwood home;
stopping a leaking pond.

*A Turkey of Different Feather
Creating a decorative turkey from various vegetables, including squash
and pumpkin.

*Country Lore <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=2663>*
Bill Ickes glues polyester scraps to sandpaper to give the abrasive a
longer life; Barry Atkins matches dipped in wax can withstand any
weather conditions; Gloria Robertson placed yarn bows around her house
to lure her curious toddler away from hazards; Phyllis Wolff recycles
Christmas cards by cutting the designs out of the covers and using them
next year; Ellen Siegler suggests washing doll's hair with fabric
softener for restoration and writing the manufacturer for replacement
parts when board game pieces have been lost; Rosalind Milliken says
stationary and paper goods make an excellent gift for the elderly;
Debbie O'Neal tries to learn at least one new thing each month to make
the year more rewarding; Scott Hoffman slides his firewood downstairs
using parts from an old swing set; Jamie Tackman splashes water on the
side of a propane tank to check its level; Walt Busky turns off the
lights and uses a flashlight to find a dropped contact, which should
illuminate when lit; Charles Wilbur recycles old hair dryers as bellows
for his fireplace and wood stove; Gregory Coleman uses crushed eggshells
to keep his coffee from brewing bitter; Blanche Berger says a cribbage
board may be used to keep track of rows and stitches while crocheting;
Dawn Bauer makes and stores her own biscuit mix; Mrs. Gordon Pullman
says leaving an old knife blade in an onion takes off the rust; Tina
Schriver keeps a plastic bag nearby while making bread to place her hand
in when doing other chores.

*Report From <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=2657>*
Finding a rural Victorian home is a dream come true.

*Build a Sled From Shipping Skids!
Constructing a wooden sled, includes materials list and instructions.

*Mother's Children
How to make jewelry shaped like fruits and hot dogs and a top from a
dowel and Popsicle stick.

*Make Every Word Count!
Making word puzzles can bring in extra money, includes getting started,
construction, tips and getting published.

*Grow Palms as House Plants
Feather and fan palms grow well inside, including: temperature, light,
watering, feeding, transplants, grooming, and propagation.

*Recycle Meat Waste
Rendered meat waste makes great pet food, lye soap.

*Splitting Winter Squash
Leaving the stem on a squashing and placing it top down in the drain
makes cutting easy.

*The Instant Gardens of Japan
The market of ready made gardens in the Orient.

*Hopping into the Easter Bunny Business
Breeding rabbits for the spring, includes: breeding calendar,
matchmaking, health threats.

*Mother's Herb Garden: Marjoram

*Quick and Cozy Wool Coverlets
Gathering and weaving wool into a blanket, shawl, pillow or skirt.

*Grapevine Wreaths
Picking the proper vine for weaving into an ornament.

*A Do-It Yourself Kaleidoscope
Making a light toy from pipe, wood and mirrors.

*Music in Your Pocket
Building a small thumb piano with tin, wood and bobby pins can be

*Water: Do You Drink Enough
The health benefits of water, signs of dehydration, drinking habits,
daily recommended amounts.

*Homemade Story Time Tapes
Recording a child's favorite tales on cassette, includes: story
selection, sound effects, taping tactics.

*Kitchen Table Woodworking
Building a wooden spice rack or shelving can free up kitchen area,
including diagrams.

*Creature Comforts
Building a wooden children's toy box and play desk, includes
instructions, materials list, diagrams.

*Mother's Rooftop Utility Rack
Building a wood transport rack for the car roof, includes diagrams and

*Energy Flashes <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=2640>*

*Environmental Hall of Fame
Biographies of inductees: David Ross Brower, Jerome Irving Rodale, Aldo
Leopold, Jacques-Yves Cousteau, Barbara Ward, Sir Albert Howard, Rene
Jules Dubos, Anwar Fazal.

*Uncle Sam, Your Friendly Auctioneer
Bidding tips, mailing lists and advice on auctions at regional
government customs offices.

*Build a Water-Wall Home
Constructing a passive solar home, including: calculating water storage
requirements, wall construction.

*The Turning Point
Business is boomerang for the Larson-Darnell family at their wood, pole
supported mountain home.

*Turn Your Pickup Truck Into the Dump Truck
A secondary wood bed and hydraulics allow dumping from a transformed truck.

*Mother's $10-Per-Square-Foot (or less!) Earth-Sheltered House
Building a low-cost home with concrete walls.

*Get Paid for Staying Healthy
The benefits of a stay well health insurance incentive.

*The Siberian Fireplace
Building a brick or stone home heating device, including masonry tips.

*Personalized (Handmade) Christmas Cards
Creating home cards with tips on ink, paper, lettering, art, drawing.

*A Child's Play Center
Building a wooden children's toy box and play desk, includes
instructions, materials list, diagrams.Building an alternative energy
generator at home.

*Leaning Toward The Future
Vehicle combines attributes of car and motorcycle with suspension,
computer controls, engine and drive.

*Histoplasmosis: The Bird Droppings Disease
Spores cause blindness in rare eye illness.

*Preheat Your Water with Wood
A wood stove saves electric costs in winter.

*Rebirth of the Irish Folk Harp
Building a wood music instrument.

*Be Santa's Secretary!
Winter seasonal work answering Christmas mail provides extra income.

*After Nuclear War
Atomic affects on the environment.

*Produce Your Own Printed Circuits
Making an electric circuit from a kit, drill, decals and etching.

*Marshall Price's "Basement-Built" Wind Generator
Building an alternative energy generator at home.

*Down on the Farm

*Bootstrap Starting and other Cold Weather Battery Lore
Using jumper cables to start a car in winter, insulating the battery and
keeping the engine warm.

*A Homebrewed Crape Blade
A cheap home plow, includes materials list, instructions, diagrams.

*Building The Sun Cottage Part IV: Walls and Beams
Designing the house structure and installing mason, block walls.

*Mother's Lifers
Numbers 5925 through 5954

*The Homemade Thermal Shade
Insulated fabric with Velcro edging keeps temperatures moderate,
eliminates window heat waste.

*Mother's Sewing Center
Building a wooden sewing desk and cabinet with materials list,
instructions, diagrams.

*Mr. Digwell <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=2611>*

*The Backyard Jungle
Putting the appropriate nectar bearing plants in the garden attracts
these winged insects.

*Low Budget Bulb Changers
Pipe, tubing and suction cup forms homemade light changer.

*A $100 Industrial Quality Band Saw
A homemade cutter with wood casing, includes diagrams, instructions.

*The Weird Humor of Jack Vaughn

*The $1 Cardboard Car
Patterns and instructions for building a homemade toy for children.

*Safety in Numbers
Connecticut man grows 145 cultivars of tomatoes in home garden.

*Last Laugh <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=2604>*

*Mailbox Mania <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=2606>*
Decorating around your home letter box.

*Mother's "Tom Thumb" Telephone
Building a cheap, homemade toy phone that works.

Issue #85

*The Plowboy Interview
Dr. Andrew Saul discusses his book Doctor Yourself and home medicine.

*Bits and Pieces

*A Look Back At America From the Year 2005
Colorado governor Richard D. Lamm predicts the environmental, economic
future of America.

*Ask Our Experts

*Mother's Children: Homemade Drawing in Charcoal
How to make vine charcoal at home.

*A Thermal Envelope Trailer
Building a solar structure around a trailer, including: construction,
amenities, heat, hot water, electricity.

*Keep New Heat in With Old Cups
Using Styrofoam cups as pipe insulator.

*Mother's Lifers

*Rent A Grandma <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=3135>*
A senior citizens sells her services and spoils families for income.

*A Home Nursing Business
Taking in an elderly person can provide extra income while allowing for
time with family.

*Barters and Bootstraps

* A Gallery of Winter: Craft Projects - A Mother Earth News Mini-Manual
How to Knit and Crochet
Sewing your own garments including: scarf, afghan, hat, sweater,
slippers, pullover. With knitting basics for beginners like casting on,
knitting, purling, increasing, decreasing, yarn over, binding off,
crocheting techniques, materials lists, diagrams and instructions

*Three Different (and Delicious!) Woodstove Recipes
How to make frosty morning pancakes, lunchtime hot rice salad, Chinese
stir fried vegetable dinner.

*Build an Integral Passive Solar Water Heater
How IPSWH's work, design tips, major types and maintenance.

*Country Lore <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=3132>*
Paul Sheldon suggests hooking an electric clock to a water meter to keep
track of how often it runs; Susan Golombek says pouring water into a
candle holder will keep the wax from sticking; Bruce Klecka dips candles
in salt water and freezes them overnight to keep the wax from running;
Dennis Mulso states pouring water in a lamp when the oil is low and the
wick is short; Allyn Moise drilled holes in pennies when he ran out of
º inch washers and saved money; Carol Bank created a plywood tray for
her mailbox so letters were always handy; Pam and Donald Vilas save a
small piece of their Christmas tree trunk as a memento; Alfred Glenn
uses cornmeal to clean spots on suede; Jackie Joy Zandrews rubs snow in
her furs to clean them; Mary Seramur-Kraiss praises washing wool with
shampoo for preservation; Lynda Mason learned it is easier to prepare
garlic if you bruise the cloves before peeling; Susan Tran recycles worn
chopsticks to stir paint, pick out hot coals, and push fruit and
vegetables while canning.

*The Earth Systems House Kit
Inexpensively building a below ground home from a kit.

*Mom's (Gardener's) Favorites
A guide to the best flowers and vegetables for your garden, including:
beans, broccoli, cabbage, carrots, onions, peas, potatoes, calendula,
delphinium, Echinacea, poppy, valerian.

*Livestock Parturition: Dealing with Homestead Delivery
How to help cows give birth, including: prepping, normal and abnormal
parturition, breech births, twins.

*Report From <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=3127>*
A failed move to the country and leaving the farm, renews appreciation
for gardening in the ciy.

*Happy Groundhog Day!
Catching and cooking groundhogs, with recipes.

*Building with Native Stone
How to construct a mortarless stone wall, including types of rock,
tools, preparation, dimensions, layout, stability, ends and corners.

*More Eggs in Winter
Feeding the chicken flock barley seed growth increases egg production.

*Lease Your Land for Oil and Gas Production
Sharing profits, perks and warnings from oil drilling on country land.

*A Four-Season Garden Plan
Year round planning and the best crops for each season, including winter

*Mom's 1984 Wishbook Guide to Herb Suppliers

*Folk Music Instruments: Choose the One That's Right for You
How to select the right guitar, banjo, dulcimer, autoharp, fiddle,
mandolin or coda.

*Mother's Compost Commode
Using a cedar outhouse to recycle human waste including diagrams,
materials, servicing and benefits.

*Extended vs. Nuclear Families
Surviving relations and kin reunions.

*Essene Bread <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=3117>*
Turning berries into whole grain bread.

*Energy Flashes <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=3118>*

*Are Chimney Sweeps Still Cleaning Up?
History, hazards and benefits of becoming a chimney sweep.

*Friends of the Earth

*The Bare Bones, Make Do Wood Lathe

*Richard St. Barbe Baker
Biography of 1983 Environmental Hall of Fame Inductee

*Down on the Farm

*Photovoltaic Root Stimulation
Electrical stimulation of roots to stimulate plant growth and enhance
photosynthesis in the garden.

*Thermal Cover Ups: Part Two
Reducing window heat loss with polystyrene insulation including
sandwiching, pop in shutter, beadboard panels.

*Dowsing: Fact or Fancy?
Using a divining stick or Y rod to find water and other underground
resources and the skepticisms that surround it.

*A Woodstove Water Heating Attachment
Adding a water heater to your stove, including: materials list,
diagrams, construction tips.

*Profiles <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=3102>*

*Mom's Marketplace

*Storm Window Solar Panels
Using old window frames to collect the sun's energy, including materials
list, diagram, instructions.

*A Winter Wild Food Feast
Foraging for edible plants including cranberry, cattails, watercress.

*Thoughts on the Design of a Sane World, Part One
Freedom, equality and change must defeat growth, greed and power to save
planet Earth.

*Wholistic Forestry: Growing Timber the Sensible Way
Raising and harvesting trees on country property.

*Building a Grafting Wax Heater
Using two coffee cans and a candle as a heat source.

*Grafting the Mixed-Bag Apple Tree
Identifying donor trees and crossbreeding a fruit tree.

*Building the Sun Cottage, Part V: The Structural Frame
Pouring a concrete roof, selecting timber, raising a post and beam frame.

*An Old Fashioned Pie Safe
Building a wooden cabinet, including diagrams and instructions.

*So You Want to Home School
Researching laws, personal considerations and connecting with other home
teachers before keeping your child in the house.

*New Hope for Infertile Couples
Causes and medical help for childless couples hoping to conceive.

*Human Powered Speed
Pedal powered bicycles for recreation and sport.

*Mother's $10 per Square Foot (or Less!) Earth Sheltered House, Part Two
Finding the material and constructing the roof.

*Woodlot Management (on a Small Scale)
Tending to your forest and woodlands.

*The Backyard Jungle: Part IV, Spiders
The hunting and spinning skills of arachnids and their benefits.

*The Weird Humor of Jack Vaughan

*The Last Laugh <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=3087>*

*The Making of a Cedar Dugout Canoe
Selecting the log, carving, shaping and hollowing a boat, including
diagrams, photos.

*Bargains Afloat, Bargains Aflight
Saving money through buying at auctions.

Issue #86

*Bits and Pieces

*The Coming Shakeout of an Underground Economy
An influx of billions of dollars is expected to keep the economy healthy
and prevent inflation temporarily.

*The Telephone Revolution
How the dissolution of AT&T will affect long distance and telephone service.

*The Plowboy Interview
Dr. Walter Orr Roberts discusses the greenhouse effect.

*Dealing with the Bill Collector
Financial planning and avoiding debt.

*An Introduction to Geese
An overview of the breeds, weights and characteristics of water fowl.

*Strawberry Picker's Delight
Using a bicycle seat to make berry picking easier.

*Wilderness Gear You Can Make Yourself
Building a tent or lean-to including material, equipment, tarp construction.

*Barters and Bootstraps

*Mother's Children: A Hardworking Volunteer
A teenage girl volunteers at an 1800s historical camp.

*Just Knitting Around
How to sew outdoor clothing, coats and parkas from kits.

*Mother's Guide to Low Cost Outdoor Gear, A Mini-Manual
How to buy the right equipment and a good price, including: sewing, used
goods, renting, comparison shopping, footwear, clothing, backpack,
shelter, sleeping bag, kitchen.

*A Potful of One-Liners
Preparing, packing and cooking meals for a camping trip.

*Mother's Armchair Guide to Homespun Outdoor Equipment Ideas
Books and resources for making your own outdoor materials.

*Build The (Unofficial) Boy Scout Candle Lantern
A coffee can, coat hanger, candle and handle make a handy light source.

*Wool: The Camper's Natural Friend
Low cost insulator for sleeping bag stuffing, ponchos.

*Make-It-and-Take-It Hobo Stove
Building a hobo stove from a tin can.

*Alaskan Packboard and All-Purpose Packsack
Making a backpack from canvass and wood, including diagrams and

*Ask Our Experts
Moisture collection in a solar greenhouse; wall plans and insulating a
passive heated solar home

*Report From <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=3066>*
A new start in the Everglades is a rough adjustment but leads to a happy

*New Ideas for the Old Farm Pond
A guide to restocking the rural watering hole including small mouth
bass, catfish, chain pickerel, Northern pike, walleye, sunfish, crappie,
rock bass, bullheads, gizzard shad, mosquito fish, suckers, trout, carp,
goldfish, perch and stocking systems.

*Putting Up a Barbed Wire Fence
How to install fencing, including posts, holes, tension, brace, corners,
stretchers, wire, filling in, gates, low spots and types.

*Country Lore <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=3064>*
Robert Grinarml suggests using a shotgun to dispose of wasps nests; Dave
Kooyers uses burning sulfur to rid buildings of hornets; Ross
Westergaard used flypaper to control pesky insects; Darlene Wagner
discovered sprinkling talcum powder on her hands allows her entrance to
a newborn rabbit's nest; Paul Moore dug a pit in the floor of his tipi
for additional cooling and living space; Shane Jones uses old T-shirts
to cover his car seats when the upholstery wears out; Elizabeth England
mixes water, chamomile and ginger root to keep dandruff away; Mary Leck
saves hair from her brushes to make pincushions.

*Using Whole Grains
The benefits of whole grain foods, including sponge and dough bread recipes.

*Enjoy Old-Time Tennesee Creasy Greens!
The benefits of growing and cooking creasy, including recipes for
confetti eggs and quiche.

*Publish and Sell Your Own Cookbook
How to develop and market a home cookbook from recipes, typesetting,
graphics, layout, cost, printing and marketing.

*Make Your Buildings (Reasonably) Earthquake-Proof
How to reinforce a foundation during the construction of a home.

*Spontaneous Release by Positioning
Steps to correct back problems without a chiropractor.

*Mother's Herb Garden: Sweet Violet
Mother's Herb Garden: Sweet Violet

*Vitamin C in the Lab
How Vitamin C can affect glucose, blood tests and cause other medical

*Biodynamics: the Other Organic Gardening Method
Background and history on alternative organic agriculture, including:
compost starter, Number 500, techniques, preparation.

*The Pick of the Crop
Preparing a garden in the winter ensures a healthy summer crop of
lettuce, radishes, turnips, greens, peas, cabbage, cauliflower,
broccoli, Brussels sprouts, onions, leeks, beets, carrots, corn
tomatoes, peppers, beans, melons, cucumbers, zucchini and squash.

*A Photovoltaic Battery-Charge Controller
Constructing an independent power-generation system with a controller.

*Build a Commonsense Compost Shredder
How to build a shredder from a lawn mower, with diagrams.

*Get a Handle on Your Well
Installing a backup pump on an existing well, including diagrams and
parts list.

*Energy Flashes <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=3046>*

*A Few Words In Defense of Tin Roofs
Evaluating, repairing, painting and the pros and cons of metal roofing.

*A Chicken-and-Grape "Permaculture"
Constructing and establishing a free range chicken herd and vineyard.

*Gardening in the City
Planning an urban garden, buying seeds, preparing the ground and growing
a crop.

*Build Yourself a Pole Shelter
Designing and constructing a shelter including selecting wood and frame
and roofing.

*Medical Self Care: Hair Analysis: Is It Worthwhile
The benefits and drawbacks of hair analysis versus do it yourself chelation.

*Friends of the Earth
Environmental news including the EPA, nuclear waste in Tahiti,
pesticides in Hawaii, and National Park grizzly bear management and

*Wilderness Camp in Canada
Spending a vacation at Camp Apa Cheesta with Frank Black Bear.

*Mother's $10-Per-Square-Foot Earth Sheltered House: Part II
Waterproofing and installing water and electrical services to the new home.

*Computerized Soil Tests for Cash
Save money by testing your soil's nutrients and using a computer to
analyze the results.

*Thoughts on the Design of a Sane World: Part II
Qualities of a sane world include: equity, environmental orientation,
sustainable economy, value and promotion of diversity, no war.

*The Mountainbike
Exploring the growing trend of nature biking including testing bicycles,
equipment and accessories.

*The Weird Humor of Jack Vaughn

*Profiles <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=3037>*

*Mom's Marketplace

*Install Your Own Telephone
How to wire and install a telephone, including: modular plugs, extension
phones, accessories, and types of phones.

*The Backyard Jungle
The life cycle and benefits of lacewing, including keeping aphids away
from the garden.

*Ring Structures
Building sturdy structures from circles including materials, covering,
framing, and price.

*A Windpower Update From Mother's Eco-Village
The specifics and benefits from Mother's Jacobs wind plant.

*Down on the Farm

*Building The Sun Cottage
The final stages including insulation, using ground warmth,
waterproofing, fa'?ade, the earth on the shelter.

*The Last Laugh <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=3027>*

*Mother's Lifers
Numbers 6024 through 6058.

*A Little Grass Shack in Idaho
The history and construction of a grass hut.

*Fieldbook <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=3026>*

Issue #87

*News From Mother

*Dear Mother <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=6727>*

*Bits and Pieces <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=430>*
Briefs on pre-plucked pullets, human-powered speed, organic fertilizers,
tree farm tax deductions, frostline kits, migrating birds' winter habitats.

*Economic Outlook: To Market
An examination of the bond market.

*Profiles <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=427>*

*The World's Simplest Pea-Shelter
How to turn a drilled block of wood and exacto-blade into this handy
tool, including diagram, photograph.

*The Plowboy Interview: Edward Abbey:
Conversation with self-described agrarian anarchist about slowing the
industrialization of planet earth.

*Barters and Bootstraps

*Country Lore <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=425>*
Kenneth Hubbard says the secret to a good lawnmower is having a balanced
blade, not sharpness; Clarence Nye uses an old tire as a log holder when
splitting wood; Roberta Forpahl uses a tire inner tube as a chainsaw
blade cover; Shauna Ellet uses a wire coathanger to keep a cookbook open
to the correct recipe; Oliver Jones shares a recipe for canned tomato soup.

*Mother's Children
Young author and entrepreneur shares how she developed miniature corncob
crop and turned it into tasty, profitable popcorn.

*Toothsome Tofu Pies
Recipes for apricot tofu pie, banana-coconut tofu pie, orange tofu pie,
carob-almond tofu pie, including crust, filling glaze.

*Investing in Change
The ways you save your money can help determine the quality of our
planet's future, including the record, profiles, using the system,
before you invest.

*A Bad Brush with a Little-Known Law
Author shares experience of how she almost lost her land, including
adverse possession, squatter's rights sidebard.

*They Don't Steal the Towels!
Ever thought of going into a horse motel business? The guests are great!
They don't carouse all night, complain about slow room service or make
unreasonable demands.

*Queen Rearing: A Beekeper's Primer
Many amateur apiarists are discovering that honey production is only
part of the challenge and reward of keeping bees, including variations
on a theme, queens for sale, bee business sidebar.

*Mother's Guide to Hazardous Household Substances
A look at emulsifiers, flavorings and colorings, kitchenware,
dinnerware, preservatives and antioxidants, cleaners and examining
chemicals in the kitchen, utility room, and bathroom.

*The Reclusive Villain
Beware the ubiquitous brown recluse spider. This seemingly harmless
creature is definitely dangerous, including recluse lore, orchestrating
the fiddleback's demise.

*Porta-bug Box <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=414>*
Help your youngsters study elfin crawlers and pint-size fliers by making
this handy transparent insect museum.

*The Marvelous Mountain Gorillas
On Mother's recent visit to Tanzania and Rwanda, we discovered,
surprisingly enough, that tourists may offer the best (and probably the
last) hope of saving this endangered species.

*Some Tips and Tools for Elderly and Handicapped Gardeners
Even physical impairments needn't prevent us from participating in the
joys of gardening, including extension tools, summary of ideas and sources.

*A $5 Macro Lens for Your Camera
You don't need expensive equipment to peer into the world of
larger-than-life photography, including building the converter, using
the lens, simplicity itself, not bad for the price.

*A New Endangered Species: The Family Farmer
Mother-spotlighted farm couple, Ralph and Rita Engelken, are now
fighting to save their 500-acre organic farm.

*Home-Canned Milk
Making cheese and yogurt isn't the only method of putting up your
surplus dairy product, including from bucket to bottle, caramelly
pudding recipe.

*The Afterschool <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=409>*
Teacher sets up afternoon mini-school to teach youngsters about
agriculture, the environment and other topics.

*The "Burkholder" Cultivator

*Recipe for a Tree Fort

*Cactus: It's Edible!

*Herb Garden: Sweet Woodruff

*Control Codling Moths Safely
Here's the story of a California scientist and an organic apple farmer
combing efforts to protect this insect.

*Inside Mother Earth: The Caving Experience

*Baking Soda: A Home's Best Friend

*Homestead Handbook: How To Build a Simple Log-Bridge
Homestead handbook construction guide, including getting started, the
base, what will it hold?, stringers, flooring, step-by-step
illustrations, how long will it last?

*Ultrasonic Plant Stimulation
Though it's best known as a pest-control method, high-frequency sound
could find new agricultural uses, including accelerated plant growth,
results, the effects of ultrasound, graphs.

*Mother's Lifers <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=399>*
Numbers 6059 to 6093.

*Mother's $10-Per-Square-Foot (or Less!) Earth-Sheltered House
We're about to prove, once again, that energy-efficient housing doesn't
have to be expensive, with this $10-per-square-foot in-ground home design.

*Energy Flashes <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=401>*

*Window Witchery: Stitchery!
Here's a bit of do-it-yourself magic that can make an ugly view look
bright and beautiful, including seaming, Mother's method, arts and
crafts, selecting a joiner, installation.

*A Fitness Center Made of Wood
Even if you're not an accomplished carpenter, you can build a home gym
for less than $200, including detailed diagram, materials list, building

*To Repair or to Replace: That Is the Question
When that old, dependable household appliance sputters to a halt, you
may be confronted with a classic dilemma, including expected service
life of electrical appliances.

*The Camping Kitchen
This easy-to-make carrier holds all your outdoor cooking equipment,
including the sink, also has diagram, photographs, instructions.

*The PVC Porch Glider
Slip-joint plumbing may have a place not only under your house, but in
it as well with this unique porch-swing design, including diagrams and

*Healing Gardens <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=391>*
Fill your life with beauty, fragrance and time-tested remedies for
common ailments, including the essentials, ideal plants for shady and
sunny gardens, home health, alternative medicine.

*The Weird Humor of Jack Vaughan

*Fieldbook <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=389>*

*Herbicides and No-Till Farming
The agricultural industry is converting to this new and better (on the
surface, at least) better method, including how do herbicides work,
toxicity, persistence, ecological effects.

*Ecoscience <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=386>*
How to transform our planet into an ecologically sane world.

*The Good Life Get Together
Take a few country fields on the back roads of upstate New York, add a
selection of skilled homesteading instructors and a couple hundred eager
participants and you'll have this event.

*A Split-Log Table and Bench Set
If you like the look of rustic and rugged furniture, then this
show-and-tell is for you, including six illustrated steps.

*Medical Self-Care: All About Circumcision
A look at circumcision, including a 6,000 year history, medical facts
and fallacies, three techniques, possible complications.

*Friends of the Earth

*A Trio of Garden Helpers
Caring for your backyard growing plot can be as easy as one, two, three
if you have a hose guard, dibbles and cord and knee saver with you.

*The Seasons of the Garden: A New'- Spring.. And New Gardeners
Couple prepare Mother's gardens for the first time at her Eco-Village.

*An Alaskan Escape
Patience, persistence and planning helped this couple's dream turn into
reality as they retreat from the city to the North Star State to lead
the good life.

*The Backyard Jungle: Part VI Hornworms
Knowing friend from foe in the garden, including lifecycle, controlling
hornworms, diet and signs of life.

*Down on the Farm

*Be a Back-to-Basics Bowyer
Any archery fan can add more enjoyment by homecrafting primitive
equipment, including the bowyer's bare essentials, bending to the task,
the language of archery, arrowmaking.

*Last Laugh <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=375>*

Issue #88

*The Plowboy Interview
Armory and Hunter Lovins discuss leading the soft energy revolution.

*Fold Yourself a Hammock
Making a folding, portable sleeping place.

*Bits and Pieces

*Folks, Facts and Folklore
Clay Kirkland suggests massaging skin friendly foods instead of using
hand lotion; Leona Burch explains how to can bread; Connie Forand has
found cinnamon a deterrent for carpenter ants; Graham Wright drops rocks
in cans of varnish or stain to prevent oxidation; Ronald Peyton offers a
handy homemade way to harvest berries; Raymond Downs dips his cats in a
chlorine bleach solution to rid them of ringworms; Dian Zwerink says
putting old dog bones in potting keeps plants' roots from becoming
waterlogged; Angie Ronald says putting vinegar on animal hides speeds up
the tanning process.

*A Very Personal Canoe Paddle
Building and carving a paddle with patterns and instructions.

*Raising Free Range Chickens
Finding land, getting birds, feeding chickens and selling eggs.

*Designing Sustainable Small Farms and Homesteads
Detailed look at creating a small farm including zones and sectors,
location, function, resources, recycling, alternative technology,
function and budgeting.

*Mother's Guide to Mail-Order Music
Mailing lists for folk, ethnic, budge, progressive, general and
collectors music outlets.

*Can You Afford Not To Save Energy
The economic benefits of alternative energy.

*Mother's Children
Recipes for all-natural beef treats.

*Beware The Tick!
Symptoms, treatment and prevention of ticks.

*Troubleshooting Major Appliances
Locating problems in washers, dryers, gas and electric ranges,
refrigerators, air conditioners.

*A Homemade Charcoal Igniter
Building an igniter out of stove pipe.

*Flower Power: Poison in the Backyard
Identifying pretty but harmful weeds in the backyard and garden.

*Intentional Communities: Some Inside Views
Life in utopian communities in East Wind, Missouri, Harbin Hot Springs,
California and The Renaissance Community, Massachussetts.

*Mr. Orr's "Garden Tech" Hand Tools
Building a grape crusher, bean sheller, bean slicer and corn cutter.
Includes diagrams.

*A Rooftop Bike Carrier
Building an easy bike rack for the car.

*From Urbanites to Countryfolk'- in Just Eight Years
Finding a farm, settling in and adjusting to rural life.

*Favorite Recipes From The Eco-Village Restaurant
Preparing smoothies, vegetable barley soup, cheese and herb salad
dressing, chick-pea spread, honey carob cake, minty cream cheese frosting.

*Herb Garden: Summer Savory

*The Backyard Jungle
The benefits of having ladybugs in the garden.

*River Revitalization: Our Responsibility

*Feast on Frozen Yogurt
Recipes for French vanilla, raspberry, carob, peach, honey-lemon, coffee
and desert oasis frozen yogurts and how to make yogurt at home.

*A Mortgage Free, Owner-Built Cordwood Castle
How to economically build a wooden country house.

*Radwaste: Another Kind of Trash
Pollution and environmental concerns about radioactive waste.

*Make Your Wash Water Do Double Duty
Building a water recycling system including design and flood and drought

*A Body-Building Champ's Wooden Fitness Center
Building a home exercise center complete with diagrams and materials list.

*The Great Getwaway: Run Your Own Canoe Livery!

*Grow Scentsational Geraniums
Picking good-smelling plants for the garden, fragrances and care.

*Ruminations on Predators, Poisons, and the Mythical Marlboro Man
A history of the relationship between coyotes and ranchers and wildlife
preservation efforts.

*Down on the Farm

*Ask Our Experts
Brick veneer and energy costs; using a fireplace insert as the firebox
for a masonry stove; saving the red sassafras tree in Indiana.

*The Weird Humor of Jack Vaughan

*Exporting Energy in the Rockies
Heating, cooling and energy control for a winter home in the mountains.

*Relocate Those Rustlers!
How to build a trap for unwanted, troublesome animals and safely release

*Floating '- The Rivers '- And Why

*Your Own Telephone Installation Business
How to start a telephone service business including prices,
installation, repairs and equipment.

*Convert Your Backpack to a Kid-Carrier
Turn a hiking backpack in to a child-holder.

*Energy Flashes <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=2995>*

*Helping Injured or Orphaned Wildlife
How to care for, rehabilitate, feed and release abandoned animals.

*Biological Insect Controls
Natural ways to keep a garden pest-free.

*Last Laugh <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=2983>*

*Mother's Lifers
Numbers 6094 through 6114.

*Beyond The Classroom Door
Details from a cycling vacation, bike trip.

Issue #89

*News From Mother

*Dear Mother <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=6729>*

*Reading to Sharpen Your Chain Saw Skills
There's no shortage of excellent reference publications dealing with
every aspect of chain saw safety and we've collected a few of our
staff's favorites to share with you.

*Mother Tests Two Chain Saw Mini-Mills
If you're building a log structure and have lots of time, but not much
money let Mother help you with these test results, including a Bushpilot
beam machine, Haddon lumbermaker.

*Chain Saw Sense
Shopping for, buying, maintaining and using the woodcutter's friend all
require employing this advice, rebuilding, use and maintenance tips.

*What To Look For In A Chain Saw Lumber Mill
Their sizes range from small to tall - and so do their prices. But no
matter the style here's a guide, including vertical and horizontal mills.

*Chain Saw Safety
When it comes time to start cutting this winter's firewood supply, your
top priority should follow, including do's and don't's.

*Bits and Pieces <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=376>*

*The Plowboy Interview: Gary Snyder
Conversation about choosing your place and making a stand.

*Is it for Apple-icious
Why not celebrate the harvest with these two Mother-tested recipes,
including pudin de pan and apple cake.

*Economic Outlook
Examination of probable consequences of default, including consequences
of the mounting debts in Third World countries on the banking industry.

*Deliciously Beautiful You!
Natural beauty tips, including curing bad morning breath with tooth
soda, face moisturizer, nightly refreshment, using milk to remove puffy
eyes, grapefruit baths, more.

*Profiles <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=369>*

*The 1984 Bioregional Congress
At Gary Snyder's suggestion, Mother took a look at what's going on in
the bioregional movement.

*Practical Puppets
Bring back the smile to a child's face with a napkin, a character voice
and some downright fun puppetry, including diagrams, how to create the
puppets, puppetry techniques.

*Barters and Bootstraps

*Country Lore <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=368>*
Doug Murphy shares how to keep from splitting fine woods when
cabinetmaking; Becky Porter cuts and pastes footprints all over the
house to remind her children where to store their things; Ronald Peyton
revises the berry-picking technique shared in the previous issue;
Hermann Gurfinkel uses an old rope as a touch-up paintbrush; Lester
Westlund covers furniture scratches by rubbing a walnut husk over the
blemish; Lynne Thomas provides tips to prevent chickens from attacking
each other.

*Environmental and Humanitarian Organizations
Here's a look at a few of the many groups working to protect planet
Earth and the freedom and diversity of her inhabitants, including
Akwesansne notes, Earth First!, Greenpeace, Amnesty.

*Life in the "Future Tents"
For a tent, its expensive. On the other hand, it'd be difficult to find
such a big, beautiful, unusual dwelling for twice the price. There are
other advantages to be found herein.

*Be a Professional Hunting and Fishing Guide
If you love people, love the outdoors and respect nature, you can turn
those assets into a paying business, including keep it legal, what to
charge for your service, paperwork, the rewards.

*Don't Give Up the Sheep
If you're considering adding some livestock to your homestead, take some
of this advice, including selecting a breed, dogs, bloat, breeding, fencing.

*Ravelings of a Nearly Continental Knitter
Europeans have used a fast, efficient knitting for generations. The
technique is revealed herein, including diagrams, knitting, troubles,
purling, increasing and decreasing, do it your way.

*Mother's Children
Young author shares entrepreneural adventures crafting and selling
Halloween masks.

*Chainsaws <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=359>*
Woodsman recalls sawing wood on a frosty morning.

*Growing Organic Ginseng
Priceless on what may be the ultimate cash crop, including Oscar's
start, bed preparation and planting, care during the growing season,
harvesting and storing the seeds, digging the roots.

*Looking Into Binoculars
When shopping for long-range optics, its wise to employ plenty of
foresight, including the basics, image brightness, field of view, lens
construction, focus, parting thoughts, selector chart.

*A Well-Drilling (Customer's) Primer
Most well drillers won't deliberately give you the shaft, but don't call
one up before reading this, including pump comparisons, household water
requirements chart, work under pressure, Can You Drill Your Own? sidebar.

*The Black Walnut
It's mighty hard to find a better-tasting nutmeat or one that's more
difficult to get at, including stains, getting to the heart of the matter.

*Instant-Installations Tire Chains
An easy way to install tire chains.

*Acorns: The Grain That Grows on Trees
A food-producing nut tree may well be growing, unappreciated in your own
backyard, including, acorns for eating, from the forest to the frying
pan, forager's guide, grow your own.

*Herb Garden: Horseradish

*Deno The Dinosaur
You can use old jeans, sewing scraps and a little imagination to create
this fun stuffed friend, including what you'll need, pattern, putting it

*Become a Veterinary Technician
This job might be just the thing to help make ends meet on the
homestead, including description and qualifications, job sharing,
landing the job and do you really want it?

*The Astounding Blowgun
It's not a toy, but that doesn't mean you can't have fun with this
homemade plinker, including construction photographs and directions.

*The Classic Crossbow: You Can Build Your Own!
It was the hot setup during the Crusades, and it's going through a new
revolution today, including diagrams, piece by piece, fact and fiction,
patterns, assembly directions.

*Food Irradiation
The federal government may approve wider use of a controversial method
of preservation, including atoms for the pizza, health concerns, how
well it works, food for thought.

*Energy Flashes <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=347>*

*Solar Hot Seat <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=345>*
Pitch your electric space heater and replace it with easily-constructed
energy-saver, including detailed diagram, building instructions.

*Barter Mania <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=343>*
In their efforts to cope with today's economy, Mother's reader share
stories of swappin' successes.

*Homestead Handbook: Field-Dressing and Skinning Big Game
Homestead handbook, including prehunt preparation, field-dressing, out
of the woods and home, skinning, how long to age, step-by-step

*Undercover Device: The Cloche
Increase your garden's productivity with low-cost, manageable,
season-extending structures, including belling the crop, from individual
to mass cover, an emergency tunnel, PVC cloche.

*The Saga of Big Pink
Moving a house can be an inexpensive - but often very bumpy - road to
home ownership, including learning from mistakes, the big move, a
manageable mortgage, things to keep in mind.

*Wood Stove Efficiency and Emissions: 1984
The time may have come if you have you put off buying a
better-performing wood-burning heater, including Shelton energy research
test results table, revulsion equals revolution, more.

*Copper Cowbells <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=338>*
You can keep an ear on your good old woods-wandering Bessie with these
homemade cowbell designs, including pattern, making it ring, assembly,

*Voltage-Surge Protector
Protect your sensitive electronic equipment from lightning damage by
building this device, including parts list, photographs, building and
assembly instructions.

*Compton's "One Pass" Peeling Spud
This particular spud's not meant for eating, thought it certainly peels
nearly as well, including how to build a long-handled bark peeler for
limbs, logs and felled wood.

*March to the Beat of Your Own Drum
This craft combines making music and creating beautiful things,
including collecting materials, constructing the drum, added touches,
ideas galore.

*Repair That Foundation'- You Can Do It Yourself
When you start thinking about weatherproofing your house, don't forget
to look down, including what you can do, what you'll need, getting
ready, mixing mud, pointing and plastering.

*The Weird Humor of Jack Vaughan

*Mother's Lifers <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=332>*
Numbers 6115 to 6144.

*Fieldbook <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=333>*

*A Look at Mother's Solar Wood-Drying Kiln
Using the sun to season wood can be a financially rewarding - but
challenging - experience, including cutaway, detailed diagram, top view
diagram, photographs, how it works.

*A Brief Discussion With Charlie Walters
Conversation with giant in the organic agriculture movement.

*Triple Treat: A Pickup Body For All Reasons
You can expand your truck's versatility with this inexpensive, homemade,
haul-all conversion, including the stake bed, the lumber rack, the
camper, detailed construction diagram, directions.

*Ecoscience <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=328>*
Reconsidering evolution, including tracing the human line, our primate
cousins, how we compare, the intelligence question.

*Medical Self-Care
Basic overview of homeopathy, including a little history, homeopathy
versus allopathy, research stalemate.

*Friends of the Earth

*The Backyard Jungle
Part eight in series, focusing on the helpful tachinid fly, including
larval appetites.

*A "High-Amp" PV Charge Controller
Here's a homemade battery-charge controller that can handle more than
five amps of current, including circuit update, instructions.

*The Seasons of the Garden
How to use a computer bulletin board service, including background, the
basics, what it can do for you, the gardener's bookshelf.

*Down on the Farm

*Hook Your Wind Machine to the Grid
With the help of a couple important federal financial incentives, it can
make sense to take the action outlined herein, including be your own
friendly local utility, tax incentives, energy future.

*Last Laugh <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=318>*

Issue #90

*Nature Decorates Our Christmas Tree
Natural ornaments from plats and flowers.

*Bits and Pieces

*Mother's Lifers

*The Plowboy Interview
An interview with Norman Cousins on his book, Human Options, improving
society and political reform.

*Give a Gift of Grains
Recipes for julekage, nutty and fruity granola and gingerbread cookies.

*Country Lore <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=2976>*
Ron Spears tells how black pepper stops a radiator leak; Fay Lilley
suggests frying noodles for crispy chow mein; Tom Minor offers success
in shredding leaves in a trash can with a lawn trimmer; David Potter
proffers a safe way to control tree fall; Frank Barnett shows how to
turn worn out overalls into a bib or coveralls.

*The Forgotten Art of Onion Walking
An outline of the supplies, materials and preparation needed for
decorating an onion.

*Live The Mother Life Abroad
Report from Hugh Leong on living and teaching in Thailand.

*Deck the Halls <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=2973>*
An in-depth look at types of hollies, when to plant and how to harvest.

*Handcrafted Ornaments
Step-by-step instructions on how to make Christmas ornaments out of
nuts, acorns and dried flowers.

*Should You Become "You, Incorporated"?
The advantages and disadvantages of the self-employed becoming
incorporated including taxes, medical plans, tax shelters, insurance,
establishing and paperwork.

*Mother's Children
How running for student body president helped David Wegner overcome his

*A Vegetarian Thanksgiving
Recipe for how to stuff a pumpkin instead of a turkey on Thanksgiving Day.

*Defense and Deficit
A discussion of the Reagan administration's deficit-spending habits.

*Butchering: The Bare-Bones Basics
Butchering techniques and instructions with illustrations that separate
the meat from the bone.

*Beginning Bluegrass Banjo
How to hold, tune, select and play the banjo and how to read tablature.

*Noah's Ark <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=2965>*
Instructions for building a wooden Noah's Ark toy with patterns.

*A Pair of Puzzles
How to build wooden games The Ring Thing and The Camel and the Needle.

*Australian Locker Hooking: A Down-Home Craft From Down Under
Weaving and hooking techniques to build a locker hooked rug.

*The Greenhouse as an Ecosystem
Understanding the qualities of various greenhouses, improving light
quality, ventilation, using the best soil, crop planning, and insect and
disease control.

*Energy Flashes <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=2957>*

*Herb Garden: Wood Avens
Facts and histories of herbs and wood avens.

*An Outcast Makes Good
Learning the lingo of the lumberyard.

*A Do-It-Yourself Shop-Made Tire Changer
Making a tire changer including materials list and diagram.

*A Lifesaving Heater From Candles
How to build a survival heater with tin cans and candles.

*A Homebuilt Pet Door
Making a pet door from household materials.

*A Winter Container Garden
Indoor farming in containers with planting tips and a crop by crop guide.

*Caring For Leather Footwear
Tips for long-lasting leather boots including breaking in,
waterproofing, cleaning, repair.

*Native Fish for the Home Aquarium
The benefits and joys of native fish.

*Retrofit Catalytic Converters
Catalytic converters can help your wood stove burn smoke more cleanly.

*The Enchanting World of Puppetry
How to make a puppet theater.

*Homestead Handbook: Erecting a Pole Building
Detailed instructions for constructing a pole building, including:
materials list, site preparation, layout and pole setting, girts,
joists, rafters and trusses, roofing and siding.

*Low-Voltage Living
A look at alternative, renewable energy sources including storage,
wiring and appliances.

*Rx for Earth <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=2947>*
Preventing nuclear war including its consequences, the aftermath, types
of weaponry, legislation and creating peace.

*Mother's Solar Wood-Drying Kiln
The kiln's benefits.

*Here Comes the Dyna-Diggr!
The advantages of a digging tool that can perform tree harvesting, post
hole digging and trenching.

*Fieldbook <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=2944>*

*A Spalted-Oak Cradle
Building a wooden cradle.

*Easy-to-Make "Truss-Worthy" Chairs

*The More Rewarding Woodpile
Building a split log bench.

*Evolution, Creation, Common Sense
A scientific examination of the fallacies in the theory of evolution.

*The Weird Humor of Jack Vaughan

*The Absorption Cycle Heat Pump
Research into a new heat pump that works with solar energy.

*Down on the Farm
Building a chair from plywood, including instructions, diagrams and
materials list.

*Holiday Garden Gifts
Holiday books in shrubs, evergreens and landscaping, gifts for gardeners.

*The Backyard Jungle
The history of scale insects and keeping your garden parasite free.

*Sawing in Circles
How to cut circles on a table saw.

*Last Laugh <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=2933>*

Issue #91

*News From Mother

*Dear Mother <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=6731>*

*Bits and Pieces <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=319>*

*The Plowboy Interview: Dave Foreman
Conversation with Earth First! founder, including living by the green rule.

*Economic Outlook
Various quotes relating to the 1929 stock market crash, World War II and
the economy, recessions between 1950 and 1980, how to fight inflation
and other political lies.

*A Build-It-Yourself Pine Pole Greenhouse
A greenhouse can be a reliable source of fresh winter foot. Many of
these structures, though, are beyond the limits of the average budget,
but not this new design from Mother presented here.

*Mother's Lifers <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=314>*
Numbers 6175 to 6203.

*Homemade Saddle Soap
You can give your leather goods the care they need to stay supple and
clean with this recipe.

*Tap The Sun <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=313>*
Learn an easy, low-cost way to add solar heat to your mobile home or
metal outbuilding, including planning for available materials, plan and
cut, ducts and dampers, bill of materials.

*Profiles <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=310>*

*Herb Garden Witch Hazel

*Mother's Children
Young sibling musicians enjoy performing at home concerts.

*Energy Tax Credits
The time is running out on this powerful financial incentive.

*Country Lore <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=308>*
Gary LeDean shares a way to add warmth to a winter trip to the outhouse;
M.L. Parsons tells a way to recycle a broken-handled post-hole digger;
Olive Lammon tells of a healthy substitute for commercial cooking oils;
Richard Etheridge tells how to prevent chickens from pecking each other
to death.

*Feedback From Mom's Family
At long last, Mother empties the mailbag and the results of Mother's
reader survey are in.

*The Diagonal Garter-Stitch Square
Here's a beautiful, practical design to please the neophyte knitter and
the needlework veteran alike.

*Barters and Bootstraps

*The Backyard Jungle
Here's the tenth in a series of articles that will help you tell friend
from foe in your garden focusing on white grubs.

*Butcher's Blades: Which to Own and How to Hone
Here's the last of our three-part series on gettin' in the winter's meat
without professional help, including bone saw, meat cleaver, knives,
four steps to a sharper knife.

*A Healthful and Meatless Diet

*The Other Leaks <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=302>*
You've insulated and caulked, but your house still fills cold and
drafty. It's time to inspect bottom plates, electric outlets and
switches, beam pockets and junctions, vanities and sinks.

*One Week Behind the Plow: A Greenhorn Goes to Draft-Horse School
Article in which a staffer finds himself behind the traces of some
massive work animals and lives to write about it.

*Economic and Efficient Gardening
It's seed catalog again, but before you order too much or too little pay
heed to the information herein, including how much you'll harvest table,
the savings of perserving.

*An Update on Breast-Feeding
These fascinating new discoveries about nursing should interest even the
most experienced mother, including disease prevention, drug usage,
advantages, when to start foods, when to wean.

*Energy Flashes <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=297>*

*The "Galley Slaver"
In the search for efficiency, we often overlook the less tangible
rewards of a do-it-yourself project.

*Woodbox <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=296>*
This may be the perfect solution if you are tired of wood-heating mess
and late-night sojourns to the woodpile, including diagrams, materials
and preparation, assembly.

*Statice: Easy and Profitable
Here's a possible solution for those beating their brains out trying to
figure out a good homestead cash crop for this spring, including
choosing the seed, how to plant and harvest, selling statice.

*Mother's Microhydroelectric Plant Revisited
If you're interested in building a home-scale or larger AC hydroelectric
plant, this account of our successful - and not-so-successful -
experiences may help save you a lot of time and money.

*Leroy's "Power-Steering" Dump Bed
This homemade pickup conversion may very well be next year's hottest
Detroit option, including bed-building basics, simple geometry,
pictorial schematic, fluid drive, photographs, instructions.

*Wood-Burning Cookstove
Homestead handbook on the cookstove, including building and checking the
fire, using the range, cooking on top, oven use, numerous illustrations.

*Tune Your Flush <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=289>*
How to modify your toilet so you can control the volume of water a flush
uses to conserve water yet still meet home needs.

*Opening the Window of Hope
A country housewife turned peace worker shares some suggestions for
preventing nuclear war, including personal peace work, community work,
peacemaking resources.

*Make Your Own Emergency Power Plant
If you have a car, a moderate tool collection and good tinkering
abilities, why not try this, including materials list, two simple
circuits, helpful tips, pictorial schematic.

*A .09-Acre Homestead
This very enterprising Cape Cod family raises its own meat, eggs and
vegetables, including layout, limited-space livestock, soil building and
a herring-ponic rooftop garden.

*Intentional Communitites: Some Inside Views
Residents tell of life in Stelle, Ill., the International Emissary
Community, British Columbia, Roandoak of God, Calif.

*Custom-Made Garden Tools (From Old Saw Blades!)
In the never-ending war of human need versus weeds, it pays to teach an
old saw new tricks, including the brushwacker, swythes and sweeders,
patterns, conversion instructions.

*Mother's $10-per-Square-Foot (or Less!) Earth-Sheltered House
We're here to demonstrate, one more time, that energy-efficient housing
can be inexpensive, including building the bunk bed frame.

*The Starplate Connection
Would you like to build yourself a small, temporary home for a little
more than $1,000?, including bill of materials, frame, footer and floor,
loft, insulation and celotex, roofing, siding.

*Medical Self-Care
New information on popular pain reliever, including heart attack
prevention possibilities, pregnant women beware, aspirin and the immune

*Ecoscience <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=282>*
First installment of an examination of the serengeti, a natural
ecosystem, including the intertropical convergence zone, gnus on the go.

*Friends of the Earth

*Holistic Resource Management
If you're watching your livestock pasture turn to desert, there's hope
for greener times, including symbiosis, a new approach to an old
problem, good fences make good grasslands, cures that kill.

*Essentially Yours
With scented oils from flowers and spices, you can create an array of
perfumes, including fragrance families, experiment for the perfect
scent, formulas for fragrance.

*Passive Annual Heat Storage
Finally, a method for eliminating the serious drawbacks of passive solar
earth sheltering, including PAHS, the need, cross section, examples,
what's needed, back-to-basics heat flow.

*The Weird Humor of Jack Vaughan

*Fieldbook <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=274>*

*Build Your Own "Hamdolin"
It's amazing what you can do with an open mind and a ham can, including
building a unique musical instrument, the neck, body, tuning pegs, nut
and bridge, tailpiece, tuning, assembly.

*Make Your Own Cold-Weather Clothing
If you life the fill of winter wind on your cheeks but don't want to
spend your last dime, here are some sewing patterns, including making
pants and a vest, warm advice.

*Last Laugh <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=270>*

*Down on the Farm

*Seasons of the Garden
Examining the new seed varieties for the 1985 growing season.

Issue #92

*News From Mother

*Dear Mother <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=6733>*

*Advice and Observations on John Victor's Problems

*Mother's Lifers <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=269>*
Numbers 6204 to 6232.

*Mother's Children
Young author recalls process of raising an orphan lamb, shearing and
preparing her wool, making and taking care of the comforter, selling and

*Bits and Pieces <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=267>*

*Easter Eggs, Southwest-Style
Add an authentic, distinctive touch of Native American culture to this
year's Easter festival, including dyeing instructions, how to spruce
them up, finishing touches.

*The Plowboy Interview: Paul Hawken
Conversation with businessman and author about finding your way in a
turbulent economy.

*Barters and Bootstraps

*Country Lore <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=261>*
Jackie Ivey shares a safer way to unroll spools of barbed wire; Ralph
Adams places marbles in his chicken feed to prevent the foul from
plucking each others' eyes; Clinton Cottrell reminds that a easily found
address marker can mean life or death when emergency crews are searching
for a home; Otto Maas shares an easier way to get the nut off the
crankshaft in a car engine.

*Plant a Premixed Salad
For guaranteed lunch and dinnertime delights this year, take a hint from
the French, including ordering mesclun makings, mixing and matching,
planting, reaping what you sow.

*Profiles <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=262>*

*Economic Outlook
Waste Deep: an excerpt from A Taxpayer Survey of the Grace Commission
Report, including an examination of where our tax money is spent.

*Mother's Income Tax Mini-Manual
Self-explanatory article includes record keeping, the code and the law,
how much you earned, deductions for all and itemizers, the morass of
depreciation, income averaging, your home as an office, credits,
considerations for those over 65, in case of audits.

*Seed-Starting as Mother's Gardeners Do It
Guide to seed preparation, including materials, oversow and undercover,
moist and warm, start seeds warm, grow seedlings cool, timetable,
pricking out, damping off, garden time.

*Old Ephraim's Last Stand
The grandest and most powerful living symbol of wilderness America is
struggling for survival, including the grizzly bear, who needs bears,
the politics of extinction, how to help, hunting.

*Much Ado About Munching
Reader parodies Shakespeare with poem about eating.

*Mother's Minigardens Experiment
Guide to which techniques are best: double-dug or rototilled beds, row
or deep-mulch gardening, including space, soil, time, fertilization,
long-term effects, plant spacing chart, why use BFI.

*A Trio of Trout Treats
Recipes for charcoal-baked trout, beer-fried trout, broiled trout.

*You Can Play the Mandolin
Here's an introduction to a musical instrument that has a long history
and promising future, including getting started, a quick check, tuning,
picking , the wrist, chords, scales, technique.

*Mother Never Told Me That About Homesteading!
To help acquaint you with the trials and tribulations that often
accompany the joys and triumphs of pursuing a self-sufficient life in
the country, here's one homesteader's tongue-in-cheek account.

*Productive Raised Garden Beds: Six Ways to Make Them
You can get more from your garden now and later, perhaps even during the
winter months, including the cautious approach, quick fix, trench and
mound, double digging, deep compost.

*Herb Garden Fennel

*A Purple Martin Apartment
Construct a house for one of nature's most pleasant and effective
garden-pest predators, including detailed assembly diagram, instructions.

*Urban Homesteading in Florida
A former Mother editor has discovered the good life in an unlikely place
and shares it in this space, including alternative economics, hearth and
home, food for thought, making plans.

*Understated for Gray Winters
Architect Joseph Kawecki and the Pipics demonstrate an emerging concept
in passive solar design, including photographs, details.

*Maintaining Your Gravel Road
If a long stretch of driveway is all that connects you to the outside
world, heed this author's tips, including maintenance basics, some
additional advice, an ounce of prevention.

*Homestead Handbook Beginning with Honeybees
Homestead handbook on starting and maintaining and honeybee farm,
including facts of bee-ology, working bees, inside the hive, questions
and answers, step-by-step illustrations.

*Ralph Engelken Is Gone
Eulogy of farmer who fought to save his family farm from the Federal
Land Bank.

*Extra Cash From Old Books
You can turn a love of books - and some knowledge of their worth - into
a part-time business, including what makes books valuable, a trade
secret, where to find and how to sell, info sources.

*Announcing Mother's Gardening and Home-Building Contests!

*The Flight of the "Red Baron"
At last, here's a screw together and stitch wind charger that anyone
with hand tools can build, including photographs, detailed diagrams,
explicit assembly instructions.

*The Double-Duty Ironing Chair
If you happen to be tight on space and cash, this $20 (or less) project
might be just the ticket, including photographs, detailed diagram,

*Energy Flashes <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=239>*

*Forests in Decline
There's something in the air and it's most certainly not the fresh
breath of spring, including the toxicant hit list, I fear that we shall
no more see a thing as lovely as a tree, taking action against acid rain.

*All About the Osage Orange
This tree - once a favorite of American settlers - deserves a look from
modern-day homesteaders, including an extraordinary tree with a past.

*Log-and-Pin Framing
If you're long on logs but short on cash, consider these four practical
homestead projects, including log rail fence, hoisting derrick, swing
set, pole shed, diagrams, endless possibilities.

*Fieldbook <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=235>*

*The Seasons of the Garden
An examination of the new crop varieties for the upcoming growing
season, including fruits, flowers and vegetables.

*Ecoscience <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=232>*
An examination of the Serengeti, a natural ecosystem, including
scavengers and decomposers, herbivore social systems.

*Mother's Full-Sheet Cutting Table
Here's a real space-saving workbench that solves a number of problems
with one design, including frame, table and tensioner details,
photographs, instructions.

*Medical Self-Care: How Pets Keep Us Healthy
Look at health benefits of pets, including pets and heart disease, pets
as family, therapists, pets and stress, someone to care for.

*Friends of the Earth

*The Weird Humor of Jack Vaughan

*Mom's Self-Reliant Homestead
A varied, productive minifarm is rapidly evolving around our
$10-per-square-foot house, including labled layout diagram, the
household and horticulture today.

*Mother's Under-$30 Hearing Aid
If you're hard of hearing and need a hearing aid, this article may save
you hundreds of dollars, including hearing, aid design, limitations,
build it, see your doctor first, loudness and loss, schematic, circuit
board, parts layout and list.

*The Backyard Jungle
Here's the eleventh in a series of articles that will help you tell
friend from foe in the garden, focusing on aphid biology.

*Down on the Farm

*Last Laugh <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=223>*

Issue #93

*News From Mother

*Dear Mother <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=6735>*

*Bits and Pieces <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=224>*

*Mother's Children
Young author shares how she started her home growing plot from scratch.

*The Plowboy Interview: Garrison Keillor
Conversation with popular radio host of Prairie Home Companion.

*A Natural foods Wedding Feast
Recipes for spice cake, orange-date cake, cream cheese frosting, Swedish
rye bread, cheese trays, curry and fondue sauces, blue-cottage cheese
dip, red bean dip, yogurt dip, iced herb tea punch.

*Mother's Lifers <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=218>*
Numbers 6228 to 6256.

*Ten Things to Do With a Guinea Pig
We simply weren't able to resist printing this lighthearted submission
from a young reader.

*Economic Outlook
Modern Man cartoon.

*Profiles <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=214>*

*Barters and Bootstraps

*Country Lore <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=216>*
Darlene Kistler shares how to turn willow scrapings into saplings;
Sherry Balkenhol grows sunflowers for winter birdseed; Arlene Raymond
shares a tip for minimizing plant transplant shock; Hanycaps Unlimited
share tips for the handicapped gardener; Craig Scharf stores his garden
tools in an old mailbox near the plot.

*Slipping Sweet Potatoes
Don't pass up on learning the secrets of growing this nutritious,
delicious, easy-to-grow vegetable, including for the home garden,
cultivation tips.

*Edible Landscaping
This mini-manual will give you the basics of a useful and decorative
plant-raiser's art, including vegetables, perennial edibles, taste
appeal, health, variety, new approaches to landscaping, tables.

*Climbing Okra <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=211>*
If you want a decorative yard-and-garden plant that tastes as good as it
looks, investigate this vegetable, including a multitude of uses, how to
get the vine started, fighting disease and pests.

*Basic Skills and Lost-Proofing
Elementary survival skills for the wild, including how to prevent
getting lost in the deep woods, practice now, review of past At Home in
the Wilderness articles.

*To Save Money Backpacking
Guide for what to pack when spending time hiking, including foods,
breakfast, lunch and dinner, analyze your trip, cautions, treat yourself
kindly, be adaptable.

*Natural Flea Control
Follow this vet's advice for a flea-free summer, including biographical
sketch of the enemy insect, control, natural remedies, garlic cloves,
formulating a battle plan.

*Raffia and Cattail Sandals
This natural-fiber produces comfortable summer footwear, including
weaving sandals, crafting the sole, making the thong and band, viable
variations, a cornhusk substitute.

*The Incredible, Edible Beanbag Tripod
If you're a shutterbug on a budget, here's a camera support you can make
in just minutes, including beanbag craftsmanship, the ultimate in

*Preparing the Soil
Gardeners should give thought to these fundamental principles, including
cultivation, texture, life, hydrogen, inorganic elements, nitrogen,
phosphorus, potassium, trace elements, organic fertilizers.

*Curing My "Bed-Wetting" Garden
If you've got a vegetable plot with soggy soil, why not try this
grower's drainage methods, including spring test, a gardener's work is
never done.

*How to Live Well on Two-City Acres
This enterprising family from Atlanta has learned through trial and
error how to experience the good life on limited suburban land and
shares there experiences here.

*A Magical Journey to Summer Music Camps
If you'd like to treat yourself to a musical vacation this year, hop
aboard our bus and experience these musical retreats.

*Herb Garden: Coriander

*Whittling Tools That Hold an Edge
These inexpensive, easy-to-make carving tools can be even better than
store-bought ones.

*Mother's Bicycle Safety Flasher
When you're riding in the midst of cars 20 times your weight, it's wise
to have a bright light, including parts layout, positive of circuit
board, turn-signal switch, diodes, transistors, materials list.

*More Is Not Better
Former reader shares discoveries gleaned through process of retreating
back to the land.

*The Rural Art of Capping a Spring
Homestead Handbook for utilizing and relying on an undeveloped spring,
including step-by-step illustrations, spring quality, capping time,
other approaches and tips, reservoirs, pumps.

*Energy Flashes <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=197>*

*Mother's 1985 Garden Tiller Sampler
If you've been considering investing in a power cultivator, this chart
may save you some legwork.

*The Shaker Lap Desk
Here's how to build a distinctive piece from the past that's useful even
in contemporary times, including materials list, diagram, building

*The "Blue Max": Affordable Wind Power
Our second tool for harvesting power from the wind blends economy with
performance, including lists of materials, detailed assemblies diagrams,
building instructions.

*The Construction of Mother's Bioshelter Greenhouse
Here are the details on the latest addition to Mother's ongoing,
self-reliant homestead project, including notes on construction, growing
beds, diagrams.

*Publish Menu Guides
Telling people where to get a good meal can turn into a profitable
part-time home business, including estimates, bits and pieces, selling
yourself, how to do it.

*A Homemade Telescope
Here's a way to build yourself a front-row seat for the arrival of
Halley's comet this year, including optics, the tube, detailed diagram,
the cell, eyepiece and diagonal mirror, alignment.

*Build a Fringe-Area Antenna for $20!
If your television reception is poor to nonexistent, try making a stand
with aerial combat, including diagrams, assembly and installation
instructions, getting your signals straight.

*Solarc 98 <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=188>*
Earth sheltering and passive/active solar design team up for energy
efficiency in Oklahoma, including floor plans, photographs.

*Ecoscience <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=187>*
An examination of the serengeti, a natural ecosystem, including more
grass for grazers, one thing leads to another.

*Medical Self-Care
Guide to improving ailing back pain, including common causes of back
pain, rule out other diseases, exercise is the key, dos and don'ts.

*Friends of the Earth

*Bandcycle Built for Two
Take your bicycle out of winter storage and put it to use, when you
ingeniously combine it with a band saw, including diagram, photographs,
building directions.

*The Weird Humor of Jack Vaughan

*A Child-Built Cordwood Clubhouse
Tackling a little project like this may inspire you to build a full-size
cordwood house, including design features, personal innovations, masonry
mud recipe.

*A Homemade "Factory" Solar Collector
It is possible to slash the cost of solar water heating and still retain
store-bought quality, including bought and built, trial without error,
materials list, detailed diagram.

*Making and Using a Venerable Hand Sling
You don't have to anticipate facing a foe named Goliath to enjoy a whirl
at this sport, including manufacturing a sling, parts of the sling,
overhand throwing technique.

*The Backyard Jungle
How to identify and minimize the impact of these garden insect pests.

*The Seasons of the Garden
Seed-saver's alert, including garden competitions, salads all summer and
tomatoes of note.

*Last Laugh <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=175>*

*Down on the Farm

Issue #94

*A Shirt Tale <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=6739>*
Don't throw out your tattered shirttails, you won't waste anything below
the waist with this sewing, cloth recycling technique, including patterns.

*News From Mother

*Dear Mother <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=6737>*

*Bits and Pieces <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=174>*

*Economic Outlook
Discussing the financial future, including graph of the economic long wave.

*An Herbal Medicine Chest
How to develop a home health cabinet, including harvesting, drying,
comfrey, Echinacea, garlic, angelica, valerian, using herbs safely,
chamomile, calendula.

*Mother's Children
Young author shares ten simple steps for building a really good go-cart,
including building instructions.

*The Plowboy Interview: Dan Poynter
Discussion of profitable pointers for self-publishers.

*Year-Round Watermelon
Watermelon doesn't have to be just a summer treat; you can preserve it
in a number of ways detailed here, including pickles and preserves,
dehydrated watermelon, watermelon wine.

*Profiles <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=167>*

*Barters and Bootstraps

*Watering the Garden
Tips and advice for proper soil moisture levels, including soil and
water, when to water, how often and how much, tools, water-saving
tricks, strategies for conservation.

*Country Lore <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=166>*
B.V. Alvarez uses a dollar bill as a six-inch ruler; Jim Payette uses
old baking soda to extinguish fires; Irma Wilson hangs a hook from the
ceiling to help her get out of bed; Patty Pritchett put cheese on foil
to alert her cat to a mouse's presence; Dixie Collum stores garlic in
jars filled with cooking oil; Bill Krumbein invented a swiveling hose
holder; Mike Carlos cleans his hands after automotive work with bacon fat.

*Super Glider <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=164>*
Here's a way to prove the movement of invisible waves of air and have a
good time to boot, including pattern, construction, launch it.

*Can Your Tomatoes Carefully!
Pay heed to the new USDA guidelines for preserving tomatoes, and to the
author's heartfelt plea, including canning according to current USDA

*A Survival Kit You Can Live With: The Experts Choices
Outdoor survival kits from Boulder Outdoor Survival School, Outward
Bound USA, The Tracker, National Outdoor Leadership School, Mother.

*A Tackle Box Belt
How to construct this unique fishing accessory.

*Solar Technical Training
The sun is just beginning to rise on the job market for men and women
who have the right expertise, including guide and mailing information
for solar training programs.

*Mother's Lifers <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=159>*
Numbers 6257 to 6278.

*Photovoltaics Today
Solar cell technology is in a state of transition, and now may be the
time to get involved, including home-scale PV matures, shopping for
panels, new technologies, Arco Solar's genesis.

*Herb Garden: White Horehound

*Building the Traditional Hewn-Log Home
Mini-manual construction guide, including bottom line, foundation,
acquiring logs, digging it, preservatives and finishes, the tools of the
logsmith's trade, hewing, peeling, notches, splicing.

*Three tip-Top Timber Tools
You might not be able to buy these tools at the store, but you can
certainly make them, including the log tong, pry bar peavey, safety
helmet, detailed diagrams, building instructions.

*Furniture Refinishing
Here's the scoop on a money-making enterprise that requires little
start-up investment and is welcomed everywhere, including getting
started, quickie course, pricing, repairs and restoration.

*The Essential Outdoor Barbecue
The cookout season is hard upon us, so why not build this cooker,
including materials and pricing list, diagram and layout, building

*Energy Flashes <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=151>*

*Giardiasis in Paradise
Water you drink in the pristine wilderness may not be as pure as you
think, including beaver fever, transmission, disease, treatment,
backcountry protection.

*Gardener's Glut <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=150>*
A noted author proposes a simple problem to that annual grower's problem.

*Ecoscience: Grazing Ecosystems From Theory to Practice
Grazing ecosystems from theory to practice, including exotic livestock,
multiple advantages, breaking traditions.

*A Landscape-Log Cabin
These readers demonstrated their determination to do more with less with
these construction designs, including diagram of floor plan, six easy
pieces, future dreaming.

*Pumping Plastic!

*Burkholder's "Briefcase" Solar Cooker
You can let the sun heat your noontime meal while you go about your work
or play, including detailed diagram, building instructions.

*Research Update: The Blue Max
Mother put a little backbone between the blade skins and made a good
thing even better, including blade patterns, construction directions.

*Write Your Own Will
You may not be able to take it with you, but you can help control where
it goes if you follow this procedure, including buried in paper, how
should it be written, alternatives to wills, uniform probate code.

*Would You Like to Become a Midwife?
There is a growing need for compassionate, skilled women to attend
natural childbirth, including but can you become a midwife.

*Friends of the Earth

*Medical Self-Care
Seven laws for better health, including home health, alternative medicine.

*A Three-Stone Sharpener
Maintenance is a must for your fine knives and blades and is made easier
by building this device, including diagram, directions.

*Down on the Farm

*Mother's Table Saw Survey
An overview of different table saw models, brands and functions.

*The World's Best $6 Sawhorse?
Here's a horse of a different color that will look like pure gold to the
hassled handyperson, including diagram, building instructions.

*Chemical-Free Mosquito Control
Using nature to solve natural problems is a sound idea, including
physical control, biological control, betting on bacteria, permanent
pool, floodwater and artificial container/tree hole groups.

*The Backyard Jungle: Part XIII: Hover Flies
Determining friend from foe in the garden, including history, habitat
and habits.

*The Weird Humor of Jack Vaughan

*The Solar Carriage House
A blend of superinsulation and earth sheltering is a promising option
for owner-builders, including Wallis carriage house, Merkel carriage
house, the future, photographs.

*The Seasons of the Garden
Research briefs on mulch as irrigation aid, cross pollinating chile
peppers, garlic sprays for mildew, gleanings and more.

*Last Laugh <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=130>*

Issue #95

*Bits and Pieces <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=131>*
News briefs on biological pest controls, puritan justice for polluters,
cheap dirt, sodium-free soil, the cost of pollution controls, life

*Homemade Granola Bars
Recipe for homemade granola bar, variations on the theme and sidebar,
Store-Bought Granola Bars: Health Food or Candy.

*Mom Tests the Soil Tests
Right now is the best time to test your garden soil, but which earth
exam you should give is investigated here, including soil test results

*The Plowboy Interview
Conversation with the editors of Mothering magazine and the parent as a

*Choosing A Log Home Kit
Log homes are attractive, versatile and relatively energy-efficient and
range from summer-cottage-simple to palatial. Here's your guide to
finding the best one for your needs and budget.

*A Sampling of Economic Newsletters
Economic Outlook column delves into various financial publications.

*Country Lore <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=124>*
Irene Kubica sprays water on plants after the first spring frost to
protect them; Joe Plaugh coats the bottom of his wheelbarrow with
leftover enamel; Helen Levchuk keeps bugs out of her home by filling a
coffee-bean bag with tomato plant cuttings and pennyroyal; Harold
Newcomb dissuaded rabbits from chewing on their hutches by giving them
untreated soft pine; Scott Garner, Bob Bailey and Larry Brown share
chainsaw tips; Elizabeth Elliott saves herb seeds in nylon stockings;
Ernst Erbe soaks rusted-together nuts and bolts in cola overnight.

*Extending the Season
How to lengthen the growing season without a greenhouse, with plastic
tunnels, including the tunnel cloche, the cold frame, how to use a
cloche or frame, the big hitch.

*Squirrel Hunting: Some Tips for Tyros
Hunting advice for beginners, also includes Sixty-Second Skinning
sidebar by Winnie Hodgson and Woodlot Squirrel recipe by Sylvia Bashline.

*Mother's Children
Young author and entrepreneur enjoys growing pumpkins and profiting from
the harvest.

*A Field Guide to Tree Squirrels
Illustrated guide to squirrel varieties.

*Mother's Herb Garden Joe-Pye Weed

*A Mill-Slab Firewood Business
If you live anywhere with access to both rural and urban areas, a little
hard work and ingenuity can set you up in your own $10-an-hour business.

*A Roof-Over Retrofit
Family discovers that putting a new roof on their old mobile home pays
off in more ways that one, including how they did it, what they did and
cross section.

*Economy Solar' To Go!
Mother's research department mobilized its forces to produce a solar
collector that cuts winter heating bills, including local tuning, ducts
in a row, panels, diagrams and schematics.

*An Herbal Medicine Chest, Part II
How to properly stock the home alternative medicine, green pharmacy,
chest, including tinctures, salves, treeflower oil.

*At Home in the Wilderness
How to construct two different long-term survival shelters, including
the thatched hut and the mud hut, plan before you build, thatching,

*The Greenhouse Solution
Adding a greenhouse can solve high energy costs and improve dreary

*A Saw Chain Troubleshooting Guide
Illustrated guide predicts how to solve basic chain saw problems

*Weatherization and Conservation
Chart compares different energy conservation methods and their cost
versus conservation benefit.

*Woodstoves and Mobile Home Safety
The pleasures and economic advantages of wood burning are now available
to those who don't dwell in site-built homes.

*Mother's Add-on Garden Toolshed
A central location and a few special features are the keys to this
structure's usefulness, including construction, instructions, building
tips, cross-sectional view, finishing touches.

*How Not To Insulate Your Attic
Illustrated guide to proper attic insulation, including vent areas,
gaps, right side up, puckers, loose or compressed insulation, animal
nests, mold, mildew and rusty nails.

*Ten Woodstoves Have Made the Grade
Only a few stoves have passed Oregon's emissions standards so far,
including reading between the numbers, performance, stove manufacturers
and specifications.

*An All-Purpose Straddle-Wheeled Hauler
This carrier suits heavy loads that should be carried rather than
dragged, including schematic, instructions, photographs, diagram.

*Mother's Band Saw Survey
Table of band saw manufacturers and their model specifications.

*A Basic (and Beautiful) Boat
How to build this simple, yet sound, waterfaring craft, including layout
and sectional diagrams, instructions, photographs.

*Mother's Radiator Monitor
Know your car's cooling system is in good shape, including parts layout,
circuit board, how it works, building the monitor, installation, bill of

*An Under-$10,000 Ozarks Home
Couple leaves the city in search of the good life and combined high
hopes and hard work to create their own Ozark oasis, including how they
did it and house design highlights.

*Root Cellaring <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=101>*
Hoe to install a root cellar, including planning your cellar, building
an outside or basement root cellar, decentralized storage, stocking the
cellar and year-round harvest.

*Down on the Farm <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=98>*

*Easy Salt-Free Sauerkraut
Recipe for making this popular German condiment.

*Chute the Sky! <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=100>*
Author enjoys experiencing the Earth from the birds' perspective with
the Model PM-1 Para-Plane.

*Breeding an Epidemic Antibiotics and Meat
Modern agriculture is rushing us into an unintended but dangerous form
of genetic engineering, including antibiotics, how bacteria become
resistant, livestock, the animal-human link, regulatory stonewall.

*The Backyard Jungle, Part XIV
Tiny insects swarm and harm fruit and vegetable plants, includes
history, recognition, prevention.

*The Seasons of the Garden
Local sources of unusual plants; also includes research briefs and

*The Weird Humor of Jack Vaughan

Issue #96

*Mother's Lifers <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=93>*

*Bits and Pieces <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=94>*
News briefs on bacillus thuringiensis (BT), appropriate contraception,
Culligan water watch hotline, working while sick and savory grasslands.

*The Plowboy Interview
Conversation with the host of PBS' The Woodright's Shop television show.

*Making Klondike-Style Sourdough Pancakes
How to make the perfect main course for a special winter morning,
including personalizing the basic recipe.

*The Deficit Dilemma
Guest columnist shares his carefully researched views on the current
economic outlook of the United States.

*Island Life Down Under
Couple moves to a South Sea island and shares their story, including not
paradise, food and water, spare time.

*A Wild Idea <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=82>*
Growing wild flowers in urban settings seems like a novel idea, but pays
off beautifully in many cities.

*Photovoltaic Products
Today's solar industry is bringing PV power to the people, including a
sampling of items on the market.

*Farewell to Toxic Fumes
Stained-glass business operator finds a solution for removing toxic lead
vapors from the workshop.

*Mother's Light-Bulb Test
Chart details various brands and offers a performance comparison.

*Country Lore <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=86>*
George Earley's family stores winter supplies in shoe bags; Fred
Hargreaves uses a mixture of light mineral oil and kerosene as a honing
oil for whetstones; Bonnie Hamlin soaks cotton string before wrapping a
package for a tighter bow; Kathy Machotka uses a street sweeping brush
as a cattle backscratcher; Barry Churchill marks his chainsaw with the
appropriate length for logs for his stove; Josun shares that bubble wrap
provides privacy but allows natural light; Shirley Bredow says boiling
rhubarb softens lime deposits; Bob Filipovich writes letters to
relatives on the backs of his children's school papers to share their
educational accomplishments; Claudia Barber greases a measuring cup with
oil or butter to make pouring measured honey out easier; Shellinda
Hampton freezes butter wrapping papers.

*Stitch a Stocking Surprise
How to transform a child's Christmas stocking into a puppet, toy,
including plain and fancy fixin's, mix and match, sewing tips.

*Instant Sailboat <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=80>*
Illustrated guide to building this seaworthy shanty.

*How To Buy a Business For Little or No Money
Even those a few dollars down may still be able to buy a profitable
business, including doing your homework, finding a business, making the

*Ni-Cad Battery Charger
Kiss wasteful disposable batteries goodbye by building this $6 charger,
including proper care a feeding, the design, circuit board diagram, cost
and materials list.

*The Tax Man Cometh
Sidebar. The IRS can play a significant role in determining the
prospective profitability of a business.

*Milk Money from Goats
Young author makes money milking goats, including picking a breed,
raising the goats, breeding, kidding, milking and selling the milk.

*Alaska <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=73>*
Author decides to homestead in Alaska and shares her experiences.

*Site Assessment for Alternative Energy
An in-depth look at the alt. energy potential of your land, including
solar, wind, natural factors and harvesting advice.

*Mistletoe Money <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=75>*
Cold cash really does grow on trees, if you're willing to go out on a
limb, including harvesting mistletoe, packaging and pricing.

*A Handcrafted, Nuts-and-Bolts Chess Set
Illustrated guide to turning industrial parts into chess pieces.

*Wahoo <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=71>*

*The Deer of North America
Guide to the types of deer in our continent, including whitetail,
blacktail, mule, antlers and racks.

*Break into Print with a Newsletter
Writers tired of rejection slips might want to try starting their own
publication, including legalities, figuring costs, testing the waters,
printing, promotion.

*Choosing and Using a Tractor
How to select the best tractor for your land and uses, including how a
tractor works, winnowing the selection.

*The Secrets of Organic Container Growing
Lush ornamentals, indoor herbs, year-round vegetables and colorful
hanging baskets can all be yours, naturally, including soil mixes,
culinary herbs, hanging baskets, care and maintenance.

*Energy Flashes <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=67>*

*Gym Dandies <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=66>*
How to build wooden home workout equipment - the inversion machine and
sit-up bench - to keep love handles at bay and promote exercise and health.

*Mother's Drill Press Survey
Chart of drill press manufacturers and the specifications of their models.

*1,800 (Not-Yet-Finished) Square Feet for $50,000
Mother staffer trades his typewriter for a tool belt and shares about
how he built his dream home.

*A Gift of Flavor <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=63>*
Great Christmas recipe collection, including recipes for mulled wine,
herbed rice, herbed salad dressing, herb and fruit stuffing, super

*Cut on a Hot Tin Roof
How to make an attractive, efficient solar greenhouse for producing food
year-round out of an old tin shed.

*A Pair of Unpurchased Perches
A tree stand can open an new world to the outdoorperson, and this
article has the diagrams and instructions you need to make two types.

*Dress (Your Chain) for Success
If you're not to keen on manually sharpening your chain saw, try
building this tool that will do it for you, including detailed diagrams,
photographs, instructions.

*Seasons of the Garden
A word of caution regarding wood ashes in the garden, also includes
research briefs and gleanings.

*Shopping for a Home Computer
How to select the right computer at the right price for your home,
including making a plan, memory, where to buy, software, brands.

*Prefabricate Your Country Home'- In the City!
If you itch to own a place in the country or vacation cabin, but can't
afford to buy one ready-made and can't wrangle time away from work to
build on-site yourself, this may be an attractive alternative.

*Lightwood: Nature's Own Fire Starter
This wood means the end of crumpling up newspaper to light the woodstove
and wasting valuable Coleman fuel to coax a reluctant campfire,
including getting it started with pitch.

*The Backyard Jungle, Part XV: The Praying Mantis
This garden insect eats both flora friend and foe, and therefore isn't
as beneficial as a host-specific insect.

*The Weird Humor of Jack Vaughan

Issue #97

*Bits and Pieces <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=53>*
News briefs on good news for elephants, pesticides, sheep labor, sweet
greens, children and handguns, the statistic impossibility of being a
rural yuppie and plants and light.

*A Soul-Satisfying Soup
Recipe for creamy vegetable soup with parsley dumplings.

*The Plowboy Interview: John Ott
Interview with time-lapse photographer about the connection between
varying light waves and plant growth.

*This Woodburner Needs No Chimney!
There's a race on to meet woodstove emissions regulations and the
Collins Bio-Energy Pellefier may well be at the head of the pack.

*Super-Early Tomatoes
How to get vine-ripened, beautiful tomatoes weeks ahead of everyone
else, including jumping the gun, ready, set, grow, the final spot.

*Country Lore <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=48>*
Mel Borden shares a recipe for home cold and cough soother; Julie
Normand uses a grocery bag as a mitten to arrange wood in her stove and
start the fire; Mrs. Doug Hugar freezes milk in cubes for coffee; Leon
Jones uses instant coffee to clean car batteries; Jill Whalen puts
plastic bags over her children's shoes to get the rubbers on easier and
keep their feet drier; Georgiana Kotarski sprinkles salt on a cut lemon
and uses that to remove tarnish; Bob Hamer turns plastic film containers
into a handy stamp dispenser; Dave Barr cleans fireplace bricks with a
vinegar, borax and ammonia mixture; Judi Rothkopf keeps snow in the
freezer for efficiency.

*Anatomy of a Recovery
Questioning Washington's motives, or lack of, to heal the ailing
economy, keep inflation low and reduce the deficit.

*TV Addiction <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=45>*
Readjusting priorities so that family comes before television viewing,
including taking actions, positive effects, the plug-in drug.

*Shiitake <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=46>*
A delight to the palate, the shiitake mushroom can turn waste wood into
$20-per-pound produce, including inoculating the logs, fungus, sources
for shiitake spawn, mushrooming profits, improving your woodlot.

*Dodging [Chimney] Draft Problems
The venting system for a wood-burning heaters is every bit as important
as the stove itself, including symptoms, problems and solutions.

*Make Your Own Books!
Young author enjoys constructing, writing and illustrating her own
books, including watercolor covers, lazy-man tie-die, materials.

*Backcountry Baking Stove-Top Style!
Recipes for stove-top fry-pan cornbread, berry pie, Alaskan gorp torte
and warm thoughts on cooking with wood.

*Ten Tidbits from Passive '95
A number of significant new developments and discoveries were presented
at this year's meeting of the Passive Diversion of the American Solar
Energy Society.

*Meet The Winners of Mother's 1985 Garden Contest
Profiles and garden layouts of competition winners, including Tre
Megown, Merle and Sherry Hill, Norbert and Linda Monohan, David Fisher,
Judith Hendrickson, Julia Jannings.

*Garden Record Keeping
How to keep track of soil responses to different crops, food
preservation, good varieties and their sources, timing, crop rotation,
succession planting, fertilizer records, garden areas, costs, techniques.

*Mother's Herb Garden: Bay Laurel

*Make a Quiz-In-A-Box!
An old box, a few odds and ends, and your guidance can bring cheer into
any child's day, including building a quiz-in-a-box machine.

*Oil-Furnace Troubleshooting
When your oil furnaces quits, try some home diagnoses before calling in
a professional, including five tips and symptoms.

*Choosing and Using a Tractor Part II
How to keep the machine and its user, the farmer, in safe, working
condition, including safety, maintenance, repairs and troubleshooting.

*A Crosstie Retaining Wall
This structure is a simple, economical way to terrace uneven ground,
including elementary soil mechanics, laying out and up the wall.

*Cat-Proof Your Stereo Speakers
Bored cats find that fabric speaker grilles make excellent scratching
posts, but you can foil your feline without spoiling your sound by
following these simple preventative techniques.

*Mother's Thickness Planer Survey
Chart of planer manufacturers and their model specifications.

*The Mountain Caribou
Few Americans in the lower 48 have been lucky enough to lay eyes on this
living anachronism, including the history, habits and habitat of this

*Energy Independence, Today!
Innovative construction techniques, passive heating and cooling and
photovoltaics can make this dream a reality.

*Death of a Classic
Feature examines the reasoning and consequences behind the Environmental
Protection Agency's decision to phase out the lead-based gasoline fueled

*A Portable, Pop-Up Ice-Fishing Shack
When the frozen lakes call you to fish, this handy heated shelter will
rise to the occasion, including diagrams, instructions.

*The World's Simplest "Pulse Jet" Heater!
How to fight back against winter chill, including diagrams, how it
works, instructions.

*Closing the Solar Circuit
Second installment in series shows how to put a homemade solar water
heater to work, including the equipment, a direct route, parts list,

*The Seasons of the Garden
Authors' favorite ways to grow seedlings, also including research briefs
and gleanings.

*Waterpower Site Assessment
How to determine the hydroelectric power and possibilities within the
water source on your property, including playing surveyor, using a
flow-duration table and curve, correlation.

*The Backyard Jungle Part XVI: Cutworms
How to identify and rid oneself of these garden predators, including
classes, history, controlling measures.

*The Weird Humor of Jack Vaughan

Issue #98

*The Backyard Jungle
Get to know these wasp-like flies that prey on the eggs of garden predators.

*The Weird Humor of Jack Vaughan

*True Grit <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=5976>*
How to build a surface sander that is every bit as smooth on your budget
as your board, including detailed diagram, instructions.

*Primroses for Pennies
How to start these small flowers from seed, including the great primrose

*The Specialist <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=5973>*
Humorous excerpt from book of fiction.

*Become a Weed-Eater!
How to get more flavor and nutrition from your diet, reduce your food
budget, enjoy satisfying time outdoors and clean up your fledgling
garden in the process.

*The Seasons of the Garden
Special yield-boosting crop treatments, also includes research briefs
and gleanings.

*Dennis's Burkalounger
How to build this tree-attached lounge chair, including diagrams,

*Beginning Cheese Making
Guide to getting started making cheese, including milk requirements,
renet, recipes for lactic cheese, caerphilly, step-by-step instructions.

*Mother's Low-Cost Home-Building Contest: The Winners
A look at the families who won Mother's competition.

*Mother's Wood Lathe Survey
Chart of lathe manufacturers and their specifications.

*Vegetable Medicines
Recipes for alternative medicine, natural remedies for ill health.

*Triple Your Refrigerator's Life Span
Perform these quick, once-a-year home-maintenance tasks to add life to
your cooling kitchen appliance.

*Bits and Pieces <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=22>*
News briefs on high protein wheat, gourmet crops, helping the rural
disabled, linking obesity and television, mail-order tax alert and seed

*The Plowboy Interview: Rex Oberhelman
How to net $27,000 from five organic acres.

*Shortbread to Crow About
Recipe for Scotch shortbread.

*Gramm-Rudman: Remedy or Ruse?
Examining the congressional balanced-budget amendment.

*Tilthing the Garden
How to break spaded soil into fine particles before planting.

*Miniature Fruit and Nut Trees
How to grow these tiny, fruit-producing wonders, including varieties
chart, the history and future of mini trees, the virtues of miniatures.

*Country Lore <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=15>*
Cliff Truman shares how to make a device that eliminates stooping while
sowing; Kenn Roman uses coffee filters when transplanting; W. Gorka ties
fruit trees into an arc to ensure growth; Clinton Youts runs over
fertilizer with his tiller; Maragret Kucharek shares syrup-making
advice; Grace Haddad stores winter clothes in a water- and moth-proof
plastic garbage can; Pamela Colberg tacks twine to roof leaks to stop
the noise.

*Explore the World with a Pen Friend!
Young author discovers the pleasures of an international pen pal,
including meeting and examples of correspondence.

*The Digger: A Stream Pond that Carves Itself
This pond adds beauty and value to a country home, and here is a way to
create one without expensive and soil-damaging equipment.

*Controlling Erosion
How to prevent erosion, including how it happens, fighting erosion with
plants, vegetation, conquering the splatter, gullies, reading, cutting
and using willow stakes.

*A Rooftop Oasis <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=11>*
Rooftop gardens provide valuable growing space and solitude in urban
areas, including planting, maintenance, problems, looking back.

*Seed-Starting Secrets
How to ensure the seeds you sow produce healthy, productive plants,
including magic beans, a closer look, critical considerations and
potential problems, some specific seeds.

*This is Tax Simplification?
Tax statistics for contemplation and amusement.

*The Wyman Elk Ranch
A Colorado ranching family has demonstrated for nearly two decades that
raising wild ungulates for the commercial market is more fun that
herding cattle or sheep and can be extremely profitable as well.

*The Dixon Land Imprinter
This machine may help rectify the damage done by dozens of decades of
overgrazing and overcropping our agricultural lands, including the
air-earth interface processes.

*The Family-Strength High Chair
How to build a sturdy, secure wood high chair, including diagram,

*The Deep Bed Farming Society: Breaking New Ground
The pioneering work of a dedicated group of biodynamic and
French-intensive horticulturalists promises to help improve the
productivity and weal of family farmers everywhere.

*Mother's Herb Garden: Yarrow

*The Gang of Three <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=3>*
A simple way to speed up lawn maintenance with this simple tractor
attachment, including diagrams, instructions.

*Radon Calling? <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=1>*
A quick, inexpensive way to find out if a deadly visitor is present in
your home.

*The Saga of Franklin's Eagle
An introductory look at the turkey, including its history, habits and

Issue #99

*The Weird Humor of Jack Vaughan

*Choosing and Using an Electric
Guide to electric fence selection, including the fencer, how it works,
set up, planning a pasture fence, wire, posts, installation, hooking up
the wire.

*Build a Super Canner!
How to build this outdoor canning facility, including materials list,
detailed diagrams, explicit instructions.

*A Home Security Alarm
How to build and install an alarm that will keep your home safer and
intruders at bay, including how it works, the system board, installing
the alarm, circuit board layout, output options.

*The Seasons of the Garden
A new way to control soil disease, also includes research briefs and

*La Casa del Sol
Sister brought 35 friends together to solar house, including function
diagram, how she did it, from futurist from foundation digger.

*Death of a Classic Part II
The Environmental Protection Agency's efforts reduce the level of lead
in the environment has controversial consequences for owners of leaded
gasoline-fueled automobiles.

*Ooze Who In Drip Irrigation
The six beginner's kits can help you determine if a drip system will
improve your garden yield, including Shur-Flo, Submatic, Burpee,
Raindrip, Chapin, Irrigo, A Homegrown Soaker Hose sidebar by Lilah Pengra.

*A Medicine Cabinet That Reflects Good Taste
Mother's bathroom cabinet design offers convenience with aesthetic
enjoyment, including dimensions, advice, photographs, instructions, diagram.

*The Marquardts <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=6001>*
Family is second winners in Mother's low-cost home-building contest.

*Skimming the Garden
Discover what may be one of the handiest all-purpose weeding techniques
around, including sharpening a spade and running it along the surface of
the earth.

*Bad Bugs <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=5997>*
How to tell if your lettuce and other vegetables have been ruined and by
whom, including flea beetle, corn earworm, Colorado potato beetle,
Japanese beetle, control tactics.

*Buckwheat <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=5998>*
Buckwheat is easy to grow and great source of high-quality protein,
including who has the varieties, how to grow buckwheat, kitchen and
cooking applications, a brief history.

*Handle with Care
Setting out spring seedlings demands careful preparation and a delicate
touch, including temperature, water, transplanting, food, wind, light.

*Food Festivals <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=5993>*
Guide to summer food festivals, including recipes for chicken jambalaya,
garlots, zucchini gazpacho, cranberry sour-cream coffee cake.

*Pick of the Crop
The best new vegetable varieties from a gardener who has grown them,
including lettuce, radishes, turnips, spinach, greens, onions, peas,
cole crops, beets, carrots, potatoes, corn, beans, peppers.

*Knife Throwing <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=5988>*
Guide to the art of tossing a sharp object, including back-to-basics
blade guide, throwing technique, getting set, proper throwing knives.

*Feedback on'- Newcomers, Neighbors, and Natives
Readers respond to previously printed article.

*Mother's Herb Garden: Chives

*Mother's Jointer Survey
Table listing all the manufacturers of jointers and their specifications.

*An Afternoon with the Bears
Author spends afternoon in the presence of black bears and relates some
of the species' history and habits, also includes The Bear Facts sidebar
by Lance Olsen.

*Dealing with Basement
Illustrated view of a basement and the potential problems (and their
remedies) it could face.

*The Gaia Hypothesis
Examining the theory that the Earth really is alive, including what if?
and in the meantime.

*Country Lore <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=5987>*
E. Noty cleans copper with catsup; Harla Estle uses an illustrated board
to tell her young, illiterate children where she can be found; Russ
Cockburn shares the secret to a structure surviving a flood is to open
the doors and windows and allow water to flow freely through; P.J.
Parziale nails roofing shingles to docks and steps to provide a cheap,
no-slip surface; Helen Puls shares how to replace worn carpet runners;
Christine Scheere records her broken clothes dryer and plays in the
appliance shop for advice on how to fix the problem; Diane Graves uses
egg shells to repel birds from her garden and mark rows; Leon Werdinger
says tossing an orange or apple peel out the car invites critters to the
road and creates road kill.

*Make Cardboard Houses!
Young author discovers and shares inexpensive way to make fun houses and
miniature towns.

*Crafts as a Business
Cashing in on the crafts circuit can be both profitable and fun,
including testing the market, costs, show selection, taxes and licenses,

*Control Steam Erosion
How to combat the negative aspects of streams, including understanding
the problem, what to do, solving siltation, proper vegetation.

*Bits and Pieces
News briefs on the zoning home businesses, households without a
television, the link between organopesticides and poisonings,
circumcisions, Chippewa tribe bands lead shot and beehive protection.

*Early-Summer Salad
Recipe for light, warm-weather favorite dish.

*Decorate Inexpensively'- with Stencils
Adding a personal touch to any room in the house is done easier than one
might think, including pattern selection, cut, measure and paint.

Issue #100

*The Best Weird Humor of Jack Vaughan

*Mother's Bioshelter Greenhouse
This quality greenhouse uses both solar and compost heat and houses
rabbits and chickens, including structure, notes on construction, cross
sections and floor plans.

*Heating and Cooling With The Sun!
Author's home was designed for the California desert, but the attractive
and innovative structure incorporates features that would be a blessing
in any climate, including planning, how it works diagram.

*Learn How To Weld'- By Welding!
An introduction to the useful and marketable skill that anyone can
acquire, including basic exercises, butt and tee welds, laying a bead.

*Rooftop Bike Carrier
If you look forward to riding - but dread hauling - your bicycle, you'll
like this easy-to-build rack, including diagram, instructions.

*My "Truss-Worthy" Chairs
If you thought only seasoned woodworkers build furniture, think again,
including diagram, instructions, the jig, the chair.

*The "One of a Kind" Waterwheel
The memory of a childhood paddle wheel helped this inventive gardener
get water to his plants, including instructions, very detailed diagram,
building advice.

*The Basement Built Wind Generator
A low-investment windplant that's a backyard tinkerer's dream, including
make do and make it work, the chain's weak link, a sound investment.

*Hunting: Some Tips for Tyros
Guide to hunting squirrels, includes illustrated field guide to tree

*The Care and Feeding of the Swiss Army Knife
How to maintain the handiest pocket companion you can carry, including
how to buy genuine, keeping blades sharp, screwdriver tips, to oil or
not to oil, expense.

*Tap The Sun <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=6030>*
The easy, low-cost way to add solar heat to your mobile home or metal
outbuilding, including what it takes, how big, bill of materials, ducts
and dampers, framing.

*Homestead Firearm
How to safely load, clean and practice with a firearm, including
choosing shells, gun alternatives, suggested shot sizes for hunting.

*How Good Are Wild Foods
Chart details the nutritional information of many wild plants.

*Foot Power <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=6026>*
Introduction to the pleasure of hiking, including making an Alaskan
packboard, pacing and techniques.

*Woodstove Pollution
In five short years, 28 manufacturers have risen to the challenge of
woodstove pollution, including emission requirements, five rules for
cleaner wood burning.

*Water <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=6024>*
Making sure you are drinking enough, including little-known scientific
facts, how much is enough, consuming more than thirst calls for, medical
prevention by the gulp.

*The Gentle Art of Hunkering
Many a country newcomer has to learn this basic and important rural
skill, including tact, body language, nonverbal and verbal communication

*Hazardous Household Substances
Information is the key to consumer self-defense, including definitions,
food additives, kitchenware, household products, pesticides, cosmetics,
building materials.

*Country Lore <http://www.motherearthnews.com/index.php?page=arc&id=6021>*
The best homespun advice from past issues, including killing garden
pests, ants, free mulch, recipe for gourmet mint vinegar, recycling
homemade ice cream brine, covering cauliflowers, egg tests, produce and
sharpening vegetable peelers.

*Grandma's Four-Strand Braided Rug
Here's an attractive, old-fashioned floor cover that barely requires
sewing, including planning, braiding techniques, keep it flat.

*Land Buying: Do's and Don'ts
Don't let your enthusiasm for an ideal piece of property lead to costly
mistakes, including access, water, sewer and drainage, utility
availability, mineral and timber rights, protection, community attitudes.

*Hot Apple "Pie Sandwich"
Reader shares letter, wherein this original recipe is divulged.

*Make Your Own Herb Teas
Here's a healthful way to beat the heat this summer, or ease long winter
evenings, including plant and tea description chart.

*The Salads of Summer
Perk up your plate with these light - yet satisfying - single-dish
meals, including recipes for tabouli, Balkan rice, cucumber-yogurt, cold
broccoli, marinated bean and vegetable and chilled pasta salads.

*Don't Let Your Well Driller Give You The Shaft
A customer's primer into well drilling, including pump comparison,
drilling methods, capacity and yield, standard household water requirements.

*Cutting Wood (Safely!) With a Chain Saw
Guide to dimembering tree limbs (without dismembering your own!),
including hazards, how to handle a chain saw, bucking, felling large and
small trees.

*Conversations with Mother
Quips and quotes from past interviews, including John Shuttleworth,
Peggy and John McMahon, Euell Gibbons, Jim McHale, Frank Ford, Norman
Cousins, Pete Seeger.

*Safe Homegrown Pesticides
You can rid your garden of many destructive pests with effective natural
remedies, including pyrethrum, garlic, feverfew, marigolds and moles,
moderation is the key.

*Mother's Minigardens
Discussion of which gardening methods are best, including double-dug
versus rototilled beds, straight rows or deep mulch, yields, space,
fertilization, long-term effects.

*Watering The Gardens
How to get a sometimes confusing job done as efficiently and effectively
as possible, including soil and water, when to water, how often and how
much, tools, water conservation, water-saving tricks.

Copyright 2004, All Rights Reserved | Ogden Publications, Inc., 1503 SW
42nd St., Topeka, Kansas 66609-1265

[Homestead] Home Business, Startup, from concept to successful operation
Tvoivozhd tvoivozd at infionline.net
Thu Sep 30 19:23:52 EDT 2004

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OK, I'm starting to think about what is still a pretty hazy outline of
several integrated home manufacturing businesses with these
characteristics (possibly more, any advice is appreciated), not
necessarily in this order and I have un uneasy feeling I am forgetting
something---you have to get pro-forma contracts and bids to make your
numbers at least initially fairly reliable.

This will take a while and I have no idea how much longer declining
health will permit working on this---cross your fingers. I need to to
this for my kids as well as the Homestead List. Wish I had not deferred
it so long. No damned condolences---I'm not sorry for myself and I don't
want anyone else to indulge in histrionics.

I know this sounds like I am not adhering to the K.I.S.S principle (Keep
It Simple Stupid), but it is --K.I.S (Keep It Safe) is equally important.

a. Write a good, complete business plan---as much for following your own
business blueprint as for any lending agency or investor..
b. See how much business capital you have, stay within it---most early
business failures occur because the business plan is inaccurate and
capital is insufficient

c. Retain an accountant and a lawyer to handle initial paperwork, tax
returns, subsequent lawsuits, if any. You can go barefoot in business
for a while, but don't plan to do it any longer than necessary---don't
bet the farm.
d. Establish legal business format, Sole Ownership, Partnership,
S-Corporation (recommended) standard corporation
e. File for and obtain Employer I.D numbers, Federal and State, local
permits if necessary, Set up payroll withholding of taxes.

f. To whatever extent possible, the manufacturing component(s)should be
initially confined to the kitchen table or small home workshop.
g. A constant cash-flow throughout the year, even with seasonal imbalance.
h. Use of on-site raw materials, or others nearby and
free-for-collecting, buying them is the last alternative---compare costs
of the last, usually you can wring out a lot of water with careful
purchasing---which reminds me on things-forgot to which I referred to
above---a purchasing agent should yield a savings above cost. You want
a good one. If it is you, be a good one..
i. Minimize or eliminate payroll obligations---use subcontractors for
expansion of production---breakdown business activities to facilitate
use of subs. Draft a non-disclosure and non-compete clause with
j. At startup low-level, you will keep all functions in your own hands,
move them out as sales level dictates. Last to leave would probably be
product-assembly, packing and shipping.
k. Keep control of customer orders and cash-flow.
m. Balance the books daily---you don't need any business-threatening
surprises---establish and pay taxes, payroll, subcontractor payment, any
other reserve requirements as they accrue into special bank accounts.
l. Use Critical Path Method wall-charts as a constant reminder of where
the (business(s) stand in order of scheduled events from startup through
regular production
m. Network your computers with suppliers, subcontractors and most
dealers to facilitate J.I.T. production, shipment, accounting and payment.
n. As soon as possible, convert payments from check to electronic transfer.
o. Establish a warranty policy.
p. Establish a returns and allowances policy.
q. Establish employment and subcontractor contracts.
r. Obtain all necessary insurance coverages, product liability, Owners
and Officers, fire, theft, windstorm, vehicle liability etc.
s. Market test and feedback is important to determining the value of a
product. The hell with market surveys, look at whether your dealers are
coming up with escalating repeat orders. If they aren't, do something
about it immediately, do a better sales job or drop the line for
something more promising. Look at your marketing first---attractive
packaging, presentation, accompanying sales literature, other dealer
sales aids are as important than a good product, maybe more important.
As soon as your product is in finished state, take it to a sales
literature specialist and have him make a brochure (with high-quality
photos) for your dealers and customers.

Start by selling to flea market dealers (who lust for a product the
booth next door does not have) , and give hime some degree of
exclusivity in return for his solemn promise to push hell out of your
product. Provide him sales aids to enhance his chances.. Making the
contract in writing (with a performance requirement) will give him
courage and guarantee his best effortsl Craft shows are good, but less
frequent and cost more money for you to attend.
Always remember that when possible, product animation is your best
friend---in a countertop display, in a craft show booth, in a flea
market booth. Make it flashy, make it noisy if you can, see if it draws
a crowd off the street, and see if it makes them buy. Sales is a
percentage business, if the crowd is bigger, the odds of a sale will
remain the same, but total dollar volume goes up.

Oh, yeah, don't make a child-dangerous product, and you might review
patents to see if you are in violation of any. If it is a really good
product but patented, it is rarely a problem to write a licensee
agreement you can live with.

Then expand your marketing network through your website, selected
newspapers and magazines. Fasten your seatbelt, it can occasionally be
an exciting ride.

I have not decided on the product mix, but am leaning toward kid-toys,
something for their parents or grandparents (hit them all at once while
you've got them together. Probably jewelry for women, don't know about
jewelry for men, it is not my schtick. Something for cheaply and
easily-reached specialty audiences such as readers of Audubon, Birders
World , some seed catalogs with birdhouses. I've had a novel and
patentable birdhouse kicking around for some time---given time I will
build models and tooling. And maybe something that satisfies my leaning
toward things mechanical.

[Homestead] Vernacular Architecture
Tvoivozhd tvoivozd at infionline.net
Tue Sep 14 17:10:21 EDT 2004

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tvoivozhd---sniff, sob---can't find the magnificent rural farmhouse on
stilts that I lost on a dead hard drive---kampung or kampong should
bring it up on search engine, but it doesn't, only stilthouses over
tidall flats. Oh, well, may stumble across it by accident as usual if I
keep wandering around..

http://www.vernaculararchitectureforum.org/ (vernacular architecture
forum from all over the U.S. and around the world)

http://www.greatbuildings.com/types/styles/vernacular.html (long list
of vernacular architecture dwellings---one of my favorites, the original
mobile home, is a Chinese Junk)

http://www.caerlas.demon.co.uk/building.htm (short wall-ties of
Lowlands, very sketchy information that some day may be filled out)

http://www.home.worldcom.ch/~negenter/211Oliver_Vernacular.html (Paul
Oliver Encyclopedia---most comprehensive source in the world, but damned
expensive---try to get from your library from their interlibrary loan

http://www.rcahmw.org.uk/vernacular/ (Wales---churches are pretty, but
small, well-designed buildings are more relevant to the small builder
and small homeowner)

http://www.museums.org.za/vassa/ (South Africa specimens are worth
examining, other sections of Africa have more diversity. See the
Publications section as a point of departure, from which you will have
to do a lot of digging.)

http://www2.newpaltz.edu/~knappr/ (China Vernacular Architecture)

http://www.math.ufl.edu/math/biblio.html (Search the bibliography with
Waise, Glimpse, FTP)

http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/ENVI/vernacular.html (Berkely is an
excellent source of vernacular architecture information)

http://muextension.missouri.edu/explore/copy.htm (University of
Missouri, look under Research for publications to download for free)

http://www.zambiaarchitecture.com/ (Zambia data)



(British Isles pictures)

http://www.skopelos.net/forsale/skopelos-book.htm (Skipelos, Aegean
vernacular architecture)

http://www.worthingtonm.freeserve.co.uk/vag/DYERVA.htm (Christopher
Dyer, interesting history notes)

http://www.scarp.ubc.ca/plan545b/quanzhou/vocab.htm (Quangzhou data)

http://www.dirtcheapbuilder.com/bubyhavearar.html (Steen and Komatsu
"Built By Hand"---compendium second only to Paul Oliver
Encyclopedia---pretty expensive at $50 new, try e-Bay, or library on
interlibrary loan.---and look at the sidebar for specifics)

http://www.di-ve.com/dive/portal/portal.jhtml?id=113193&pid=160 (click
plates and "view image" to see Maltese Apiary before Tracheal Mites,
Varroa and hive beetles decimated worldwide bee populations and beekeepers.)



(Nrvada 120 building collection not all that primitive---Nevada is not
blessed with rainfall and forests for building material)

(German Vernacular in Texas Hill Country---they occasionally did adopt
the more climae-suitable Dogtrot house, but mostly the big, square
format better suited to a cold climate, not that of Texas)

http://www.kerrycoco.ie/heritage/vern.htm (County Kerry vernacular, get
your much needed Gaelic lesson too.)

http://www.fetchbook.info/fwd_topics/id_1517341.html (new and used
Vernacular Architecture books)

http://www.powells.com/cgi-bin/biblio?inkey=16-0823031993-1 (and of
course, Powell's Books)

(TexMex Vernacular)


(Fllrida Cracker wood-frame)

http://www.ribabookshops.com/site/viewtitle.asp?pid=831 (New Vernacular
architecture, some resemblance to old, but using commercial building


(Pakistan Vernacular---I'd like to see this, but not two hundred
dollar's worth)

(Arkansas vernacular,many photographs.)

http://www.pierreseche.com/VAFranceEnglish.html (French Vernacular)

http://www.penasco.com/02vernac.html (Mexican Adobe revival)

http://www.penasco.com/news.html (El Futuro Archives, some on
construction, ost not, ut very interesting)

http://revelle.net/lakeside/radiant.html (recovering wastewater heat
loss with gypcrete

http://climatecontrol.articleinsider.com/108729_gypcrete.html (using
gypcrete, allow for loss of headroom, and increased weight on floor
structure if any--no problem with a slab.

http://www.angelfire.com/nm2/swdesert/photocompadobe.html (a must-read
website---Dr. Bilge Isik is the foremost world authority on gypsum-adobe

(one of my old posts relating to Bilge Isik, if links still
alive---note, gypcrete sets up too damned fast, have to add a
decellerator to give you enough time to work.)

http://atlas.cc.itu.edu.tr/~isikb/class2.html (Alker, the Turkish term
for gypsum-adobe mixes)

[Homestead] Primitive technology
Tvoivozhd tvoivozd at infionline.net
Mon Sep 13 22:10:21 EDT 2004

* Previous message: [Homestead] Fine tool for learning vocabulary, spelling
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I.m pretty sure I sent in something about this Primitive Technology CD,
but dan't find it and don't want to risk something that should be done
on a bad memory.

*RESOURCES* <cid:part2.05090405.07080104 at infionline.net>* | WORKSHOPS
<cid:part3.05040908.00020007 at infionline.net> | FIRE
<cid:part4.07020404.06090902 at infionline.net> | TOOLS
<cid:part5.00070706.08050907 at infionline.net> | MUSIC
<cid:part6.06060405.06040803 at infionline.net> | SKILLS
<cid:part7.00060707.07040402 at infionline.net> | PLANTS
<cid:part8.03030107.07060507 at infionline.net> | EVENTS
<cid:part9.04090505.04050405 at infionline.net> | URBAN
<cid:part10.07060901.03070307 at infionline.net> | GALLERY
<cid:part11.09070307.00070606 at infionline.net>*

*The PrimitiveWays™ CD <http://www.primitiveways.com/primitiveways_CD.html>*

*What's New*

17th Annual Rabbitstick Primitive Skills Conference
September 12-18, 2004 <http://www.backtracks.net/>

The Coyote Hills Knap-In
Coyote Hills Regional Park in Fremont, California
October 2-3, 2004 <http://www.primitiveways.com/pt-oldways.html#anchor57701>

Gourd-A-Thon Workshop
Friends of Primitive Technology
November 6, 2004 <http://www.primitiveways.com/pt-oldways.html#anchor58521>

Bead Making Workshop
Friends of Primitive Technology
December 4, 2004 <http://www.primitiveways.com/pt-oldways.html#anchor59491>

Pit Oven <http://www.primitiveways.com/pit_oven.html>

Become a Member of the *Society of Primitive Technology*


E-mail Questions Answered
(new additions weekly) <http://www.primitiveways.com/pt-questions.html>

The PrimitiveWays™ CD <http://www.primitiveways.com/primitiveways_CD.html>

Recommended Books & Magazines <http://www.primitiveways.com/pt-books.html>

Movies of Interest
(Entertainment, Educational, and How-To videos)

Stores that Offer Resources for Primitive Technology Projects

TRADING POST - items for sale

A $5 Friction Fire Starter Kit

Thumb Loop Hand Drill Fire Kit



Old Ways Workshops - 2004 <http://www.primitiveways.com/pt-oldways.html>

KAHIKO Workshops of Native Skills

MAPOM Fall Classes - 2004 <http://www.mapom.com/skillsclasses.htm>

17th Annual Rabbitstick Primitive Skills Conference: September 12-18,
2004 <http://www.backtracks.net/>

The Coyote Hills Knap-In
Coyote Hills Regional Park
Fremont, California
October 2-3, 2004 <http://www.primitiveways.com/pt-oldways.html#anchor57701>

Gourd-A-Thon Workshop
Friends of Primitive Technology
November 6, 2004 <http://www.primitiveways.com/pt-oldways.html#anchor58521>

Bead Making Workshop
Friends of Primitive Technology
December 4, 2004 <http://www.primitiveways.com/pt-oldways.html#anchor59491>

What to Teach Kids and Why

Sharing Old Ways With The Young

Fire Making
Primitive Cooking*

Evidence of Ancient Campfires

Some Uses of Fire <http://www.primitiveways.com/uses_of_fire.html>

Starting Fire
With a Lens Made From Ice! <http://www.primitiveways.com/fire_from_ice.html>

The Egyptian Bow Drill <http://www.primitiveways.com/e-fire.html>

Fire-By-Friction: Materials of the San Francisco Bay Region

Fire <http://www.primitiveways.com/fire.html>

The Two-Stick Hearthboard

Miracle of Fire-by-Friction <http://www.primitiveways.com/fire_Baugh.html>

Making Fire with a Bow Drill <http://www.primitiveways.com/pt-bowfire.html>

Making Fire with a Hand Drill <http://www.primitiveways.com/pt-fire.html>

Fire-by-Friction with Damp Materials

Spindle Extension for a Fire Bow Drill

Fire-by-Friction Methods of the Australian Aborigines

Smallest Bow Drill Fire-by-Friction Set

Primitive Cooking <http://www.primitiveways.com/primitive_cooking.html>

Adobe Horno <http://www.primitiveways.com/adobe_horno.html>

Bamboo Rice Cooker <http://www.primitiveways.com/bamboo_rice_cooker.html>

Pit Oven <http://www.primitiveways.com/pit_oven.html>

*Primitive Tools


The Secrets of the Sinew

Cordage Backed Bow <http://www.primitiveways.com/cordage_backed_bow.html>

Making an Asiatic Composite Bow

Making a Bow From a Sapling <http://www.primitiveways.com/sapling_bow.html>

A Foolproof Method for Bow Tillering

Fletching By Hand <http://www.primitiveways.com/fletching_by_hand.html>

Arrow Straightening <http://www.primitiveways.com/arrow_straightening.html>

Making an Atlatl from a Branch

Jiffy Arrow & Atlatl Dart Fletch Using Duct Tape

Atlatl Dart Tuning <http://www.primitiveways.com/dart_Baugh.html>

Atlatl Flexibility Analysis

Simple Atlatl Spear Thrower Construction

Atlatl in Ancient Rock Art <http://www.primitiveways.com/rock-art.html>

Bamboo Clay Thrower <http://www.primitiveways.com/bamboo_clay_thrower.html>

How to Make a Wooden Canoe Paddle <http://www.primitiveways.com/paddle.html>

Spears, Weirs and Traps <http://www.primitiveways.com/fishing.html>

The Hoko Knife - A quick, simple stone tool

The Stone Saw <http://www.primitiveways.com/stone_saw.html>

The Scapular Saw <http://www.primitiveways.com/scapular_saw.html>

Antler Handle Knife <http://www.primitiveways.com/pt-antlerhandleknife.html>

Scallop Baking Shells <http://www.primitiveways.com/shells.html>

*Musical Instruments

Bone Flutes <http://www.primitiveways.com/boneflute.html>

Primitive Quail Call <http://www.primitiveways.com/pt-quail-call.html>

Primitive Hand Made Reed Flute

Sycamore Membranophone <http://www.primitiveways.com/sycamore_drum.html>

Puniu - Hawaiian Knee Drum <http://www.primitiveways.com/puniu.html>

Deer Hoof Rattle <http://www.primitiveways.com/hoof_rattle.html>

Musical Instruments of Central California


Random Thoughts on
Tradition vs. Technology

Primitive Crystal Light! <http://www.primitiveways.com/crystal-light.html>

*Early Technology
Traditional Skills*

Weaving a Lauhala Mat <http://www.primitiveways.com/mat.html/index.htm>

Processing Shark Skin into Rawhide

Brain Tanned Buffalo Hides <http://www.primitiveways.com/buffalo_hide.html>

Tanning a Fox Hide <http://www.primitiveways.com/foxtan/Tanafox.htm>

Pelt Bag <http://www.primitiveways.com/pelt_bag.html>

How to Make a Rabbit Skin Blanket

The Ties that Bind and Bindings that Tie

What Knot to Use in a Primitive Situation

Pomo Netting <http://www.primitiveways.com/pomo_netting.html>

Cordage Fiber Shredder Made From Bone

Making Cordage By Hand <http://www.primitiveways.com/cordage.html>

Introduction To Tule Ethnobotany

Pomo Tule Bittern <http://www.primitiveways.com/tule_bittern.html>

Klamath Twined Tule Visor <http://www.primitiveways.com/tule_visor.html>

Paiute Tule Duck Decoy <http://www.primitiveways.com/duck_decoy.html>

Ajumawi Fish Traps <http://www.primitiveways.com/ajumawi_fish_traps.html>

Inuit Thimble <http://www.primitiveways.com/pt-thimble.html>

Willow Rake <http://www.primitiveways.com/willow_rake.html>

The Three-Stick Roycroft Pack Frame

Making a Leather Knife Sheath

Steam Bending Wood <http://www.primitiveways.com/bending.html>

Log Ladder <http://www.primitiveways.com/ladder.html>

Four Hour Kayak <http://www.shelter-systems.com/kayak.html>

How to Paint a Mammoth <http://www.primitiveways.com/paint_a_mammoth.html>

Black Dye <http://www.primitiveways.com/black_dye.html>

Wilderness Grooming <http://www.primitiveways.com/stone-file.html>

Thirty Years in the Jungle!

Useful Plants

Was Agriculture a Good Idea,
or an Act of Desperation? <http://www.primitiveways.com/agriculture.html>

Calendar of Harvesting and Gathering

Coppicing <http://www.primitiveways.com/coppicing.html>

Bare-Handed Basket <http://www.primitiveways.com/bare-handed_basket.html>

Useful Plants of California (1)

Useful Plants of California (2)

Useful Plants of California (3) <http://www.primitiveways.com/plants3.html>

Nature's General Store: The Yuccas and Agaves

The Ti Plant Called Ki <http://www.primitiveways.com/ki.html>

Olona <http://www.primitiveways.com/olona.html>

Hemp Dogbane <http://www.primitiveways.com/hemp_dogbane.html>

Hawaiian Plants (a trip to the Big Island)

Bull Whip Kelp <http://www.primitiveways.com/bull_whip_kelp.html>

Fishing with Poisons <http://www.primitiveways.com/fish_poison.html>

Fishing with Hawaiian Plants <http://www.primitiveways.com/fish_toxins.html>

Cattail Pollen Pancakes

Quiz: Can You Name These Plants?


<http://www.primitiveways.com/name-plants.html>Thatched Ohlone Style
House <http://www.primitiveways.com/pt-tule_shelter.html>

How to Build an Igloo <http://www.primitiveways.com/igloo.html>

Scout Pit <http://www.primitiveways.com/scout_pit.html>

The Primitive Sauna <http://www.primitiveways.com/sauna.html>

Primitive Trips*

I Belong To This Country
(an Australian adventure)

Native California Fall Gathering
at San Luis Reservoir State Recreation Area

Rattlesnake Rendezvous

Australian Aborigine Flint Knapping

Primitive Field Day at Stanford University

Coyote Hills Knap-In and The Gathering of Ohlone People

Winter Count <http://www.primitiveways.com/wintercount.html/index.htm>

*Hand-Made Tools
Urban Resources*


How to Make Your Own Steel Knives

Folding Saw <http://www.primitiveways.com/tools.html>

Johnstone Tools <http://www.primitiveways.com/pt-toilettools.html>

Portable Shaving Horse <http://www.primitiveways.com/shaving-horse.html>

Urban Resources <http://www.primitiveways.com/urban_resources.html>

Alternative Supplies for Urban Dwellers

Wilderness & Urban Tips

Fire by Chemical Reaction <http://www.primitiveways.com/chemical_fire.html>


Photo Gallery I <http://www.primitiveways.com/pt-photo_gallery1.html>

Photo Gallery II <http://www.primitiveways.com/pt-photo_gallery11.html>

Photo Gallery III <http://www.primitiveways.com/pt-photo_gallery21.html>

The Info Super Highway Refugee <http://www.primitiveways.com/refugee.html>

Interesting Links <http://www.primitiveways.com/pt-interesting_links.html>

*RESOURCES* <cid:part2.05090405.07080104 at infionline.net>* | WORKSHOPS
<cid:part3.05040908.00020007 at infionline.net> | FIRE
<cid:part4.07020404.06090902 at infionline.net> | TOOLS
<cid:part5.00070706.08050907 at infionline.net> | MUSIC
<cid:part6.06060405.06040803 at infionline.net> | SKILLS
<cid:part7.00060707.07040402 at infionline.net> | PLANTS
<cid:part8.03030107.07060507 at infionline.net> | EVENTS
<cid:part9.04090505.04050405 at infionline.net> | URBAN
<cid:part10.07060901.03070307 at infionline.net> | GALLERY
<cid:part11.09070307.00070606 at infionline.net>*

*PrimitiveWays began in 1998 and is produced by
Dick Baugh, Bob Gillis, Norm Kidder, Chuck Kritzon, Ken Peek, and Dino
Labiste <http://www.primitiveways.com/primitiveways_clan.html>.*

The excerpts by Steve Watts
<http://www.primitiveways.com/Steve_Watts.html> (President of the
Society of Primitive Technology <http://www.primitive.org/>)
summarizes our philosophy on practicing and teaching primitive technology.


E-mail your comments to "Dino Labiste" at dlabiste at yahoo.com
<mailto:dlabiste at yahoo.com>, "Bob Gillis" at shelter at best.com
<mailto:shelter at best.com>,
"Richard A. Baugh" at oldfellah37 at msn.com <mailto:oldfellah37 at 
"Norm Kidder" at atlatl1 at aol.com <mailto:atlatl1 at aol.com>,
"Chuck Kritzon" at chuckk at petroglyphics.com
<mailto:chuckk at petroglyphics.com>, or "Ken Peek" at
kspeek123 at earthlink.net <mailto:kspeek123 at earthlink.net>


[Homestead] Primitive technology
Tvoivozhd tvoivozd at infionline.net
Mon Sep 13 22:10:21 EDT 2004

* Previous message: [Homestead] Fine tool for learning vocabulary, spelling
* Next message: [Homestead] CBS recant
* Messages sorted by: [ date ] [ thread ] [ subject ] [ author ]

I.m pretty sure I sent in something about this Primitive Technology CD,
but dan't find it and don't want to risk something that should be done
on a bad memory.

*RESOURCES* <cid:part2.05090405.07080104 at infionline.net>* | WORKSHOPS
<cid:part3.05040908.00020007 at infionline.net> | FIRE
<cid:part4.07020404.06090902 at infionline.net> | TOOLS
<cid:part5.00070706.08050907 at infionline.net> | MUSIC
<cid:part6.06060405.06040803 at infionline.net> | SKILLS
<cid:part7.00060707.07040402 at infionline.net> | PLANTS
<cid:part8.03030107.07060507 at infionline.net> | EVENTS
<cid:part9.04090505.04050405 at infionline.net> | URBAN
<cid:part10.07060901.03070307 at infionline.net> | GALLERY
<cid:part11.09070307.00070606 at infionline.net>*

*The PrimitiveWays™ CD <http://www.primitiveways.com/primitiveways_CD.html>*

*What's New*

17th Annual Rabbitstick Primitive Skills Conference
September 12-18, 2004 <http://www.backtracks.net/>

The Coyote Hills Knap-In
Coyote Hills Regional Park in Fremont, California
October 2-3, 2004 <http://www.primitiveways.com/pt-oldways.html#anchor57701>

Gourd-A-Thon Workshop
Friends of Primitive Technology
November 6, 2004 <http://www.primitiveways.com/pt-oldways.html#anchor58521>

Bead Making Workshop
Friends of Primitive Technology
December 4, 2004 <http://www.primitiveways.com/pt-oldways.html#anchor59491>

Pit Oven <http://www.primitiveways.com/pit_oven.html>

Become a Member of the *Society of Primitive Technology*


E-mail Questions Answered
(new additions weekly) <http://www.primitiveways.com/pt-questions.html>

The PrimitiveWays™ CD <http://www.primitiveways.com/primitiveways_CD.html>

Recommended Books & Magazines <http://www.primitiveways.com/pt-books.html>

Movies of Interest
(Entertainment, Educational, and How-To videos)

Stores that Offer Resources for Primitive Technology Projects

TRADING POST - items for sale

A $5 Friction Fire Starter Kit

Thumb Loop Hand Drill Fire Kit



Old Ways Workshops - 2004 <http://www.primitiveways.com/pt-oldways.html>

KAHIKO Workshops of Native Skills

MAPOM Fall Classes - 2004 <http://www.mapom.com/skillsclasses.htm>

17th Annual Rabbitstick Primitive Skills Conference: September 12-18,
2004 <http://www.backtracks.net/>

The Coyote Hills Knap-In
Coyote Hills Regional Park
Fremont, California
October 2-3, 2004 <http://www.primitiveways.com/pt-oldways.html#anchor57701>

Gourd-A-Thon Workshop
Friends of Primitive Technology
November 6, 2004 <http://www.primitiveways.com/pt-oldways.html#anchor58521>

Bead Making Workshop
Friends of Primitive Technology
December 4, 2004 <http://www.primitiveways.com/pt-oldways.html#anchor59491>

What to Teach Kids and Why

Sharing Old Ways With The Young

Fire Making
Primitive Cooking*

Evidence of Ancient Campfires

Some Uses of Fire <http://www.primitiveways.com/uses_of_fire.html>

Starting Fire
With a Lens Made From Ice! <http://www.primitiveways.com/fire_from_ice.html>

The Egyptian Bow Drill <http://www.primitiveways.com/e-fire.html>

Fire-By-Friction: Materials of the San Francisco Bay Region

Fire <http://www.primitiveways.com/fire.html>

The Two-Stick Hearthboard

Miracle of Fire-by-Friction <http://www.primitiveways.com/fire_Baugh.html>

Making Fire with a Bow Drill <http://www.primitiveways.com/pt-bowfire.html>

Making Fire with a Hand Drill <http://www.primitiveways.com/pt-fire.html>

Fire-by-Friction with Damp Materials

Spindle Extension for a Fire Bow Drill

Fire-by-Friction Methods of the Australian Aborigines

Smallest Bow Drill Fire-by-Friction Set

Primitive Cooking <http://www.primitiveways.com/primitive_cooking.html>

Adobe Horno <http://www.primitiveways.com/adobe_horno.html>

Bamboo Rice Cooker <http://www.primitiveways.com/bamboo_rice_cooker.html>

Pit Oven <http://www.primitiveways.com/pit_oven.html>

*Primitive Tools


The Secrets of the Sinew

Cordage Backed Bow <http://www.primitiveways.com/cordage_backed_bow.html>

Making an Asiatic Composite Bow

Making a Bow From a Sapling <http://www.primitiveways.com/sapling_bow.html>

A Foolproof Method for Bow Tillering

Fletching By Hand <http://www.primitiveways.com/fletching_by_hand.html>

Arrow Straightening <http://www.primitiveways.com/arrow_straightening.html>

Making an Atlatl from a Branch

Jiffy Arrow & Atlatl Dart Fletch Using Duct Tape

Atlatl Dart Tuning <http://www.primitiveways.com/dart_Baugh.html>

Atlatl Flexibility Analysis

Simple Atlatl Spear Thrower Construction

Atlatl in Ancient Rock Art <http://www.primitiveways.com/rock-art.html>

Bamboo Clay Thrower <http://www.primitiveways.com/bamboo_clay_thrower.html>

How to Make a Wooden Canoe Paddle <http://www.primitiveways.com/paddle.html>

Spears, Weirs and Traps <http://www.primitiveways.com/fishing.html>

The Hoko Knife - A quick, simple stone tool

The Stone Saw <http://www.primitiveways.com/stone_saw.html>

The Scapular Saw <http://www.primitiveways.com/scapular_saw.html>

Antler Handle Knife <http://www.primitiveways.com/pt-antlerhandleknife.html>

Scallop Baking Shells <http://www.primitiveways.com/shells.html>

*Musical Instruments

Bone Flutes <http://www.primitiveways.com/boneflute.html>

Primitive Quail Call <http://www.primitiveways.com/pt-quail-call.html>

Primitive Hand Made Reed Flute

Sycamore Membranophone <http://www.primitiveways.com/sycamore_drum.html>

Puniu - Hawaiian Knee Drum <http://www.primitiveways.com/puniu.html>

Deer Hoof Rattle <http://www.primitiveways.com/hoof_rattle.html>

Musical Instruments of Central California


Random Thoughts on
Tradition vs. Technology

Primitive Crystal Light! <http://www.primitiveways.com/crystal-light.html>

*Early Technology
Traditional Skills*

Weaving a Lauhala Mat <http://www.primitiveways.com/mat.html/index.htm>

Processing Shark Skin into Rawhide

Brain Tanned Buffalo Hides <http://www.primitiveways.com/buffalo_hide.html>

Tanning a Fox Hide <http://www.primitiveways.com/foxtan/Tanafox.htm>

Pelt Bag <http://www.primitiveways.com/pelt_bag.html>

How to Make a Rabbit Skin Blanket

The Ties that Bind and Bindings that Tie

What Knot to Use in a Primitive Situation

Pomo Netting <http://www.primitiveways.com/pomo_netting.html>

Cordage Fiber Shredder Made From Bone

Making Cordage By Hand <http://www.primitiveways.com/cordage.html>

Introduction To Tule Ethnobotany

Pomo Tule Bittern <http://www.primitiveways.com/tule_bittern.html>

Klamath Twined Tule Visor <http://www.primitiveways.com/tule_visor.html>

Paiute Tule Duck Decoy <http://www.primitiveways.com/duck_decoy.html>

Ajumawi Fish Traps <http://www.primitiveways.com/ajumawi_fish_traps.html>

Inuit Thimble <http://www.primitiveways.com/pt-thimble.html>

Willow Rake <http://www.primitiveways.com/willow_rake.html>

The Three-Stick Roycroft Pack Frame

Making a Leather Knife Sheath

Steam Bending Wood <http://www.primitiveways.com/bending.html>

Log Ladder <http://www.primitiveways.com/ladder.html>

Four Hour Kayak <http://www.shelter-systems.com/kayak.html>

How to Paint a Mammoth <http://www.primitiveways.com/paint_a_mammoth.html>

Black Dye <http://www.primitiveways.com/black_dye.html>

Wilderness Grooming <http://www.primitiveways.com/stone-file.html>

Thirty Years in the Jungle!

Useful Plants

Was Agriculture a Good Idea,
or an Act of Desperation? <http://www.primitiveways.com/agriculture.html>

Calendar of Harvesting and Gathering

Coppicing <http://www.primitiveways.com/coppicing.html>

Bare-Handed Basket <http://www.primitiveways.com/bare-handed_basket.html>

Useful Plants of California (1)

Useful Plants of California (2)

Useful Plants of California (3) <http://www.primitiveways.com/plants3.html>

Nature's General Store: The Yuccas and Agaves

The Ti Plant Called Ki <http://www.primitiveways.com/ki.html>

Olona <http://www.primitiveways.com/olona.html>

Hemp Dogbane <http://www.primitiveways.com/hemp_dogbane.html>

Hawaiian Plants (a trip to the Big Island)

Bull Whip Kelp <http://www.primitiveways.com/bull_whip_kelp.html>

Fishing with Poisons <http://www.primitiveways.com/fish_poison.html>

Fishing with Hawaiian Plants <http://www.primitiveways.com/fish_toxins.html>

Cattail Pollen Pancakes

Quiz: Can You Name These Plants?


<http://www.primitiveways.com/name-plants.html>Thatched Ohlone Style
House <http://www.primitiveways.com/pt-tule_shelter.html>

How to Build an Igloo <http://www.primitiveways.com/igloo.html>

Scout Pit <http://www.primitiveways.com/scout_pit.html>

The Primitive Sauna <http://www.primitiveways.com/sauna.html>

Primitive Trips*

I Belong To This Country
(an Australian adventure)

Native California Fall Gathering
at San Luis Reservoir State Recreation Area

Rattlesnake Rendezvous

Australian Aborigine Flint Knapping

Primitive Field Day at Stanford University

Coyote Hills Knap-In and The Gathering of Ohlone People

Winter Count <http://www.primitiveways.com/wintercount.html/index.htm>

*Hand-Made Tools
Urban Resources*


How to Make Your Own Steel Knives

Folding Saw <http://www.primitiveways.com/tools.html>

Johnstone Tools <http://www.primitiveways.com/pt-toilettools.html>

Portable Shaving Horse <http://www.primitiveways.com/shaving-horse.html>

Urban Resources <http://www.primitiveways.com/urban_resources.html>

Alternative Supplies for Urban Dwellers

Wilderness & Urban Tips

Fire by Chemical Reaction <http://www.primitiveways.com/chemical_fire.html>


Photo Gallery I <http://www.primitiveways.com/pt-photo_gallery1.html>

Photo Gallery II <http://www.primitiveways.com/pt-photo_gallery11.html>

Photo Gallery III <http://www.primitiveways.com/pt-photo_gallery21.html>

The Info Super Highway Refugee <http://www.primitiveways.com/refugee.html>

Interesting Links <http://www.primitiveways.com/pt-interesting_links.html>

*RESOURCES* <cid:part2.05090405.07080104 at infionline.net>* | WORKSHOPS
<cid:part3.05040908.00020007 at infionline.net> | FIRE
<cid:part4.07020404.06090902 at infionline.net> | TOOLS
<cid:part5.00070706.08050907 at infionline.net> | MUSIC
<cid:part6.06060405.06040803 at infionline.net> | SKILLS
<cid:part7.00060707.07040402 at infionline.net> | PLANTS
<cid:part8.03030107.07060507 at infionline.net> | EVENTS
<cid:part9.04090505.04050405 at infionline.net> | URBAN
<cid:part10.07060901.03070307 at infionline.net> | GALLERY
<cid:part11.09070307.00070606 at infionline.net>*

*PrimitiveWays began in 1998 and is produced by
Dick Baugh, Bob Gillis, Norm Kidder, Chuck Kritzon, Ken Peek, and Dino
Labiste <http://www.primitiveways.com/primitiveways_clan.html>.*

The excerpts by Steve Watts
<http://www.primitiveways.com/Steve_Watts.html> (President of the
Society of Primitive Technology <http://www.primitive.org/>)
summarizes our philosophy on practicing and teaching primitive technology.


E-mail your comments to "Dino Labiste" at dlabiste at yahoo.com
<mailto:dlabiste at yahoo.com>, "Bob Gillis" at shelter at best.com
<mailto:shelter at best.com>,
"Richard A. Baugh" at oldfellah37 at msn.com <mailto:oldfellah37 at 
"Norm Kidder" at atlatl1 at aol.com <mailto:atlatl1 at aol.com>,
"Chuck Kritzon" at chuckk at petroglyphics.com
<mailto:chuckk at petroglyphics.com>, or "Ken Peek" at
kspeek123 at earthlink.net <mailto:kspeek123 at earthlink.net>


© *PrimitiveWays* 1998 - 2004
All rights reserved.
No photo files on this website may be copied or reproduced without
express written consent from the photographer. No part of this website
may be copied or reproduced without express written consent from

[Homestead] Home Business---Nore on charcoal I think I forgot to include 
in prior post
Tvoivozhd tvoivozd at infionline.net
Sat Sep 11 00:36:57 EDT 2004

* Previous message: [Homestead] Mining companies, pollution forever
* Next message: [Homestead] Expert Ambush in Courtroom
* Messages sorted by: [ date ] [ thread ] [ subject ] [ author ]


(Making charcoal, direct and indirect method, including in a 55 gallon
steel drum)

http://forestry.about.com/library/weekly/aa051798.htm (about.com data
on charcoal et.al, can't bring it up this morning)

(general activated charcoal data)

You could make activated carbon by placing wood in a sealed
container with only a very tiny hole in it and heating it until the
wood is charred into activated carbon. Ideally, a tube leading
into the container would be used to force water onto the wood to
create steam inside the container though this is not essential.
(The main consideration is to not allow air to get to the charcoal
when it's being heated while having a large enough hole in the
heating container to keep it from exploding when the hot gases in
it expand.)

http://www.tifac.org.in/news/accarbon.htm (bamboo as raw material for
activated charcoal)

(Standard Milling, K.C., custom produces Kingsford vriquettes---note
that charcoal is hygroscopic, must be packaged in impermeable bags or
charcoal picks up moisture from air and bag bursts---not good if you
sell to supermarkets who do not like bags bursting)

http://www.tifac.org.in/news/acrural.htm IIndia article on bamboo and a
reference to making activated charcoal---no diagram or machine for doing

[Homestead] Lawnmower generator/welders
Tvoivozhd tvoivozd at infionline.net
Fri Sep 10 23:53:03 EDT 2004

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This is supplementary to previous postings I made on engine-generator
welders (not sure they made it into the Homestead Archives)

http://www.huv.com/jon/jeep/Welder/portable-welder.html (Jon's Jeep
website, schematic, materials list to make a rotary lawnmower into a
welder, also refer to the old Mother Earth archives which had an article
doing the same thing.)

http://theepicenter.com/tow02077.html (epicenter horizontal shaft
engine generator, they also sell a metal plate upon which to mount both
engine and generator, easier than trying to fabricate your own.
See the easier-to-come by vertical shaft engine option, and the bracket
to direct-couple (no belts) engine and generator---it's not a
quill-mount where a tapered shaft fits into a tapered hole, uses
something like a Lord coupling to couple two, hopefully same-diameter

Back in the mid 1950's I used 7/8 inch tempered masonite as a base for
one of my engine-generator models---more rigid than plywood and a lot
more rigid than cast-aluminum. Also used a Lord coupling which didn't
pound out under two-stroke power impulses as some other brands did.

http://www.qsl.net/ns8o/Induction_Generator.html (some info on
induction motors as generators---for resistance loads, don't use them to
start motor loads)

The above are intended for stick-welders, one battery is really
insufficient, as is 12 volts---better to put two batteries in series to
the welder cables, and charge the batteries via 12-volt parallel hookup.

And you should buy the Homepower archive CD's---Hp #77 describes a
pulsing desulfator circuit that is the only way to restore a battery so
dead and sulfated it has reversed polarity.

And you would get better performance from a wire-feed than from welding
rods. Two 12-volt batteries in series will suffice for most wire-feed work

Using a wire-feed welder will produce better welds. You can easily
modify a "wal-mart" wire-feed welder to run on 24v DC.

Use a heavy-current parallel mosfet bank in series with the high-power
inductor on the positive side (electrode).

The mosfets can be wired with all common leads in parallel. The
current-handling capability of the bank is the sum of all the mosfet's
current ratings. It can be built from almost any kind of mosfet as long
as you have enough total current handling capability and you have plenty
of heat-sinking capability.

Place a HEAVY CURRENT rectifier in series between the mosfet bank and
the inductor. Place another HEAVY CURRENT rectifier in REVERSE BIAS mode
between the GROUND and mosfet side of the inductor.

Drive the mosfet bank's common gate lead with a pulse-width modulator
built from two 555 timer IC's.

One 555 is in ASTABLE mode, set for a 50% duty-cycle (important), set to
the harmonic frequency of the heavy inductor. It's output trigger's the
second 555 timer chip. This frequency is adjusted ONCE and then FIXED in

The second 555 is in MONOSTABLE mode and it's output pulse width should
be adjustable from 1% to 100% of the FIRST 555's output pulse-width.
This output goes to the mosfet bank gate lead. This 555's pulse width is
your WELD-POWER adjustment. Narrowing the pulse-width reduces the amount
of time the mosfet bank in on.

Here's what happens, in termes of "positive going" current flow. Don't
split hairs.

This is ONE complete cycle.

1. The mosfet bank turns on, allowing current to flow through the
rectifer, through the inductor and then through the electrode and
workpiece and back to ground.
2. The mosfet bank shuts off. The inductor's field collapses,
releasing it's EMF as a second current pulse that goes through the
electrode and workpiece. This field collapse pulse is routed through the
REVERSE BIAS rectifier.

This is the MOST EFFICIENT way to drive your wire-feed welder from a
pure DC source.

[Homestead] Home business, miscellaneous homemade tools
Tvoivozhd tvoivozd at infionline.net
Sat Sep 11 00:04:47 EDT 2004

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Aluminum air battery I probably included in a recent prior post,
papercrete or large quantity papier mache mixer,plans-list.

(aluminum air battery---unique in that it actually produces a useful
amount of current, sufficient to run small electric motor. It requires
some activated charcoal, another reason for you producing it as a highly
profitable home business.)

http://starship-enterprises.net/Papercrete/Mixer/ (a
pull-behind-your-car-or-pickup truck papercrete mixer---uses a lawnmower
blade in a tub to do the mixing---might try this for mixing alternate
hypertufa fibers if peat moss is not available or too expensive---as
mentioned before, alternate grass, corn leaves, hydrilla, duckweed et.
al. would first have to be shredded to proper length in a screened
hammer-mill like an old WW.Grinder, Kemp, or newer McKissic---and be
dried before shredding.)

http://metalwebnews.com/poorman/energy-money.html (list of plans for
simple equipment, cement mixers, how to get emergency gasoline out of a
closed gas station pump, backyard pottery equipment, candle-powered
radio, hydraulic ram pump, swivel hoist for your pickup truck,
windpowered clothes-washing machine)

[Homestead] Home business, or just home use LED flashlight conversions
Tvoivozhd tvoivozd at infionline.net
Fri Sep 10 19:03:56 EDT 2004

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Long-life (LEDS will run 100,000 hours) commercial LED flashlights are
expensive---look on that as an opportunity. In the old days all a
would-be businessman had to do to select a product to make, was to look
through a Sears Roebuc or Montgomery Ward catalog and figure out if he
could make something at a lower price and still make money by selling it
to Sears or independent hardware stores---today to your hungry flea
market dealer who really needs something to sell that all the
neighboring outside stalls or inside booths do not have.


http://www.uwgb.edu/nevermab/led.htm (Brock's LED flashlight links,
everything you need is here)

[Homestead] Home busiiness, making hand warmers
Tvoivozhd tvoivozd at infionline.net
Fri Sep 10 18:19:59 EDT 2004

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much more
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flashlight conversions
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You don't have to go the fuel-cell route to generate internal
heat----use a small platinum wire catalyst and a valve to expose
methanol vapors to it. The platinum wire will glow red hot as it
converts the CH_4 O methanol vapors into CH_2 O formaldehyde. Turn
off the methanol valve to turn off heat generation. Need a (tight) cap
on the methanol reservoir through which you can pour more methanol as it
is used up. No patents to worry about in this quite old application

Another, cheaper catalyst might work to replace expensive
platinum---haven't looked into it, or cost of small platinum wire either.

Any metal stamping shop could make the two-piece steel stamping per your
fairly crude hand drawings or a little more explicit written desires.
Several ways to assemble stampings, might join by resistance-welding,
spot-welding. A good shop might do a few trial-and-error runs to get
something that works and appears reliable, but probably not many. You
should conduct your long-term reliability tests before you put a lot of
them on the market, and product liability insurance would be a very good
idea in any event.

Good, if very seasonal, home business product. A note, once you
accumulate a dealer list it is fairly easy to shove other products
through it.

[Homestead] Home business, Activated Charcoal and much more
Tvoivozhd tvoivozd at infionline.net
Fri Sep 10 17:14:00 EDT 2004

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I wasted half a day trying to get Google and Yahoo to find the activated
charcoal producer---found it in my archived e-mail messages on the hard
drive---stupid google is as useful as teats on a boar hog---doesn't look
at solstice.crest.

You are fifty miles by dog team from your benevolent electric utility,
and the dogs are tired of hauling diesel fuel by sled, you are tired
just thinking about the cost of PV panels and batteries to run a
refrigerator and icemaker, you will find your economical answer below.

Oh, yeah, by this time you know all about the once easily available
archives from Homepower, now are on CD and have to be bought---your
fault for not downloading them while they were free. Still a bargain
though, get yours now.

Follow up on the full-spectrum solar cell, it is your best hope for PV
cells that are cost-competitive with fossil fuel to run your
steam-powered computer.

Go deeper into Baviotas Bogata engineers products which this time I did
not---do your share, and if you find something real good, post it.

http://www.bluemud.org/article/11606 (how to make bombs from household
chemicals book, and formulafor DIY black powder, for which you need
charcoal of course.) Good blow-up-the-world stuff, like the Anarchist
Cookbook I once bought at a bookstore, only to find when I got home that
they had scissored out all the good stuff---dirty SOB's should have
warned me and their other anarchist-customers..

Various solar icemakers:


http://www.solarmirror.com/fom/fom-serve/cache/33.html (improved
Icyball, in Homepower #53)


(link doesn't copy, probably have to buy Homepower CD)

(lithium chloride, solar powered house cooling)

(more detail and component costs in webcrawler cache---still have to buy
the Homepower #53 CD)

http://www.energy-concepts.com/isaac.html (commercial manufacturer of
ISAAC solar refrigeration/icemaker)

http://www.istori.com/cgi-bin/wiki?SolarIcemakers (Kaminski, Georgia
Tech solar icemakers, reference to Homepower)

http://www.caddet.org/brochures/index.php (CADDET.org had some data,
but for no good reason dropped it)

http://www.me.gatech.edu/energy/andy_phd/ (Einstein refrigeration
cycle, uses bubble-pump for circulation, the whole thing is solar powered)

http://www.pacificsites.com/~sps/refrigeration.html (Small Power Systems
startup experimental models,some good safety comments and design features)

http://www.dharma-haven.org/five-havens/gaviotas.htm (I suspect
Gaviotas Bogota engineers have come up with solar refrigeration, haven't
made a search for it, but anything Gaviotas does is worth reading and doing)

(various sizes of ISAAC, from vaccine refrigerator to fishing village
1000 lbs a day icemaker)



(I've posted this before, but using the full spectrum in a photocell is
probably the most significant advance in lowering PV cost that has come
down the pike---not double the efficiency, but well over an additional
fifty percent)

http://www.solarcooking.org/plans.htm (great solar cooker website,
Cookit folding you can carry under one arm, funnel cookers with no risk
of eye damage, increased collection area at funnel top, increases heat
at bottom, a scaled up solar cooker with a collector backing of clay,
two solar water sterilizers, solar food dryer, tracking box cooker,
Aprovecho Rocket Stove.)

(stainless white LED solar light for footpaths at night)


(Duane Johnson's RedRok links)

http://solstice.crest.org/articles/static/1/1011975672_7.html (haw-w-w,
here it is at last, no thanks to unmassaged Google)
While there is a schematic to file under Activated Carbon in your hard
drive---don't trust bookmark links to remain unbroken and trust search
engines even less to find anything useful in recent years. You're going
to be generating superheated steam in the monotube spiral---212 degree
steam is useless for activating charcoal. You want to get 800 to 1000
degrees Celsius for high quality activated charcoal. Incidentally,
current wholesale price of activated charcoal is $3.00 a kilo,
astronomical if made into pills or filters.

This is a good image to save---never know when it will come in handy to
be able to product your own activated charcoal to use or in a homemade
product to sell, and you sure as hell won't be able to find it with
Google, even if it still existed..


(make a Burrito Battery, 1 volt, 100 MA per activated carbon, aluminum
foil layer. (throw this in for free if you need a homemade battery for
your discombobulator. It would work better with sodium hydroxide as an
electrolyte, though)

The schematic should appear if you click the attachment in upper right
hand box.

And now the precursor search results on making charcoal (or gunpowder
for your DIY firearms and guided missiles if you have noticed this
a-a-ah, Rehnquist, Scalia and Thomas Supreme Court, true, blue
CONSERVATIVE Republicans who would NEVER, EVER interpret away entire
sections of the Constitution as fast as their little, tiny minds will
permit, have left the Constitution a tattered rag. Used to think
Survivalists were nut cases, not so sure any more)

In the footsteps of DuPont and CIA

http://www.fireworksnews.com/blackpowdernewbk.htm (black powder

(several ways of making charcoal)

http://www.velvitoil.com/Charmake.htm (Gill website)

http://www.eaglequest.com/~bbq/charcoal/ (another using old 55 gallon


http://www.fao.org/docrep/X5328e/x5328e00.htm (FAO, United Nations,
little larger scale and economic considerations)

http://forestry.about.com/treeincome.pdf (make your woodlot produce an
income better than just from firewood. As close as you will come to the
hunter-gatherer lifestyle in this society. You don't have a
woodlot---get a cheap license to scavenge in the nearest National
Forest, or talk to a neighbor worried about the fire hazard of downed
and standing deadwood in HIS woodlot---he won't pay you for reducing his
risk, but will welcome you with open arms if you provide the pickup
truck, chainsaw and sore back to alleviate his problem. Or visit the
closest sawmill who can get something for slabwood but not for small
slabwood pieces which keep piling up unless run through a grinder for
bedding---may keep piling up after that, too.)

Charcoal is readily saleable in almost any city. If you had enough
production capacity you could set up a little booth (and barbecue grill
samples) in front of any grocery or home improvement store and put
Kingsford and its lousy pseudocharcoal out of business. I wouldn't
reduce the price of real charcoal since it is totally unnecessary, the
bright exterior appearance and cleaner fire speaks for itself. Work out
standard quantities in imprinted plastic bags from any one of a thousand
bag suppliers---use a vapor-impermeable bag..

A little more work, woodlot essential oils are another homestead
product--sell direct in your own soaps, candles, kitchen extracts, or to
small soapmakers on the Web.

http://www.geocities.com/thejuiceuk/charcoal.html (you wondered how
those expensive handwarms from sporting goods stores work? Expensive
doesn't mean the ingredients or stamped container is expensive) And if
made from fine material like straw, your charcoal lends itself to making
rocket fuel without attracting attention from Mad Dogs Ashcroft and Ridge)

You aren't going to sell and handwarmers in the summertime (whoever
heard of a homeowner repairing a roof BEFORE it started leaking), but
maniac November duckhunters and ice-fisherman fill their pockets with
them. A low-cost-to-produce item with a very high markup. I think some
now contain a fuel cell you can give a liquid rechargd---haven't
researched the details or patent status. You do both, I may never get
around to it.

[Homestead] Lot of small manual, powered root, fruit, nut processing 
Tvoivozhd tvoivozd at infionline.net
Fri Sep 10 00:45:18 EDT 2004

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Did I sent this post earlier? Stripped a mental gear and don't remember.

Ran across them accidentally---wouldn't find them if I was actually
looking for them.


http://www5.gtz.de/gate/publications/G19Sme.pdf (a world of oil
processing equipment and information)

(Tiny Tech oil mill---website wouldn't come

up for me today)

[Homestead] Homegrown diesel fuel
Tvoivozhd tvoivozd at infionline.net
Thu Sep 9 21:17:35 EDT 2004

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tree-grass in world
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If you had the climate for it a small African Palm Oil plantation would
produce 6000 liters of biodiesel fuel per acre---the easiest and highest
yield of biodiesel fuel I know, with some useful human or animal feed
byproducts to sweeten the pot.

In a less tropical climate, like around Corpus Christie, jojoba would
fit in, not much oil until shrubs are ten years old, but they live
and produce for 150 years. Seeds do not all ripen at the same time,
very expensive to harvest.

http://journeytoforever.org/biodiesel_yield.html (Keith Addison's
Journey to Forever has the relative yields of all biodiesel
crops----hemp would be good if the politicians got the hell out of the
way---lower yielding than African Palm Oil and Jojoba, but a
bulletproof crop you can set and forget, immune to damn' near
everything but Keystone Kops)

(some other interesting crops, especially those that grow well in
extremely hot, dry conditions)

[Homestead] Bamboo, most valuable, fastest growing tree-grass in world
Tvoivozhd tvoivozd at infionline.net
Thu Sep 9 15:47:03 EDT 2004

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Trouble is that the damned stuff blooms every fifty years or so and
dies. What needs to be done is genetically alter the dying habit.
Wouldn't hurt to make it more cold-resistant too. We can grow the
yellow fishing-pole bamboo in Virginia and do in a few areas, but that
has minimal useful or economic importance.
http://www.jmbamboo.com/ (don't know why a nursery specializing in
cold-hardy bamboos would be located in Alabama, New England would be
more appropriate.

Some bamboo nursery suppliers:

* Bamboo Giant

* Bamboo Plantation
- providing bamboo plants, supplies, and growing aids.
* Bamboo Sourcery
- offering an online catalog that includes many rare species.
* Burt Associates Bamboo
- mail-order and retail bamboo nursery, supplying living plants
for garden or interior use in the United States and Canada.
* Burtons Bamboo Garden
- providing bamboo for outdoor or indoor landscaping.
* jmbamboo
- specializes in cold hardy bamboos, but also sells a few tropicals.
* Lewis Bamboo Groves
- grows cold hardy bamboos to add tropical beauty to any landscape
and provide privacy screens.
* Nature Perfect
- distributors of braided bamboo, lucky bamboo (dracaena), money
tree (pachira), bonsai, hydroponics, grow lights, and indoor house
* New England Bamboo Company
- specializing in rare, unusual, and field dug bamboo and grasses.
* Nueces River Groves
- developing bamboo farm and private garden established to
demonstrate the beauty and usefulness of bamboo for habitat
formation, erosion control, and production of food and timber.
* Quindembo Bamboo
- certified nursery growing non-invasive bamboos in Hawaii.
* Takehei Bamboo

- wholesales and retails bamboo.
* Tradewinds Bamboo Nursery
- mail order bamboo specialists: plants, books and hardware.

The Christian Science Monitor - csmonitor.com

from the September 09, 2004 edition -

 From a bamboo crisis - innovation

*By Matthew Power* | Contributor to The Christian Science Monitor

*NEW DELHI* - Seen from the air, the lush bamboo-covered hills of
Mizoram, in northeastern India, give the impression of an undulating
green ocean. But the beauty of the landscape obscures a looming
disaster. In the next several years, in a natural phenomenon known
locally as /mautham/, millions of acres of bamboo will burst into flower
and die.

The life cycle of muli bamboo, the predominant species in India's
northeast, is about 50 years. In 1959, the last time the bamboo forests
of Mizoram flowered, the abundance of seeds produced by the plants
created a plague of rats, which in turn devoured rice paddies, leading
to widespread famine in the region. As many as 15,000 people died, and
festering resentment over the lack of help from the government in Delhi
led to a violent separatist rebellion that lasted 25 years.

One suggestion offered by the state government has been the preemptive
harvesting of bamboo. But logistical problems, such as how to transport
or use the bamboo, are daunting, and the bamboo forests of the region
have become something of a ticking time bomb, say observers.

"It is a natural disaster of the same magnitude as a flood or an
earthquake," says M.P. Ranjan, head of the Center for Bamboo Initiatives
at the National Institute of Design (NID) in Ahmedabad, India. Professor
Ranjan is part of a coalition of botanists, engineers, architects, and
civil servants who are attempting to turn the impending catastrophe into
a source of economic opportunity.

The big question: What can you do with millions of acres of a plant
that's soon going to die? To listen to the bamboo faithful, there are
few things this "wonder grass" cannot be used for.

Lightweight, durable, and more easily renewable than wood, bamboo can be
woven, mashed into pulp, and pressed into fiberboard. Bamboo's utility,
and its ubiquity in some of the world's poorest regions, has led some,
including India's former prime minister, Atal Bihari Vajpayee, to refer
to the plant as "green gold."

The numbers speak for themselves: A single clump of bamboo can produce
as much as 10 miles of usable pole in its life cycle. The
fastest-growing species can gain a meter in a single day - almost enough
to see the growth with the naked eye. Nearly 1 billion people worldwide
live in some sort of bamboo structure, including 75 percent of the
population of Bangladesh.

There have been more than 1,500 documented uses for bamboo, and by one
estimate the annual economic value of total bamboo consumption is $10
billion. By 2015, that figure is expected to double.

Ranjan has dedicated his career to exploring innovative uses of bamboo.
He recently gathered 100 architects at the NID, who came up with 150
designs for objects including beds, chairs - and even an abstract bamboo
rocking horse. Another of Ranjan's concepts involves molding laminated
bamboo fibers into almost any object.

He suggests that bamboo car bumpers are not too far off. Ranjan takes
his cues from traditional methods: In a book on indigenous bamboo crafts
of northeast India, he documented 400 native designs, from fish traps to
musical instruments.

One of the more futuristic uses of bamboo was recently tested at the
Earthquake Engineering and Vibration Research Centre in Bangalore. The
center has a state-of-the-art "triaxial earthquake simulator" - a
computer- controlled 3-by-3-meter platform mounted on hydraulic shocks.

A prototype house built entirely of bamboo - with bamboo-reinforced
concrete walls and a waterproof, resin-coated bamboo roof - was
subjected to five consecutive 30-second pulses equivalent to 7.8 on the
Richter scale.

"We subjected it to the highest level of earthquake to be found anywhere
in the world, and it didn't even crack the paint," says Paul Follett of
the Timber Research and Development Association (TRADA), based in
Britain, which helped conduct the tests with funding from the British
government. TRADA's mandate on this project is to design safe,
affordable, sustainable housing for the developing world. Whatever
developments are made will be "open source" - freely available to
whoever wishes to use them.

According to Mr. Follett, this bamboo-based housing technology has the
potential to provide disaster relief around the world. Easily
prefabricated, the structures can be put up in three weeks, and last 50
years. At $5 a square foot, costs are roughly half of traditional
"brick-and-block" construction, and mass production would probably drive
the costs down further. With the wide variety of goods that can be
produced from bamboo, Follett sees it as being able to provide not only
housing, but a sustainable livelihood. He dreams of an entire social
economy based around the plant.

The Indian government, in an attempt to boost bamboo harvesting before
flowering begins, has eliminated all export duties until 2007. It has
also launched an initiative to invest $500 million in bamboo development
in the next decade, with the aim of creating 8 million jobs.

As ambitious as these initiatives are, the likelihood of staving off the
disaster is slim. "Will we be prepared to deal with this by 2006?" asks
Ranjan of the NID. "Unlikely. We must start planning now for the next
flowering of the bamboo in 50 years. These are problems that will keep
returning. They are part of the natural order."

Full HTML version of this story which may include photos, graphics, and
related links <http://www.csmonitor.com/2004/0909/p14s01-sten.html>


www.csmonitor.com | Copyright © 2004 The Christian Science Monitor. All
rights reserved.
For permission to reprint/republish this article, please email Copyright

[Homestead] Home business, more hypertufa links
Tvoivozhd tvoivozd at infionline.net
Sun Sep 5 19:58:07 EDT 2004

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Probably some duplications of links on previous post. I didn't
cross-check them

http://faq.gardenweb.com/faq/hypertufa/ (hypertufa FAQ)

(tutorial on making a hypertufa Japanese Lantern)

http://union.osu.edu/mgarden/articles/hypertufahints.htm (hypertufa
hints, gloves, mask, colorants, fibers, acrylic in mix)

http://www.canadiangardening.com/ideas_fun_hypertufa2.shtml (pictorial
and advice on filling a mold, drainage inserts, smoothing, leveling,
drainage inserts etc.)

http://gardening.about.com/cs/projects/l/aa091699.htm (about.com,
rubbing the peat moss through a hardware screen, and using a wire brush
on surface)

http://www.efildoog-nz.com/hypertufa.htm (efildoog, sculpting, totem poles)

http://www.garden-of-mu.com/garden-art/hypertufa-info.HTML (mix,
second-day carving, mix dry ingredients first in large batch, then
divide and mix small wet batches)

Hypertufa collection of links- recipies and ide

http://www.makersgallery.com/concrete/howto1b.html (concrete for
artists, some hypertufa, some not)

http://www.alpine-art.com/ (garden art faces, no molds, but ideas on
artistic images, price levels)

[Homestead] Land Grant College Extension Service List, technology 
transfer groups
Tvoivozhd tvoivozd at infionline.net
Thu Sep 2 19:34:43 EDT 2004

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Gene's posting
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Any time you want to build something on the farm, there are over 100
College Extension Services whose website you should click on. Other
useful sources of DIY farm equipment ate at the ATTRA, VITA and other
Intermediate Technology websites.


http://www.itdg.org/ (and some of ITDG stuff)

http://www.itcltd.com/glowstar/ (I admire the solar lantern)

http://www.attra.org/attra-pub/csa.html (ATTRA)

http://www.vita.org/ (VITA)

http://journeytoforever.org/farm_library/device/devices1.html (some
handmade tools, bulding notes from Keith Addison)

http://journeytoforever.org/farm_library/device/devices1.html (start
out with a farm ffirst aid equipment and firefighting equipment)

[Homestead] Homemade farm tractors, equipment
Tvoivozhd tvoivozd at infionline.net
Thu Sep 2 19:42:23 EDT 2004

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List, technology transfer groups
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http://imagebase.lib.vt.edu/browse.php?folio_ID=/vaes/food/ex (Virginia
Extension list of homemade farm equipment)

(Missouri list of books on homemade farm equipment)

http://fiascofarm.com/dairy/ (Fias Farm data on dairying, cheesemaking,
DIY cheese press, plus some commercial links)

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/homebuiltequipmentfortractors/ (homebuilt
farm tractor equipment)

http://www.farmshow.com/store/videos_tr.asp (Farm Show machinery repair
videos---lot of DIY farm equipment on Farm Show CD's also)

http://www.ytmag.com/ttalk/messages/6206.html (1920's and 1930's saw a
host of homebuilt farm tractors, a lot of them better than commercial
ones. Model A engines and transmissions were favored because they were
lead pipe simple and hulletproof. The now more numerous VW Bugs would
work as well, as would practically any junked vehicle with a good engine
and transmission---you will need a truck rear end though, and its a good
idea to keep the front part of the passenger compartment (and install a
rollover bar inside)..

Any homebuilt needs an auxiliary transmission to increase engine torque
to rear wheels, or a two-speed truck axle should suffice. There are
commercially available hydraulic pumps and three-point lifts which you
would want to install on a homebuilt to make it useful. Also to get
sufficient traction you would want large diameter, heavily cleated truck
tires and wheels to match, plus wheel weights, or weights over the axle)


(Prairie Farm Report, long list, homebuilt tractors and related,
unrelated farm devices)

http://www.cadplans.com/ (every farm tractor, commercial or homebuilt
needs a front end loader, and a backhoe is almost equally useful. I
know the guy at Daleville and the quality of his kits or assembled
equipment from licensees is excellent)

[Homestead] Dr-r-r-r-r-um Roll, the Slepcev Storch
Tvoivozhd tvoivozd at infionline.net
Wed Sep 1 21:00:07 EDT 2004

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If you want to live forever and your grandmother wants to take off and
land from her strawberry patch, this is the airplane for you---the
Slepcev Storch, a three-quarter scale replica of the WWII Fieseler
Storch---couldn't believe my eyes when I first saw it fly---it could be
throttled down so you could comfortably walk beside it in a twenty mile

http://storch.com.au/ (originally the Fieseler Storch used by Germans
in WWII to ferry officers around battlefields, land and take-off from
roads, farm fields, fly backwards in a twenty mile headwind. A
thre-quarter scale version designed by Slepcev has the same flight and
stall characteristics---you can walk beside it as it flies in a fifteen
mile headwind---strong and the safest airplane in the world---fly into a
brick wall and walk away unharmed.

http://storch.com.au/storch.htm (fully certified, available from an
Australian manufacturer in kit form or flyaway.)

http://www.telusplanet.net/public/jbrmhall/ (homebuilt Storchs in
China,Italy and Australia)

http://www.telusplanet.net/public/jbrmhall/useful.htm (Nestor Slepcev
suggested changes to his original Storch design---a lot of them and all
make sense, especially the switch to a four-stroke engine---a
homebuilder HAS to read this.)

http://www.ultralightflyer.com/storch/ (Canadian source, nice pictures
and performance description)

[Homestead] Boats, the icing on the cake---twin keels
Tvoivozhd tvoivozd at infionline.net
Wed Sep 1 20:20:36 EDT 2004

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And of course, twin rudders and diesel engines. When your single engine
quits or gets a rope wrapped around the propellor on a rocky lee shore,
it can ruin your whole day.

http://www.boatbuilding.com/content/twinkeels/ (twin keel advantages,
particularly with twin rudders and twin engines not discussed here)

http://drinian.homestead.com/files/twins.htm (a guy who sails twin
keelers, they sail more comfortably, more safely and in areas of
considerable tidal change can't be beat---they stand upright on their
twin keels at low tide, and as the tide comes in, stay upright all the way.)

http://www.kastenmarine.com/roll_attenuation.htm (twin keel
roll-reduction and stellar combination of Lore Riverdale and Naval
Architect Arthur Robb in the twin keep Bluebird of Thorne---the last of
which is in the U.S. at Lopez Island in the San Juan Islands of Puget
Sound---a steel fifty-footer owned by Jeff and Dianne Dyerl)

I like twin rudders for redundancy, and buried in the twin keels two
diesels, both for redundancy and the fact that nothing is better than
the ability to steer a boat in critical situations by differential
throttling of two engines.

http://www.mirage-mfg.com/html/lesson1.html (I also like twin keel
sailboats ao you can anchor them at high tide on a sand bottom, and work
on the exposed bottom, rudders, propellers at low tide. Anyone sailing
in warm waters knows how quickly barnacles collect on a ships
bottom---with a twin keel boat you can get them off in a couple hours
instead of having to go to a marine repair facility and winch them out,
and haul them out on a marine railway to a site where you can prop them
up and work on them---a slow and expensive proposition.)

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[Homestead] More boat stuff you can't liive without
Warren F. Smith WarrenSmith at PalmettoBuilders.net
Wed Sep 1 15:40:21 EDT 2004

* Previous message: [Homestead] More boat stuff you can't liive without
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* Messages sorted by: [ date ] [ thread ] [ subject ] [ author ]

tvo wrote:
"At the time I knew Carl Kiekhafer, owner of
Mercury Outboard quite well and I arranged for the two sons of the San
Blas Chieftain to go to school at the Mercury factory in Wisconsin."

He was quite a character from what I've read about his foray into NASCAR
racing. Did he ever discuss that period?

Also, I have burned some time the last two days browsing the boat links you
posted, thinking "hey, I could do that" Thanks


[Homestead] African Palm Oil and pigs
Tvoivozhd tvoivozd at infionline.net
Thu Sep 9 22:22:11 EDT 2004

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* Next message: [Homestead] Cohune nut palm, most important to the Maya
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 From FAO, one of my favorite sources of ag information---and when I had
a a seafood processing plant in Chorrillo, suburb of Panama City, Panama
(pre-computer days, the best source of information on catching,
procexsing shrimp, lobster etc.


Chapter 4: African oil palm

The African oil palm, Elaeis guineensis (Jacq.), is characterized by its 
vertical trunk and the feathery nature of its

leaves. Every year, 20 to 25 new leaves, called "fronds", develop in 
continuous whorls at the apex of the trunk. The

fruit bunches develop between the trunk and the base of the new fronds. 
Although new plantations start to bear at

three years, generally the first commercial crop requires between five 
and six years and continues to produce for 25-

30 years, or until the palms grow too high to be harvested. Once a 
plantation reaches full production, a new

inflorescence is produced every 15 days. It weighs between 15 and 20 kg 
and can contain up to 1500 individual palm

fruits of between 8 to 10 grammes each. The individual fruits consist of 
the following four parts:

a pericarp, a thin outer skin, which upon ripening changes from brown to 
orange;a mesocarp, a layer of fibrous

material, which surrounds the nut;an endocarp or hard inner shell (nut) 
to protect the seed or kernel, andthe seed (


The African oil palm, which yields about 20t/ha/yr of fresh fruit 
bunches (Bolaños, 1986; Espinal, 1986: Garza, 1986),

is capable of producing between three to five t/ha of crude oil from the 
fruit (mesocarp) and an additional 0.6 to 1.0

t/ha from the palm kernels (Ocampo et al., 1990a). Its productivity is 
influenced by climate, soil type, genetic

factors, maturity, rainfall, fertilization and the harvest period. 
Mijares (1985) has stated that for optimum annual

production the African oil palm requires a minimum of 1600 mm of well 
distributed precipitation, a relative humidity

no less than 75%, a minimum and maximum temperature of between 17 and 28 
C., a total of 2000 hours of light and a soil

depth of 100 centimetres.

There are two distinct types of oil palm: the "dura" and the "pisifera". 
The basic difference has to do with the inner

nut. The nut of the dura type of oil palm has a thick and hard shell 
while the pisifera type has a small kernel, with

no shell, but rather surrounded by a matrix of fibre. When a pisifera 
male is crossed with a dura female, a "tenera"

type of fruit is produced; its shell is of intermediate thickness. 
Currently, it is this type of oil palm that is most

widely grown in plantations.

The African oil palm produces two main commercial products: raw or crude 
oil, approximately 22% of the weight of the

fresh fruit bunch, and the palm nuts which represent 4-6%. When the nut 
is processed, it yields palm kernel oil and

palm kernel meal (Figure 4.1). The two main industrial residues, the 
oil-rich fibrous residue and the palm nut shells,

are used as sources of energy to run the factory. The empty fruit bunch 
is normally incinerated and the ash is

returned to the plantation as fertilizer.

The initial interest in the African oil palm as a feed resource for pigs 
was in the extracted and non-extracted palm

kernel meal. This was because when nuts of the oil palm were first 
brought to Europe from Africa as ship's ballast,

they were jettisoned into the sea before the ships were reloaded. 
However, soon the oil millers recognized their value

and began processing them for oil in order to supplement copra oil in 
the manufacture of soap, paints and for other

industrial applications (Collingwood, 1958). The meal was used as a 
major protein supplement for pigs and cattle until

soya bean meal became commercially available.

Oil palm cultivation started at the beginning of this century (Devendra, 
1977). By 1980, production of oil had risen

to slightly more than five million tons and, by 1992, annual world 
production reached thirteen million tons. As seen

in Table 4.1, the primary areas of production are Southeast Asia, 
followed by the west coast of Africa and Latin

America. Currently, Malaysia produces half the world's production of 
palm oil, followed by Indonesia and Nigeria.

Presently, the fourth and fastest growing producer of palm oil is 
Colombia, where production has more than quadrupled

in 12 years. In that country, (Ocampo et al., 1990b) has reported that 
the average annual production of fruit is 15 t

/ha of which raw oil represents slightly more than three tons.

Table 4.1. Production of African palm oil: world, regional and top four 
countries, tonnes (FAO, 1992).
Geographical area 1979-81 1992
World 5 046 308 12 725 346
Africa 1 337 913 1 835 888
Nigeria 666 667 900 000
Latin America 190 780 753 251
Colombia 70 500 304 496
Asia + Oceania 3 502 851 10 136 207
Indonesia 720 826 3 162 228
Malaysia 2 528 947 6 373 461

The technological process by which the oil is extracted from the palm 
fruit consists of the following steps; note that

the fresh fruit bunch includes the stem and the adhering individual palm 

Reception: where sand, dirt and gravel are separated from the fresh 
fruit bunch.

Sterilization: necessary to rapidly inactivate certain enzymes which 
tend to reduce the quality of the oil by

increasing the amount of free fatty acids. In addition, this process 
contributes to the mechanical separation of the

fruit from the stem and to the rupture of the oil cells within the mesocarp.

Oil extraction: An oil press, into which hot water is injected, is used 
to separate the crude oil from the solid or

fibrous-like material containing the nuts. The crude oil is then pumped 
to the purification section.

Figure 4.1 shows the quantities of the principal components of the oil 
palm based on 100 tons of the fresh fruit

bunch. The nuts are treated and cracked to extract the kernel which 
contains approximately 50% oil. The oil-rich

fibrous residue, traditionally used as a source of energy to run the 
plant, has a caloric value superior to 18.8 MJ/

kg. This is largely due to the residual oil, calculated as between 8 and 
18 percent (Brezing, 1986; Solano, 1986;

Wambeck, 1990).

Similar to the proposal for livestock diversification within the sugar 
industry (FAO, 1988), the integration of pig

production within the oil palm industry might introduce a certain degree 
of flexibility in the entire enterprise,

resulting in: an increase in the productive capacity of the plant, 
particularly during the period of maximum

industrial yield; a significant reduction in plant maintenance; 
increased employment opportunities related to the

utilization of the different byproducts for livestock feeding; the 
production of animal wastes and thereby organic

fertilizer for the plantations and, perhaps most importantly, an overall 
reduction in the amount and/or concentration

of the industrial effluents which threaten the contamination of the 
surrounding ecosystem (Ocampo, personal


As a follow-up to these observations, the following information 
summarizes the average daily amount of products and

sub-products produced in a oil palm processing plant of 125 t/day and 
10t/hour (Table 4.2).

One factor that might require attention if derivatives from the African 
oil palm present new opportunities to be used

as energy feed resources for pigs is the cyclic nature of its 
production. Bolaños (1986) has reported that in Costa

Rica the average monthly yield of fresh fruit bunch can vary from 6% 
during the dry winter months to 10 or 12% during

the rainy, summer season. In that country, the annual yield of the fresh 
fruit bunch is 20 t/ha and with the oil-rich

fibrous residue representing 12% of this amount, this could mean the 
production of 0.3 t/ha of oil-rich fibrous

residue during the wet season as opposed to only 0.15 t/ha during the 
dry or winter season.

Figure 4.1. Production technology for 100 t of fresh fruit bunch of 
African oil palm (Solano 1986).

Table 4.2. Potential feed resources in an African oil palm processing 
plant, air-dry basis.
t/day t/year t/ha/yr
Fresh Fruit Bunch 125 25000 20
Palm oil 25 5000 4
Palm kernel meal 2.5 1000 0.8
Empty Fruit Stem 40 8000 6.4
Ash (from stem) 0.6 125 0.1
Effluent 80 16000 13
Oil-rich fibrous residue 13.7 2750 2.2
Shell (from kernel) 12 2500 2
Ash (from shell) 0.6 16000 13

Source: Brezing (1986)

However, if sugar cane, generally harvested only in the dry season, was 
integrated into this feeding system, the two

energy feed resources might complement each other. The data in Tables 
4.6 and 4.7 tend to support this interesting


As earlier mentioned, one of the first references to the use of 
derivatives of the oil palm for pigs referred to the

use of the extracted and non-extracted palm kernel meal in complete, dry 
rations for growing/finishing pigs. Most pig

farmers contended that the gritty texture of the meal affected 
consumption, and therefore performance. However, palm

kernel meal continued to be used for many years as a replacement for 
scarce cereals, mainly because it was available,

relatively inexpensive and highly nutritious (Crowther, 1916, cited by 
Collingwood, 1958). In the 1930s, when a

commercial process for extracting oil from the soya bean was perfected 
and it was seen that a higher quality animal

protein supplement (soya bean meal), would be commercially available, 
the byproduct from the extraction of the oil

from the kernel, palm kernel meal, was destined for ruminants (PNI, 
1990). Currently, palm kernel meal represents

about one per cent of world trade in oil seed meals. Table 4.3 gives the 
chemical composition of several oil palm


Table 4.3. Chemical composition of African oil palm byproducts.
Component Oil-rich fibrous residue a (% DM) Dry sludge a (% DM) Fresh 
centrifuged sludge solids b (%

Dry matter 86.2 90.3d 15.0-20.8
Crude protein 4.0 9.6 3.1-3.4
Crude fibre 36.4 11.5 3.0-5.2
Ether extract 21.0 21.3 2.4-3.5
Ash 9.0 11.1 2.8-3.4
Nitrogen free extract 29.6 46.5 -
Calcium 0.31 0.28 -
Phosphorous 0.13 0.26 -
Gross energy (MJ/kg) 18.1 18.7 -

Sources: a Devendra (1977); b Ong (1982)

To date, derivatives of the African oil palm have shown potential 
feeding value for pigs in conventional, cereal-based

rations: the de-hydrated palm oil mill effluent and the fresh 
centrifuged sludge solids have been studied both by

Devendra et al. (1981) and by Ong (1982), and the whole palm nut by 
Flores (1989) and Chavez (1990). However, recent

interest has focused on the use of primary products and by-products of 
the African oil palm as a partial or complete

energy source replacement in swine rations, particularly where the 
protein is offered separately, in the form of a

restricted amount of a high-quality supplement. It has been shown that 
the oil-rich fibrous residue (ORFR), normally

used as a source of energy to run the factory, can also furnish the 
necessary energy for the pig (Ocampo et al., 1990

a, 1990b). As exemplified in following sections, the successful 
experimental use of the crude oil (Ocampo, 1994b),

combinations of the crude oil and sugar cane juice (Ngoan and Sarría, 
1994) and even the whole fresh palm fruit (

Ocampo, 1994a, b) further emphasize the fact that other oil palm 
byproducts can serve to completely replace cereals in

rations for swine.
Crude (raw) palm oil

Crude palm oil has traditionally been used up to about 5% in dry diets 
for pigs in a manner similar to molasses: to

improve palatability, to reduce dustiness, to supply vitamins and to 
improve the texture of rations prior to pelleting

(Devendra, 1977; Hutagalung and Mahyudin, 1981). The oil contains 
approximately 80% of unsaturated fatty acids (Table

4.4) and 10% of linoleic acid, an essential fatty acid required at a 
dietary level of 0.1% for pigs (NRC, 1988).

Table 4.4. Composition of the fatty acids in the oil from fruit and 
kernel of the African oil palm (% AD).
Fatty acids Palm oil Palm kernel oil
Myristic 1.6 -
Palmitic 45.3 7.8
Stearic 5.1 2.5
Oleic 38.7 12.6
Linoleic 9.2 1.7
Lauric - 15.7
Capric - 47.3
Caprilic - 4.1
Caprolic - 4.3

Source:Pardo and Moreno (1971), cited by Ocampo et al. (1990b)

The addition of from 2 to 10% of crude palm oil in the diets of growing 
pigs was studied by Fetuga et al. (1975) who

found no significant effect on performance. When palm oil was compared 
to groundnut oil, lard or beef tallow, there

were no significant growth differences, however, increasing the level of 
palm oil in the diet slightly increased the

percentage of lean cuts (Babatunde et al., 1971, 1974, cited by 
Devendra, 1977). This same observation was reported by

Balogun et al. (1983) cited by Ngoan and Sarría (1994) who noted that 
the addition of 30, 64 or 97 g/kg of palm oil to

the ration increasingly improved muscle development.

In Malaysia, it was reported that six groups of pigs from 16 to 81 kg 
were fed iso-nitrogenous diets containing

different levels of palm oil, from 5 to 30 percent. Although the results 
were reported as not significant, the average

daily gains obtained on the experimental diets were 10% superior 
compared to that of the cereal control; in addition,

where palm oil was included, the conversions were improved by an average 
of 17 percent (Devendra and Hew, cited by

Devendra, 1977).

Recently, Ocampo (1994b) showed that palm oil and a source of protein, 
either fortified soya bean meal and rice

polishings, or combinations of fortified soya bean meal/fresh Azolla and 
rice polishings, might provide an interesting

feeding system for the production of pigs in the tropics, particularly 
if the pigs were integrated with the palm

plantations. Pigs of an initial average liveweight of 30 kg were fed 
diets in which 10, 20 and 30% of the protein from

fortified soya meal was replaced by fresh Azolla filiculoides, a water 
fern (Table 4.5).

Table 4.5. Composition of diets using crude palm oil, rice polishings 
and fresh Azolla filiculoides as a replacement

for the protein in soya bean meal (kg AD/day).
% replacement of protein in soya bean meal by Azolla
growing phase: 30-60 kg finishing phase: 60-90 kg
0 10 20 30 0 10 20 30
Protein supplement 0.50 0.45 0.40 0.35 0.50 0.45 0.40 0.35
Rice polishings 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15
Crude palm oil 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.80
Fresh Azolla 0.0 1.74 3.48 5.21 0.0 1.74 3.48 5.21

Source: Ocampo (1994b); * contains: soya bean meal, 86%; dicalcium 
phosphate, 10%; salt, 2% and a vitamin/mineral

premix, 2%

In the morning, the pigs were fed the daily ration of protein supplement 
and rice polishings, and half the daily

allowance of oil and Azolla. In the afternoon, they received the 
remaining portion of Azolla and oil. The average

daily gain (g) and dry matter feed conversion for the control treatment, 
without Azolla, and the groups where 10, 20

and 30% of the protein in soya bean meal was replaced by that of Azolla 
were: 526, 2.10; 561, 1.98; 535, 2.00 and 452,

2.20, respectively.

In the same publication reference was made to a commercial piggery that 
used the following "palm oil feeding system".

For that, a total of 170 growing/finishing pigs, in 4 groups, were fed 
daily one kilogramme of protein supplement and

0.5 kg of crude palm oil. The protein supplement contained: 450 g soya 
bean meal, 374 g palm kernel meal, 150 g rice

polishings, 20 g dicalcium phosphate and 3 g each of salt and a 
vitamin/mineral premix. The initial average liveweight

(kg), average daily gain (g) and dry matter feed conversion for each of 
the 4 groups were 32.0, 722, 1.80; 24.2, 628,

2.00; 25.8, 524, 2.40 and 26.0, 464, 2.80, respectively. In spite of the 
fact that the diet was the same for all

groups, no explanation was offered for the observed variation in 
performance, inferring, perhaps, that the "palm oil

feeding system" requires further refinement.

Palm oil has also been studied as either a partial or complete energy 
source replacement for pigs, also fed fresh

sugar cane juice and a restricted protein supplement. The oil replaced 
25, 50, 75 and 100% of the energy in cane juice

in both the growing and finishing phases of this most interesting and 
unique feeding system to study the potential

integration of sugar cane and the African oil palm as dry/wet-season 
energy feed resource alternatives for pig

production in the tropics (Table 4.6).

The average daily gain was not significantly affected by treatment in 
the growing phase, however, during the finishing

phase, gains were significantly lowered when palm oil replaced 75 and 
100% of the juice (Table 4.7). In both phases,

the average daily feed intake was lower for those pigs fed palm oil 
which according to the authors, might have been

related to its low palatability or high energy content. They reported a 
digestible energy value for palm oil and sugar

cane juice in pigs as 37.5 and 14.5 MJ/kg of DM, respectively. Feed 
conversions were significantly improved by the

addition of palm oil. Carcass measurements were not affected.

Table 4.6. Replacement of the energy in sugar cane juice (SCJ) by that 
in palm oil (PO) for growing/finishing pigs (kg

AD/day). *
Liveweight, kg <30 40 50 60 70 80 90 >90
100 SCJ 6.0 7.5 8.5 9.5 10.5 11.5 13.0 >14
75 PO/25 SCJ 4.5/.1 6.0/.15 7.0/.2 8.0/.2 9.0/.25 10/.25 11.0/.3 12.0/.3
50 PO/50 SCJ 3.0/.2 4.0/.3 4.5/.35 5.0/.4 5.5/.45 6.0/.5 6.5/.55 7.0/.6
25 PO/75 SCJ 1.5/.3 2.0/.45 2.5/.5 2.5/.6 3.0/.65 3.0/.75 3.5/.8 3.5/.9
100 PO 0.4 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2

Source: Ngoan and Sarría (1994); * plus 500 g/d of a 40% crude protein 

Table 4.7. Performance of finishing pigs (50-90 kg) fed a restricted 
protein supplement (RPS)* with energy from sugar

cane juice (SCJ) increasingly replaced by palm oil (PO).
100 SCJ 75 SCJ 25 PO 50 SCJ 50 PO 25 SCJ 75 PO 100 PO
Initial liveweight, kg 51.1 50.1 48.9 50.2 45.2
Final liveweight, kg 99.5 93.7 91.2 89.8 84.2
ADG, g 768 693 672 628 615
DM feed intake, kg/d 3.05 2.32 2.14 1.77 0.92
DM feed conversion 3.97 3.35 3.18 2.82 1.47

Source: Ngoan and Sarría (1994); Ngoan (1994); *The RPS was 500g/day of 
91% soya bean meal, 6% minerals, 1% salt and

2% of a vitamin premix
Oil-rich fibrous residue (ORFR)

The residue which remains after the crude oil is separated from the 
sterilized fruit by means of a screw-press,

represents approximately 12 to 15% of the fresh fruit bunch. The 
chemical composition of this residue is presented in

Table 4.3. This material, reported to contain from 63% (Wambeck, 1990) 
to 70 or 85% dry matter (Solano, 1986) still

contains from 6 to 8% of residual oil. It is of a deep yellow-tangerine 
color, with a fibrous consistency, sweetish

smell and greasy-like texture (Ocampo et al., 1990a). It is used as the 
main source of energy to run the plant.

ORFR has been studied as a complete replacement for the energy derived 
from cereals. Diets in which sorghum was the

sole energy source, or where 25, 50, 75 or 100% of the energy from 
sorghum was replaced by this residue, were offered

ad libitum to pigs from 20 to 90 kg, also fed a restricted amount of 
fortified soya bean meal to meet the current,

daily, NRC (1988) requirement for crude protein (Ocampo et al., 1990a). 
Preliminary results showed that pigs can grow

extremely well on this type of feeding system. Where ORFR replaced 100% 
of the energy supplied by sorghum, the average

liveweight growth was 639 g/day. The pigs consumed a daily average of 
0.75 kg of protein supplement together with 2.32

kg of oil-rich fibrous residue (Table 4.8).

Table 4.8. Oil-rich fibrous residue as a partial or complete replacement 
for the energy in sorghum for pigs (20-90 kg

0% ORFR 25% ORFR 50% ORFR 75% ORFR 100%ORFR *
Initial liveweight, kg 19.8 20.6 21.7 22.2 22.6
Final liveweight, kg 89.7 91.1 92.5 92.6 94.2
Days to finish 133 119 112 112 112
ADG, g 525 592 632 629 639
DM feed intake, kg/d 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.8
DM feed conversion 4.00 3.59 3.49 3.75 4.47

Source:Ocampo et al. (1990a); * fed 0.55, 0.64 and 0.9 kg/day of 
fortified soya bean meal (see Table 4.5) during the 3

phases of: weaners, growers and finishers, respectively

Following this initial trial, Ocampo et al. (1990b), attempted to prove 
an observation of Sarría et al. (1990), that

when pigs are fed a restricted amount of a high quality protein 
supplement, particularly when the required levels of

essential amino acids are supplied by soya bean meal, lower amounts of 
total crude protein are feasible. This amounts

to approximately 200 g/day and can be provided in 500 g/day of a 40% 
protein, soya bean meal-based supplement. The

concept had been first developed through feeding systems based on sugar 
cane juice (see Chapter 3).

For this study, the basic diet was ORFR, fed ad libitum. Three groups of 
growing/finishing pigs were fed constant

amounts (high, medium or low) of fortified soya bean meal throughout the 
entire experimental period. A fourth group,

the control, received different amounts of fortified soya bean meal 
(high, medium and low) to correspond with the

needs of each of the three developmental phases: weaners, growers and 
finishers (Table 4.9). The authors concluded

that the two groups that received the least amount of protein exhibited 
an inferior performance but gave the highest

economic returns. A more recent trial studied the effect of 
supplementing this unusual feeding system (ad libitum ORFR

and a restricted amount of protein supplement) with methionine and/or 
B-complex vitamins (Ocampo, 1992). None of the

experimental treatments produced significant results.

Table 4.9. Different amounts of restricted protein supplement (RPS) * 
and free-choice oil-rich fibrous residue for

pigs from 22 to 90 kg.
Control ** High (0.64 kg/d) Medium (0.57 kg/d ) Low (0.50 kg/d)
Initial liveweight, kg 22.7 22.8 22.8 22.1
Final liveweight, kg 90.2 90.0 90.4 90.3
Days to finish 121 126 124 135
ADG, g 558 532 545 505
AD feed intake, kg/d: RPS






DM feed conversion 4.80 5.20 4.60 5.40

Source: Ocampo et al. (1990b); * see Table 4.5; ** 0.50, 0.64 and 0.90 
kg/day of RPS fed during three consecutive 40-

day periods: weaners, growers and finishers.
Palm oil mill effluent and palm oil sludge

The palm oil mill effluent, the final liquid discharge after extracting 
the oil from the fresh fruit bunch, contains

soil particles, residual oils and suspended solids but only 5% of dry 
matter. While Wambeck (1990) stated that it

represents 0.5 t/t of fresh fruit and can cause serious problems to the 
entire surrounding ecosystem, Brezing (1986)

went one step further and estimated that a processing plant with a 
capacity of 10 tons fresh fruit per hour would

require a water treatment plant comparable to that required by a 
population of half a million inhabitants!

Palm oil sludge is the material that remains after decanting the palm 
oil mill effluent (Devendra et al., 1981). It

can be either filter-pressed, before dried and ground to produce 
dehydrated palm oil mill effluent, or centrifuged in

the wet state, after having undergone anaerobic, thermophilic and 
acidophilic fermentation. In the latter case, the

product is known as fresh centrifuged sludge solids of 15 to 20% dry 
matter and may be dehydrated to form dry

centrifuged sludge solids of between 94 and 97% dry matter (Table 4.3). 
The composition of the essential amino acids

in palm oil sludge and palm kernel meal is given in Table 4.10. 
Although, there is insufficient information concerning

the amino acid composition of different African oil palm products, data 
from Table 4.10 suggest that lysine is not

present in an appropriate proportion in the protein.

Table 4.10. Composition of essential amino acids in palm oil sludge and 
palm kernel meal (% CP).
Amino acid Palm oil sludge Palm kernel meal Amino acid Palm oil sludge 
Palm kernel

Arginine 0.19 2.20 Methionine+cystine 0.28 1.98
Histidine 0.14 0.27 Phenylalanine+ tyrosine 0.77 1.28
Isoleucine 0.35 0.63 Threonine 0.34 0.54
Leucine 0.60 1.05 Tryptophan 0.12 0.17
Lysine 0.21 0.56 Valine 0.36 0.9

Source: Devendra (1977)

Fresh centrifuged sludge solids have been incorporated in a concentrate 
ration daily at a level of 14% total dry

matter for pigs from 30 to 90 kilogrammes. The average daily gain and 
dry matter feed conversion for the maize control

group and one of the experimental treatments containing fresh 
centrifuged sludge solids was: 700g, 3.36 and 650g and

3.83, respectively (Ong, 1982).

Dehydrated palm oil mill effluent has been incorporated up to 20% in dry 
rations for growing/finishing pigs; however,

with increasing inclusion of dehydrated palm oil mill effluent, 
performance was poorer and carcass fat deposition

increased (Table 4.11).

Table 4.11. The use of dehydrated palm oil mill effluent for 
growing/finishing pigs (19-92 kg).
0% 5% 10% 15% 20%
Maize, ground 78.9 74.9 70.4 65.9 61.4
Soya bean meal 13.5 12.5 12.0 11.5 11.0
Dehydrated palm oil mill effluent - 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0
ADG, g 730 700 690 720 650
AD feed intake, kg/d 2.24 2.30 2.34 2.38 2.34
AD feed conversion 3.04 3.31 3.38 3.34 3.60
Fat, % of carcass 16.7 17.9 20.4 19.9 19.5

Source:Ong (1982); all diets contained. 5.5% fishmeal, 1.95% minerals 
and vitamins and 0.15% methionine

There have been numerous attempts to convert palm oil mill effluent into 
a viable animal feed resource; however, most

methods have been discontinued due to the large initial capital 
investment required, and particularly to the cost of

fuel for dehydration. In Malaysia, one method used to convert fresh palm 
oil mill effluent into a potential feedstuff

involved concentration by centrifugation or decantation, followed by 
absorption on other dry feeds like tapioca chips,

grass meal or palm kernel meal. The absorption process can be repeated 
several times before final dehydration (Webb,

Hutagalung and Cheam, 1976, cited by Devendra et al., 1981).

Perhaps, one idea would be to promote the use of the fresh centrifuged 
sludge solids (15-20% dry matter) for finishing

pigs which, compared to younger animals, have a greater capacity to 
effectively use larger amounts of more liquid

feeds. To date, apparently, this material has only been used in dry, 
concentrate rations (Ong, 1982). This approach

might require supplementation to increase the crude protein content to 
that of a cereal, as well as some molasses to

improve palatability. It would have to be fed immediately, preferably 
near the factory in order to avoid

transportation of a product that contains 80% of water. Interestingly, 
this approach was indicated by Devendra et al.

(1981) for feeding sheep and cattle (Devendra, 1992); he referred to the 
use of this residual product alone, or

combined with oil-rich fibrous residue. Perhaps, this same 
recommendation might be applied to feeding pigs.

In Ghana, oil palm slurry (sludge) has been used to replace 15, 20, 25 
and 30% of maize in ad libitum diets for

growing pigs to 70 kg. The control group was fed a maize-based diet; 
performance was not affected by the use of

sludge. It was emphasized that with the exception of the loin-eye area, 
carcass measurements were improved when pigs

were offered the slurry-containing feed (Abu et al., 1984). The use of 
unconventional feeds for pigs in Ghana was also

studied by Hertrampf (1988), who reported using oil palm sludge in place 
of maize at a level of from 15 to 30 percent.

An increase in the daily feed intake and the average daily gain, in 
addition to a significant reduction in feed costs,

was reported.
Palm kernel meal

The palm kernel represents 5% of the weight of the fresh fruit bunch; it 
contains approximately 50% oil (Beltrán,

1986). The meal is produced by extracting the oil from the kernel within 
the palm nut. The resultant meal, sometimes

also referred to as "palm kernel cake", can contain from 12 to 23% of 
crude protein depending upon the efficiency of

the process used to extract the oil (Table 4.12) .

As expressed earlier, the first oil palm by-product reportedly used for 
feeding pigs was the extracted and non-

extracted palm kernel meal. It was first used in Europe as a substitute 
for wheat bran in rations for growing/

finishing pigs. Currently, because of its poor palatability and high 
fibre content, it is more commonly fed to

ruminants where it produces a hard, white carcass fat in meat animals 
and a saturated fatty acid profile in the milk

of lactating animals (PNI, 1990).

In Nigeria, palm kernel meal was used for pigs but it ranked lowest in 
protein quality compared to other local protein

sources and produced a loss in weight (Fetuga et al., 1974, cited by 
Devendra, 1977). However, in Colombia, good

results have been reported (Ocampo, 1994b) when almost 40% of palm 
kernel meal was used in the form of a restricted

protein supplement that also contained soya bean meal. Correct storage, 
to reduce the risk of mould and the production

of aflatoxins, was emphasized. The chemical composition and 
digestibility of palm kernel meal is shown in Table 4.12.

Table 4.12. Chemical composition/digestibility of palm kernel meal for 
pigs (%).
average composition digestibility
Dry matter 90 -
Crude protein 16 60
Crude fibre 16 36
Nitrogen free extract 48 77
Ether extract 10 25

Source: PNI (1990)
Whole fresh palm fruit

The chemical composition of the flesh (mesocarp) which surrounds the 
palm nut, and interior kernel, is presented in

Table 4.13. The whole fresh palm fruit constitutes a potential energy 
feed resource for the small-scale pig producer

without access to factory produced palm oil derivatives, such as, crude 
oil or oil-rich fibrous residue. In an

experiment to determine the performance of pigs from 27 to 90 kg, fed 
twice daily with a restricted amount of protein,

and whole fresh palm fruit as a partial or complete replacement for 
sorghum, Ocampo (1994a) surprisingly found that,

apart from consuming easily the fibrous material adjuring to the nut, 
the pigs often ate the entire fruit including

the palm nut and the interior kernel. It was observed that first they 
ate the fibrous material surrounding various

nuts, accumulated the nuts, then proceeded to crack and extract the 
kernel within the nuts. One interesting

observation was that when the fresh fruit was stored for more than seven 
days, palatability, and therefore voluntary

consumption, was noticeably affected.

Table 4.13. The chemical composition of the pulp (mesocarp) and kernel 
of the fruit of the African oil palm (% DM).
pulp kernel
Crude protein 9.26 11.9
Crude fibre 25.5 31.6
Nitrogen free extract 31.3 25.9
Ether extract 28.6 26.9
Ash 5.4 2.5

Source: Ocampo (1994b)

Although the data in Table 4.14 show that best growth was obtained when 
only 25% of the fresh fruit was used in place

of sorghum, it was emphasized that best economic gains were when 75 or 
100% of the fruit was used. In a second trial,

Ocampo (1994c) used 4 groups to study the optimum amount of rice 
polishings as a source of carbohydrate for growing/

finishing pigs, also fed a restricted protein supplement (500 g/day) and 
whole, unprocessed African oil palm fruit,

fed ad libitum. The amount of rice polishings offered during the growing 
phase (20-60 kg) was 100, 200, 300 and 400 g

/day, and during the finishing phase (60-90 kg), 150, 250, 350 and 450 
g/day. During the entire experimental period,

the average consumption of the fresh fruit was 1.1, 1.1, 1.0 and 0.9 kg 
AD/day; the average liveweights were: 485,

515, 492 and 497 g/day and dry matter conversions were: 3.20, 3.20, 3.30 
and 3.30, respectively. Reportedly, the most

economic levels of rice polishings were 200 g/day during the growing 
phase and 250 g/day during the finishing phase.

Table 4.14. Whole fresh palm fruit (WFPF) as a partial or complete 
replacement for sorghum in diets for pigs from 27-

90 kg.
% WFPF 25% 50% 75% 100%
Initial liveweight, kg 28.1 27.0 26.7 27.0
Final liveweight, kg 89.3 85.7 90.2 85.7
Days to finish 98 98 126 126
AD feed * intake, kg/d: sorghum

oil palm fruit





ADG, g 625 598 503 466
DM feed intake, kg/d 2.02 1.94 1.68 1.59
DM feed conversion 3.20 3.20 3.30 3.40

Source: Ocampo (1994a); *also fed 500 g/d of protein supplement : soya 
bean meal, 97.6%; dicalcium phosphate, 2%;

salt, 0.3% and vitamin/mineral premix, 0.3 percent

For the low income farmer in the tropics, the possibility to fatten a 
pig with one's own fresh palm fruit, and perhaps

purchase only 60 kg of a high-quality protein supplement, or even use 
some rice polishings, is definitely an example

of an alternative feeding system for pigs. This same author also 
emphasized that if a feeding system based on the

whole fruit was used, there would be approximately 100 g/day of protein 
availabe to the pig via the kernel, and that

this fact merited even further study. Obviously, the African oil palm 
has definite potential as a feed resource for

pigs in the tropics. Perhaps, its utilization might be improved if more 
basic information related to its nutritional

value was available.

Abu, A.A., Okai, D.B. and Tuah, A.K. 1984. Oil palm slurry (OPS) as a 
partial replacement for maize in the diets of

growing-finishing pigs. Nutrition Reports International 30 (1): 121-127.

Bolaños, M.A. 1986. La palma aceitera en Costa Rica. En: IV Mesa Redonda 
Latinoamericana sobre Palma Aceitera,

Valledupar, Colombia 8-12 de junio de 1986, ORLAC/FAO p 23-25.

Beltrán, C. 1986. Requisitos, Calidades y Usos del Palmiste. En: IV Mesa 
Redonda Latinoamericana sobre Palma Aceitera,

Valledupar, Colombia 8-12 de junio de 1986, ORLAC/FAO p 145-146.

Brezing, D. 1986. Subproductos de la Palma Africana en Plantas de 
Beneficio Primario: El Tratamiento de Efluentes. En:

IV Mesa Redonda Latinoamericana sobre Palma Aceitera, Valledupar, 
Colombia 8-12 de junio de 1986, ORLAC FAO p 151-160.

Chavez, J.M. 1990. Full fat african palm kernel nuts as energy source 
for weaned pigs from 5 to 10 weeks of age. Ing.

Agr. Thesis, Panamerican School of Agriculture, Honduras pp 68.

Collingwood, J.G. 1958. Palm kernel meal. In: Processed Plant Protein 
Foodstuffs Ed: A. M. Altschul, Academic Press,

New York pp 995.

Devendra, C. 1977. Utilization of Feedingstffs from the Oil Palm. In: 
Proc. Symp. Feedingstuffs for Livestock in South

East Asia p 116-131.

Devendra, C. 1992. Non-conventional Feed Resources in Asia and the 
Pacific: Strategies for Expanding Utilisation at

the Small Farm Level. 4th edition International Development Research 
Centre, Sinapore, FAO Regional Animal Production

and Health Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok.

Devendra, C., Yeong, S.W. and Ong, H.K. 1981. The Potential Value of 
Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) as a Feed Resource

for Farm Animals in Malaysia. Proc. of National Workshop on Oil Palm 
By-Product Utilization December 14-15 Kuala


Espinal, M. 1986. Informe de la Coordinación Nacional Técnica en Palma 
Africana. En: IV Mesa Redonda Latinoamericana

sobre Palma Aceitera, Valledupar, Colombia 8-12 de junio de 1986, 
ORLAC/FAO p 31-34.

FAO 1988. Sugarcane as Feed. FAO Animal Production and Health Paper No. 
72 FAO Rome pp 319.

FAO 1992. Production Yearbook. FAO, Roma .

Fetuga, B.L., Babatunde, G.M. and Oyenuga, U.L. 1975. The effect of 
varying the level of palm oil in a constant high

protein diet on performance and carcass characteristics of the growing 
pig. Ef. Afr. Agric. Ror. J. 40: 264-270.

Flores, R. 1989. Full fat african palm kernel nuts as energy source for 
growing pigs. Ing. Agr. Thesis, Panamerican

School of Agriculture, Honduras, pp 60.

Garza, E.F. 1986. Situación actual de la palma aceitera en México. En: 
IV Mesa Redonda Latinoamericana sobre Palma

Aceitera, Valledupar, Colombia 8-12 de junio de 1986, ORLAC/FAO p 35-36.

Hutagalung, R.I. and Mahyudin, M. 1981. Feeds for animals from the oil 
palm. Proc. Inter. Conf. on Oil Palm in

Agriculture in the Eighties. p 609-622.

Hertrampf, J. 1988. Unconventional feedstuffs for livestock. Muhle + 
Mischfuttertechnik 125(9):108-109.

Mijares, N.R. 1985. Aspectos ecológicos de la palma africana de aceite. 
En:Potential Productivo de la Palma Africana

en Venezuela, Facultad Agropecuaria, Maracay, Venezuela p 17-40.

Ngoan, L.D. 1994. The use of African palm (Elaeis guineensis) oil as 
energy source for pigs. Swedish University of

Agricultural Sciences. M. Sc. Thesis. Uppsala.

Ngoan, L. D. and Sarria, P. 1994. Effect on growth performance of 
replacing sugar cane juice energy with African palm

oil in diets for growing and finishing pigs. Conferencia presentada en 
el II Seminario Internacional "Sistemas

Agrarios Sostenibles para el Desarrollo Rural en el Tr¾pico" y IV 
Seminario Nacional "Alternativas de Producci¾n

Animal con Recursos Tropicales" Univ. Tecnologica de los Llanos 
Orientales, Villavecencio, Colombia.

NRC 1988. Nutrient Requirement of Domestic Animals. Nutrient Requirement 
of Swine. 8th ed. National Academy Press,

Washington, D.C..

Ocampo, A., Lozano, E. and Reyes, E. 1990a. Utilización de la cachaza de 
palma africana como fuente de energía en el

levante, desarrollo y ceba de cerdos. Livest. Res. Rur. Dev. 2(1): 43-50.

Ocampo, A., Castro, C. and Alfonso, L. 1990b Determination del nivel 
óptimo de proteína al utilizar cachaza de palma

africana como fuente de energía en raciones para cerdos de engorde. 
Livest. Res. Rur. Dev. 2(2):67-76.

Ocampo, A. 1992. Oil-rich Fibrous Residue from African Oil Palm as Basal 
Diet of Pigs; Effects of Supplementation with

Methionine. Livest. Res. Rur. Dev. 4(2):55-59.

Ocampo, A. 1994a Utilizacion del fruto de palma Africana como fuente de 
energia con niveles restringidos de proteina

en la alimentacion de cerdos de engorde. Livest. Res. Rur. Dev. 6(1):1-7.

Ocampo, A. 1994b. Raw palm oil as the energy source in pig fattening 
diets and Azolla filiculoides as a substitute for

soya bean meal. Livest. Res. Rur. Dev. 6 (1): 8-17.

Ocampo, A. 1994c. Efecto del nivel de pulidura de arroz en una dieta 
basada en el fruto entero de palma africana para

el engorde de cerdos. Livest. Res. Rur. Dev. 6(2): (18Kb).

Ong, H.K. 1982. The Use of Palm Oil Sludge Solids in Pig Feeding. (Paper 
presented at First Asian Australasian Animal

Science Congress, Sept. 2-5th, 1980) Animal Production and Health in the 
Tropics pp307-311.

PNI (Pig News and Information) 1990. Palm Kernel Meal. 11(4) pp 11.

Sarría, P., Solano, A. and Preston, T.R. 1990. Utilización de jugo de 
caña y cachaza panelera en la alimentación de

cerdos. Livest. Res. Rur. Dev. 2(2): 92-99.

Solano, R. 1986. Principales subproductos de las plantas extractoras de 
aceite. En IV Mesa Redonda Latinoamericana

sobre Palma Aceitera, Valledupar, Colombia 8-12 de junio de 1986, 
ORLAC/FAO p 161-167 .

Wambeck, N. 1990. La experiencia Malasiana en el desarrollo de la 
industria de la palma aceitera con la tecnologia

avanzada de Estechnik. In: VI Mesa Redonda Latinoamerica sobre Palma 
Aceitera San José, Costa Rica 12-16 marzo 1990

ORLAC/FAO p 255-267

My note---the American chestnut tree at maturity produced the equivalent 
of 400 bushel an acre corn---rots of ruck

trying to do that.

[Homestead] Cohune nut palm, most important to the Maya
Tvoivozhd tvoivozd at infionline.net
Thu Sep 9 22:42:37 EDT 2004

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And still can be the most important tree to residents of Belize for
biodiesel---need a mechanical decorticator though---too hard and slow to
remove the husk by hand.


[Homestead] Husking a coconut, removing the meat
Tvoivozhd tvoivozd at infionline.net
Thu Sep 9 23:50:43 EDT 2004

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Drinking the coconut juice is easier, if that's all you want---just hack
a piece off the top where the stem was, expose a hole and drink.


[Homestead] Home Business, partner with University, or other patent owner
Tvoivozhd tvoivozd at infionline.net
Sun Aug 29 16:32:46 EDT 2004

It will be a lot easier if the College has a fervent desire to turn
their research into income from licensing patents. It will be a hell of
a lot easier if the College has wider ambitions, like this Canadian
University that in addition to licensing, has on-site incubator and
shareholder options.

Generally, there is little to do for a business to exploit a University
patent---underlying the patent is a world of research to give guidance
to your business. You will usually have to do a lot of communication to
determine University licensing policy---is it oriented toward small
startups, or RBB (really big business), do they do exclusive licensing
or non-exclusive.

A similar approach is by studying the flood of domestic and foreign
patents that issue each year. If the patent is still owned by the
inventor, and not assigned to a big company, it is worth following up,
if it lies within your field of interest and manufacturing
capabilities. Patent issuing costs a lot of money---an invetor has a
strong interest in recovering some of it as fast as possible. I looked
at the Robert Green VAWT a few years back---not a huge market for it,
but a small steady income potential. Could have and would have made a
deal if my neighboring machinist buddy had not loaded up with so much
jobshop business that he couldn/t handle a proprietary item on top of it.

Sunday, August 29, 2004, 12:00 a.m. Pacific

/Permission to reprint or copy this article/photo *must* be obtained
from The Seattle Times. Call 206-464-3113 or e-mail
resale at seattletimes.com <mailto:resale at seattletimes.com> with your

**A Canadian way to make connections*

[Homestead] Kitchen table (or closet) tissue culture operation
tvoivozhd tvoivozd at infionline.net
Sun Jan 16 17:28:24 EST 2005

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Basic need is to reduce airborne contaminants, and reduce them further
with a HEPA filter. A good way is to make and work inside a plastic tent.

http://www.omnisterra.com/botany/cp/slides/tc/tc.htm (kitchen table
tissue culture)
Go for the plants that seem too expensive---blueberries would be a good
choice, or outside the garden and orchard category, expensive flowers.

http://www.kitchenculturekit.com/kitchenMess.jpg (graphic of one
version of a kitchen tissue culture lab.)

(Forget the autoclave, do your own sterilizing in a pressure cooker)

http://home.neo.rr.com/kuska/holmes_hap.htm (homemade clean-air
setup---total cost about $40)

http://www.tissuecon.com/aboutus2.htm (Indian website on bag culture,
other cheap innovations)

http://www.kitchenculturekit.com/SUPPLY.HTM (you need stuff like
balance scales, PH meter--for latter a cheap garden meter might work)

http://www.une.edu.au/%7Eagronomy/AgSSrHortTCinfo.html (good Australian


(more low-cost advice)

http://www.omnisterra.com/botany/cp/slides/tc/hood.htm (John Laroche
glove box, test tube or baby food jar rotator---you need this, a fine

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*By Luke Timmerman*
/Seattle Times business reporter/

VANCOUVER, B.C. -- If Angus Livingstone tried his freewheeling business
style at a university in Washington state, he would probably be fired.

Want lab space on campus for a business startup? Move into the
University of British Columbia. Want graduate students to work for the
company? No problem. Want to sponsor a university lab, direct the work
and leave a fraction of profits to the university? Go ahead.
Livingstone, the leader of UBC's technology-transfer office, can help.

Vancouver is a smaller high-tech or biotech center than Seattle, but the
city is gaining ground thanks in part to UBC's approach to
commercializing university inventions. Even though UBC gets one-fourth
the research funding of the University of Washington, the Canadian
school is spinning out more startup companies, winning more patents per
researcher and quickly increasing its income from technology licenses.

Livingstone said UBC's ground rules* *give him latitude to foster
connections between the public research university, where many
discoveries emerge, and the business world, which can develop them into
moneymaking products.

"We really have a lot more freedom to operate than our colleagues do in
Washington state," Livingstone said.

The UW, one of the nation's largest research centers, also has a
tradition of turning discoveries into businesses -- but under stricter
boundaries between public and private resources.

Alvin Kwiram, a former UW vice provost of research, said the university
has potential to spin out 10 to 15 companies a year -- not two, as it
did in 2002. But the UW's culture stymies cooperation with business, he

"The attitude here is, 'Don't stick your neck out, because if you make a
mistake, you'll get hammered,' " Kwiram said. "It's an underlying,
systemic malaise."

Ed Lazowska, the Bill & Melinda Gates Chair of Computer Science and
Engineering at the UW, worries the situation isn't improving.

"Research revenue is as high as ever, compared to peers, so it's not the
research activity that's slipping. It's the licensing, the patenting,
the company formation," Lazowska said.

* UBC favors business links *

At both the UW and UBC, like university research centers everywhere, a
professor's research into a subject like AIDS may be sponsored by
government agencies, a foundation or a corporation. The university's
tech-transfer office may seek a patent to guard any discoveries.

The university owns most intellectual property created on campus, and is
responsible for licensing it to businesses who can hone it into
something useful, and profitable, like a drug. If the company creates a
moneymaker, some royalties are plowed back into the university.

<JavaScript:EnlargePhoto('2002018770','');>GREG GILBERT / THE SEATTLE TIMES
Livingstone shows off a new office complex on the UBC campus that is
available for a company to conduct research.

If the patent has unusual potential, the university may work with
outsiders to build a new company, and possibly make bigger money by
taking shares in it.

The United States has a federal law, the Bayh-Dole Act of 1980, that
encourages universities to connect with business to put inventions to
productive use instead of letting them wilt on a shelf.

Canada has no policy to encourage university-business connections, but
the University of British Columbia has a history of cooperation. For
instance, Nobel Prize-winner Michael Smith of UBC was a co-founder of
Seattle's ZymoGenetics in 1981.

As Western Canada's timber-based economy shrank in the 1980s,
Livingstone said, the university and region badly wanted to diversify
the economy. They saw an opportunity to turn UBC's basic research into a
biotech industry that makes drugs or diagnostic tools.

"This business activity has been considered to be good, and part of the
academic responsibility, rather than something that's frowned upon,"
Livingstone said.

Livingstone is a soft-spoken man who uses business lingo like "synergy"
more than most in academia. He started in technology transfer at UBC 16
years ago in an office of seven people. He now has a staff of 37.

<JavaScript:EnlargePhoto('2002018771','');>GREG GILBERT / THE SEATTLE TIMES
Julia Levy worked simultaneously as chief executive of Vancouver,
B.C.-based biotech QLT and as a University of British Columbia scientist
-- a dual role uncommon for University of Washington researchers.

To stir up business, he's been given tools that could raise eyebrows in
the U.S.

Campus lab space is made available for startups. Researchers are
encouraged to divide time between academic and business interests; there
is no need to risk losing a tenured job if a startup fails. Graduate
students, available at bargain wages, can work on company projects.

Livingstone said his office has focused on building companies locally,
instead of mainly licensing technology to global companies. When a
researcher comes in with an invention, the office gets busy: It can
match the scientist with a venture capitalist, recruit a chief executive
and even help shape the business plan.

If a faculty inventor's idea needs more polishing, the office can find
more government money to do it. In at least one case, when a startup hit
a speed bump, UBC has provided a bridge loan to keep the company running
while it tried to raise more capital.

With those policies in action, UBC spun out 26 startups from 2000 to
2002, compared with 12 at the UW.

Many UBC startups have flopped, but some haven't. QLT of Vancouver has
become one of the world's few profitable biotech companies by developing
UBC research into a $400 million-a-year drug for macular degeneration,
an eye disease.

Julia Levy, a Vancouver biotech pioneer who for years doubled as chief
executive of QLT and a UBC scientist, said few locals question UBC's
close business ties. "Maybe it sounds Pollyanish, but people here
believe it's good for the country," Levy said. "We have to go from
having a research institution to a knowledge-based industry."


* UW is more wary *

The University of Washington consistently ranks among the nation's top
five institutions in research spending, with $684 million in 2002,
according to the Association of University Technology Managers. The
funding that year put it in the same league as state schools like the
University of Illinois and University of Wisconsin, and behind private
institutions Johns Hopkins and Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Each institution has its own strategy toward tech transfer. The UW
focuses on licensing technologies to existing companies with ability to
develop them, while others such as Yale and Caltech are more focused on
turning ideas into startups. Some schools, like Harvard, have become
more wary about business involvement in recent years. These colleges
cling to their missions of teaching and research and to avoid being
co-opted by business.

The UW is by any measure among the most experienced in technology
transfer. The university earns more than $20 million a year from its
technology licenses. Two of the most lucrative involve a hepatitis B
vaccine and a technique for manufacturing drugs. About 195 UW-related
startups have been founded over the decades, employing nearly 10,000.

But UW's tech-transfer system is in a slump.* *Research spending keeps
growing, but patenting, income from licenses and startup formation have
fallen in recent years, according to the Association of University
Technology Managers.

The UW office was leaderless for 15 months in 2001 and 2002, and staff
turnover was high. In 2000, the office halted all licensing for four
months because varying interpretations of the state Ethics Law stemming
from the mid-1990s made some officials think licensing any technology to
a company in which a UW employee had an interest was illegal, said Bob
Miller, the former director of tech transfer at UW.

Ethics became such a touchy subject, campus legends grew. One was that
it was against the rules to use a university computer for any personal
use, like to buy a book on Amazon.com.

Much of that confusion has been clarified through new interpretations of
ethics law.

Nearly two years ago, the university tried to turn things around by
hiring Jim Severson, a national leader in tech transfer from Cornell

He has won respect in and out of the university for being serious about
fixing things. His emphasis has been on improving the office's
customer-service approach, getting more licenses completed and working
with in-state companies. Severson said he wants the office to get better
at forming startups. The university has worked diligently with the state
Ethics Board to clarify what's in-bounds, he said.

But many in the business world believe Severson's hands are still tied,
because UW and state policies on business relationships are strict.

Severson said he would like to do some of the things UBC does --
providing lab space for startups, or getting government funding for his
office. He said the UW isn't able to write business plans or actively
create startups, because its staff of 50 is busy managing hundreds of
existing agreements.

But Severson says a line needs to be drawn on how far to go in
connecting with business, like with creating "virtual" companies that
pay to use university space.

He said handing off promising technology to businesses that put them to
work is important, but the UW cannot forget its other goals. He said
they are to teach, do research, and reach out to society, partly by
spreading knowledge through peer-reviewed papers.


* *

Severson said he wants the UW to be a catalyst for the knowledge
economy, but the university shouldn't be co-opted into being a "job
shop" for industry. University researchers, he said, should keep
thinking about ideas 10 to 15 years in the future, rather than the 2- to
3-year horizons of business.

Mac Parks, associate vice provost for research at the UW, said the
university wants businesses to support its work. But without strict
limits, the university could bias findings in favor of companies, allow
more secrecy in academia, or allow students to be exploited. Trust in
the university could be eroded, he said.

"It can start small, but over time what happens is a greater percentage
of work and payroll comes from the company," Parks said. "At some point,
it becomes apparent we no longer have a university lab, but a company
lab at the UW at a bargain rate that's not fulfilling its mission to
students and society."

Some business people who have dealt with the UW say it is overly
cautious, forbidding researchers from keeping a faculty job while
running a startup, or from serving on its board of directors.

Parks said that's a myth -- any of those conflicting roles by themselves
don't cross the line, he said, but if too many conflicts add up, as they
often do, administrators can say no.

At UBC, said Livingstone, rather than forbid certain relationships, the
university is careful to disclose and manage conflicts of interest, to
make sure the public interest is served. In his case, he serves on a
venture-capital board so he can better understand what investors want
from university technology.

But to manage the natural conflict -- so Livingstone doesn't abuse his
insider's view of university technology -- Livingstone cannot take
ownership in startups to line his own pockets. Because UBC manages its
conflicts, Livingstone said, the university has been able to prevent
people from abusing public resources -- the kind of scandal that could
sink the entire tech-transfer effort.

Miller, the former head of tech transfer at the UW and UBC, is now a
vice chancellor at the University of California, Santa Cruz. He said the
UBC system does a good job of balancing the public and private interest.

He tried to copy some of it at the UW in the 1990s, but couldn't.

"The Canadians by and large have a belief system that reinforces
government and believes in it, and Americans are much more skeptical,"
Miller said. "Canadians think, 'How can we manage conflicts of interest
and make this work?' Americans want to figure out, 'Who's the crook?' "

* Entrepreneurial edge? *

Miller said he doesn't think the different rules ultimately give
Vancouver a competitive edge over Seattle in the knowledge economy.
Canada poses other obstacles for startups in fields like biotech: high

[Homestead] Blueberry plants, kitchen table tissue culture
Tvoivozhd tvoivozd at infionline.net
Mon Nov 15 20:29:03 EST 2004

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(Georgia info on highbush, rabbiteye blueberries)

(USDA small farm blueberry advice)

(University of Minnesota recommendations)

(manual, mechanical harvesting, cooling blueberries)

(growing blueberries in Michigan)

(Rabbiteyes for Texas---and Woodard does best on this Appalachian
soil, climate)


(pdf file on spraying)

(whortleberries, bilberries, Indian staple food)

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(blueberries in Pennsylvania)

( list of plant nurseries)

(another list of nurseries and related topics)

(Weeks berry nursery)
(half-high blueberries from St Lawrence Nursery---pretty damned
expensive if you plant 1000 to 2000 per acre of your blueberry patch)

(so grow your own tissue-culture blueberry plants in your kitchen)

(commercial kitchen tissue culture kits, some free information)

(kitchen table tissue culture info from U.K. source)

(preparing plant tissue culture medium)

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individual taxes, a shallower pharmaceutical talent pool, less venture

The UW isn't at a great disadvantage compared with other U.S.
universities, either, Miller said, because all are fearful about
conflicts of interest.

Others, however, do see the UW in danger of getting left behind.

Carl Weissman, president of Accelerator, a startup incubator in Seattle,
recently tested the institutions. He proposed building a company that
would use samples from human tumors for drug development.

The trick, Weissman acknowledged, is how to handle the tumor data,
without violating patient privacy and letting it slip into improper
hands, like insurance companies.

The response from a UBC affiliate? We've done something similar already,
and we'll try.

The response from UW Medical School? It's nearly impossible; federal
privacy rules won't allow it.

More than anything, Weissman said, changing the UW's tech-transfer
practices to allow more flexibility would make Seattle's biotech hub
competitive with leaders such as Boston and San Francisco.

Without changes, he said, investors will migrate elsewhere and
enterprising researchers could leave.

"You can't attract the most innovative faculty if they can't participate
in the wealth that comes from their ideas," Weissman said.

/Luke Timmerman: 206-515-5644 or ltimmerman at seattletimes.com
<mailto:ltimmerman at seattletimes.com> /

Copyright <http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/news/general/copyright.html>

[Homestead] Dam design, was muscatel wine, tequila, Uuf da
Tvoivozhd tvoivozd at infionline.net
Tue Oct 5 16:22:00 EDT 2004

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Warren F. Smith wrote:

 >Good luck on getting a dam permitted. It just ain't like it used to be.
 >Maybe I could UPS you a few beavers; they avoid all the red tape.

tvoivozhd---they sure as hell did here last year, didn't ask my
permission for gnawing down a lot of big willows and pines I would
rather have kept as a source of log furniture, and the pines for shade
around a very good guest cabin construction site. Finally got rid of
them. The willows will grow back, the pines might, but it would take
fifteen years or more.

 >Some fellows were trying to get a dam permitted on their 900 acre hunt 
 >tract near here and were initially turned down. They hired a "dam
 >consultant" (retired US Corps of Engineers, naturally). He had a good 
 >made application to build TWELVE dams on the same site. Only got two
 >Here's an interesting site:
tvoivozhd---permitting varies a lot by State. In Florida, long after
digging ponds and canals was outlawed because of surface evaporation, a
friend of mine in Stuart got a maze of disconnected freshwater shrimp
and tilapia ponds permitted by describing them as a flood-control
project---and paid for it in advance by selling the underlying gravel to
the Florida State Road Department, which is always looking for cheap

When our dam was built, any dam under fifteen or sixteen feet was exempt
from permits---anything over that was regarded as a burst-hazard to
dounstream residents. Since my (my daughter's) needs are to empty the
grandfathered-in pond, bulldoze out the 12 feet of extremely fertile
silt, and build a small silt-catchment pond at the upstream line fence,
with a road across the top of the small dam, I'd feel safe doing as I
dam pleased. Would look into it anyway, and figure my daughter wood
too, as would most earthmoving contractors.


(Hot from a list. BETTER THAN CHAT ROOMS OR BLOGGING, those ole 
fashioned LISTS!)

I occasionally am known to stop by homesteaders' lists. The folks on my 
farm list are generous. They give great info,


and HOW TO PICK A CHAIN SAW. Or How city folks can move to the country 
and get the oldtimers to like and trust 'em!

Many a highly top-secret file have I built from their list-posts 
--mostly for my own perusing later, (fer when I get

some land.) Plus I pilfered a little charming frizz some goat keeper 
wrote on her goats intended to whet cityslickers'

hearts to move to the wild, to make city folks see that the rural life 
would have its charms. I confided in TIV, an

80 yr old Swedish farmer and one of the ancient doyennes of the list, 
that I was doing this.

"But if we entice everyone out of the cities, who is going to make my 
workboots? Or replacement rock guards for the

sicklebar? Or even those movies I never get around to seeing (the last 
movie I saw in a theater was Jurassic Park--the

first one). Division of labor is the way to go...everyone does what they 
like/do best and provides services and goods

to others. I for one don't want to have to learn how to do *everything* 
myself. There aren't enough hours in the day

for the things I have to learn now! If I had to provide for myself 100%, 
my standard of living would go down pretty


Would your friends really be happier planting a garden (and wrestling 
their meager corn crop away from coons)? Or

milking a goat at 6 am? Or dealing with sick animals or bugs eating 
their tomato plants or having snakes crawl into

their house?

Most people I knew in the city would be as miserable on a homestead as I 
was in the city. Don't make it look TOO

charming. We don't want them thinking that homesteading is Club Med with 
chickens. LOL!" TIV.

But there's constructive info too. Tiv recently answered a letter from a 
POSTER ON MY FARM LIST who'd said "let's have

a contest. The rules are, construct a freebie cheapo house. What would 
you use?

Before Tiv had answered, I'd shot back. "Well, it would have to be 
totally art troveau in my case, because in my world

there's not a nickle of extra cash so old country fields with abandoned 
lumber, or suburban alleys with same would

have to yield up my building materials. Could my fantasy county cottage 
really be built from just stuff that's lyin'


Then, Tiv stepped in. 'You'd be surprised how nice a house you can build 
for almost nothing. The trick is, build your

barn first. The reason is that as you collect wood and other stuff like 
a packrat you can store it in the barn. Offer

to deconstruct old barns that are falling apart and haul the timbers off 
for yourself. Hell, you might even get paid a

little to do it, too.

Sometimes you can actually get paid to go through condemned houses and 
remove any flammable accelerants and such, such

that when the house is demolished it won't blow up or catch fire. While 
you are in there you can ask the owners if you

can use anything you need, such as plumbing fixtures, windows, 
appliances, etc.

Just this week alone I saw about four ads on alocal for-sale news flyer 
for free washer/dryer or free fridge. They are

pretty common. Other appliances can also be had this way.

My wife showed me her grandmother's house. It is a small cottage, but 
has three(!) bedrooms and a library. From the

outside it looks quite small. Actually, most of the rooms *inside* are 
quite small. But I did notice that the house

was built quite solidly. No drafts. No squeaks. No creaks. I then found 
out the house was built entirely by scrounging

condemned homes back in the 1940's!!! Even the electrical wiring and 
plumbing was ripped from other houses. A few

years later, they built a small gambrel-roof barn the same way. Over 55 
years later, the house is still solid as

anything and will easily be around in another 55 years."

THE WORLD OF CHEAP CONCRETE, as viewed by TIV. The resident genius, a 
retired CONTRACTOR, now a FARMER. "Anything with

fibres in the mix. Steel fibre Dramix,
polypropylene fibres (more common and not so subject to clumping), glass 
fibre (should have alkali-resistant

treatment), organic fibres (chopped straw, rolled and chopped tree inner 
bark or
small branches, wood "excelsior), long, thin, curled strands produced by 
concave-toothed cylinder rotating with, not

across the grain of a log, recycled paper products (cardboard, kraft, 
newspapers etc. run through a garden shredder/

grinder), recycled and shredded carpeting, cloth remnants from clothing 
manufacturers, hemp, sisal, kenaf, coconut

coir and a lot of other things I have forgotten. Alkali in Portland does 
degrade organics over time, but if the thin-

shell wall or roof is overbuilt as it usually is, or if the 
architectural form is one that depends on compression-

strength rather than tensile,-- fibre degradation should not be of much 
concern. Examples, a dome, a vault (arch-

place the materials in compression. Horizontal flat surfaces would need 
support in some form, either separate in the

form of a beam, or integral in the form of deep corrugation, folded 
plate or channel, with rebar or asphalted bamboo

imbedded in the bottoms and tops. All concrete cracks because of 1/16 
inch shrinkage per ten feet in all. directions

as it dries and sets. The addition of fibres turns otherwise visually 
noticeable larger cracks into a myriad of tiny

ones invisible to the naked eye, and easily sealed against rain. The 
tensile strength, elasticity etc. of various

fibres does vary, so the length, diameter and material would be of 
concern to the engineer making his stress-

calculations in a large commercial building.

For the relatively small-scale homebuilder you need not do more than 
make up several small samples using varying type,

density of fibres in the mix, and thickness of the membrane. Let them 
set up, lay them across loose-stacked concrete

blocks, load them with sandbags until something breaks. If the breaking 
point exceeds the dead and anticipated live

load, (double the latter as a safety factor), your chosen fibre-cement 
mix and thickness is adequate to the intended


A young farmer chipped in: "What if you made a wall the following way: 
a) Stack concrete block, fill the cores with

rebar and concrete, and stucco the inside surface (strong enough for 
tornadoes, etc., and good thermal mass on the


Tiv answered. "I love concrete in its many forms and uses, especially as 
a binder in stone walls. I built the basement

under my kitchen with concrete blocks and a concrete floor. But this is 
information we should all know: I'm going to

give it to you. It's from a book.

"One does not need to conjecture long about the negative, anti-life 
characteristics of Portland cement. The harmonics

of natural lime is utterly destroyed by heating this rock to the 
extremely high
temperatures of 2700 degrees F. and by grinding it to fine dust. There 
is little wonder that the end product, cement,

is an unbreathing building material. Used to make concrete, it thus 
becomes an
exceptionally hard, dense, heavy building material. For structural 
integrity it is unsurpassed, particularly when

reinforced with steel. It is also fireproof, doesn't rot, requires 
minimum maintenance, and spans great distance. Yet,

for all of these characteristics, it is inappropriate to healthy home 

"The Portland Cement Association has been so successful in promoting 
their product that we forget to ask pertinent

questions about its manufacture, cost, and impact on the environment and 
human health. "Concrete housing creates an

interference zone which deflects and intensifies electromagnetic radiation.

"There are two features of reinforced concrete that contribute to its 
undesirability as a building material. Steel

reinforcing rods buried in concrete create a Faraday cage inside the 
structure. Also when depth aggregate is used in

the concrete mix this further inhibits any possibility of a concrete 
wall's breathing. Depth stones, also called

plutonic stones because they are often carried up by plutonic or 
volcanic forces from great depths in the earth, have

great hardness (e.g., granite), high specific weight (e.g., lava), and 
low porosity (e.g., basalt). They also emit

considerable background radiation themselves. Stones from surface 
deposits, called neptunic stones, are satisfactory

for use as aggregate.

"Concrete does not have to be made with Portland cement nor involve the 
use of depth stone aggregate . . . I have

resorted to using vegetable-related building materials that are not only
organically healthy but less expensive and more of a joy to work with .

The most promising alternative to Portland cement is the return to using 
lime cement. A house of lime is a healthy

house. There exists no empirical evidence to date that anyone has died 
of living in
a house of reinforced concrete, although in Germany the term 'bunker 
disease' is used to indicate concrete-related


That's from pages 75-77 of Ken Kern's book, The Healthy House, c. 1978. 
As most of you know, Kern also authored or co

-authored The Owner-Built Home, The Owner-Built Homestead, The 
Owner-Builder and the Code, and Stone Masonry. He was

an architect, a builder and a homesteader.

Another lister said he'd heard that "just pouring" won't work...so I'm 
about ready at last to concede your strongly

grain-enhanced wisdom and adopt your suggestion.

One question: the "premix" surface bond cement (with the fibers already 
in) is pretty expensive. I've heard that you

can buy the fibers and (obviously) the cement materials separately, and 
make your own inexpensive mix. The question

is, exactly what "stuff" does one buy--e.g., bags of long-strand 
loose-fill fiberglass insulation plus cement plus

sand (suggestions on "where" also appreciated)? And how do you mix those 
materials (proportions, etc.)?

U.S. Army, Corps of Engineers developed surface bonding. A good formula 
is as follows:

Portland 19 1/2 lbs
Lime 3 3/4 lbs
Calcium Stearate 1/2 lb
Calcium Chloride 1/2 lb
Glass fiber 1 lb
Water 1 1/2 gallon

Note that the glass fiber should be treated for alkali resistance or use 
polypropylene fiber.

Depending where and in what quantity you get the raw materials, this
goop applied at a recommended 1/8 inch thickness will probably cost all
of ten or fifteen cents a square foot, at a fraction of the cost of
buying, mixing and applying mortar-joints. As an added bonus besides the
increased strength, the wall will be practically waterproof. Another
wild thought. Every carpet contractor is surrounded by dumpsters full of
old carpeting---big disposal job. Take some of it off his hands, support
it with temporary arch or geodesic scaffolding, trowel or pump fibrous
concrete firmly into the nap. Safely lead elephants over it after it has
dried. Paint a coat of penetrating hydrophobic Xypex or equivalent on it
for waterproofing. Good for temporary housing and lot cheaper than tent
or yert while building your dream home.


On Sun, 28 Nov 2004 15:43:35 -0500, tvoivozhd wrote:

 > tvoivozd---Hybrid poplars, like hybrid willows like Charolais X Angus
 > cattle grow faster than non-hybrids---a characteristic of hybrid vigor
 > My observation (not research) is that poplar grows well wherever
 > moisture-loving willows do, but not as fast, but the Matsudana X Salix
 > Alba is not as brittle as the huge Wisconsin willow---good for making
 > willow furniture. If you have acid soil the Tulip Magnolia would be
 > much better to grow for construction purposes. It grows almost as fast
 > as hybrids, and straight as a string, you don't have to continuously lop
 > off branches to get a good sawlog---unlike poplars awillows. Lumber has
 > to be treated the same way---works fine if kept under roof and dry.
 > Tulip Magnolia is even good for vertical siding (not horizontal), as
 > long as siding bottoms do not touch the ground where moisture can wick
 > up. I prefer a thicker and cheaper 10/eighths siding if you buy it from
 > a sawmill.

tvoivozhd---Grancrete may be one of the best building materials 
developed since mud bricks with straw.

*“Spray-on homes” invented*

* *

*Technology may help the poor, its developers say*

Posted December 26, 2004
Courtesy Argonne National Laboratory
and World Science staff *
Researchers say they have found a way to build cheap, sturdy homes in 
one day by spraying a quick-drying ceramic onto

flimsy frames. The technology could help the world’s poor, of which the 
United Nations estimates there are 1.3

billion, they say.


Creating a home of Grancrete. (courtesy Argonne National Laboratory)

*Scientists at Argonne National Laboratory, a U.S. government facility 
in Argonne, Illinois, and Casa Grande LLC, a

Mechanicsville, Virginia-based company, developed the technology. They 
say they will make it available worldwide after

testing whether the homes are earthquake and hurricane resistant.

The ceramic is called Grancrete. The researchers say that when sprayed 
onto a crude frame made of Styrofoam, Grancrete

dries to form a light, hard surface. This creates a dwelling much better 
than the flimsy structures in which many poor

people live.

Grancrete is based on an Argonne-developed material called Ceramicrete, 
developed in 1996 to encase nuclear waste,

according to Argonne’s Explorer Magazine. Ceramicrete thus prevents 
pollutants from leaking into the environment, the

magazine reported. Grancrete also netted its developers an award from 
R&D Magazine as one of the “100 most

technologically significant new products” of 2004.

Casa Grande president Jim Paul told Explorer that his company became 
involved with the technology because initially,

it was was looking for a concrete substitute for American industry. The 
need arose because concrete erodes in acidic

conditions. “But as I traveled in Venezuela, I recognized the demand for 
cheap housing, and I thought about how to use

our material for that,” he told the magazine.

Paul then collaborated with Argonne’s Arun Wagh to create Grancrete.

Grancrete is stronger than concrete, is fire resistant and withstands 
both tropical and below-freezing temperatures,

the developers said; it keeps homes in arid regions cool, and those in 
frigid regions warm.

To build a home, Grancrete is sprayed onto Styrofoam walls, to which it 
adheres and dries, according to the

developers. The Styrofoam remains in place as an effective insulator, 
although Wagh suggests simpler walls, such as

woven fiber mats, also would work well and further reduce the raw 
materials required.

Using Grancrete in developing countries has additional advantages, says 

“When you build houses in these poor villages, the materials you use 
should be indigenous, and the labor should be

indigenous,” he told the magazine. “Every village has soil and ash, and 
the labor and training requirements are so

minimal that two local people can build a house in two days.”

Workers only need two days of training to learn how to operate the 
machinery, Paul told the publication. Casa Grande

typically assembles a team of five people who can start in the morning 
and create a home that residents can move into

that evening, he asserted. The material dries in minutes, he added, 
whereas concrete can take hours or days.

Grancrete is made from an environmentally friendly mix of locally 
available chemicals, according to the developers. It

consists of sand or sandy soil, ash, magnesium oxide and potassium 
phosphate, which is a biodegradable element in

fertilizer. So even if Grancrete were to decompose, Wagh told the 
magazine, it would revitalize the soil.

It costs about $6,000 U.S. dollars to build a Grancrete home, Paul told 
Explorer, several times cheaper than a

conventionally built home. The homes are more than four simple walls, 
the developers added; for less than $10,000 U.S

., laborers can produce Grancrete dwellings twice of 800 square feet, 
twice the size of a typical apartment in Bombay,


Wagh’s said he aims to see Grancrete used throughout his native India 
and the world to produce housing for the poor.

Born in the Indian state of Karnataka, Wagh grew up in a neighborhood 
where even to this day the homes have walls and

ceilings made from knitted mats of palm leaves, and the floors are made 
of dried cow dung, according to Explorer


“These homes are regularly subjected to hundreds of inches of monsoon 
rains and cyclone winds and therefore often have

to be repaired or even entirely rebuilt,” Wagh told the publication. 
“Obviously such conditions can have a great

impact on the health, well-being, and longevity of the children and 
adults living there.”

The spray-on cement now offers hundreds of millions of people such as 
these the opportunity to have adequate housing

and live longer, healthier lives, he told the publication.

Argonne and Casa Grande have extensively tested Grancrete for structural 
properties, post-application behavior and

production costs, the developers said. Their next step will be to test 
it for earthquake and hurricane resistance,

after which they will make the product available worldwide. Wagh hopes 
the United Nations and other international

organizations will subsidize mass-scale production around the world.*

Lisa Perry wrote:

 > Architect Sarah Susanka, author of The Not So Big House series, was 
featured this morning in an article in The

Roanoke Times. Roanoke was chosen as the city to host the international 
C2C Home Design Competition (C2C stands for

Cradle to Cradle, from a book entitled Cradle to Cradle: Remaking the 
Way we Make Things). She was one of the

architects to judge the winning design which will be built in Roanoke.
 > www.notsobighouse.com/
 > www.*susanka*.com/
 > tvoivozhd---yeah, I wish I were in good enough shape to go talk to 
her. I agree with Gene---the houses she actually

builds are two times or more larger than my mental picture of a good 
small house, and the damned things have a too-

complicated roof structure, in addition to two stories---hardly a 
Usonian clone. I suspect giantism is still too

firmly imbedded in the housing market for an architect to make a living 
designing small houses in the 1000 to 1300

square foot range.. When I was in the land development and tract housing 
business, most of my houses were 1000 to 1200

square feet. Used an onsite mobile home for sales, and it was so busy it 
looked like a doctor's office.

Here is my favorite, which my oldest daughter will probably build on 
this property---The view unfortunately is north,

so those windows will require some type of ihsulation---I favor double 
glass with a foam-generator. Years ago I would

have gone for a Zomeworks beadwall. A foam-generator is a lot less complex.



Plan No. K-688-D 1340 square feet.



(floor plan)

I would make some changes---no basement and use the stair well as a pantry.

Also, take out the partition between kitchen counter and dining room.

The main entry should point straight south and a greenhouse wall run 
from the corner of bedroom #2 to the far corner

of the garage.

The fireplace should be removed---and at the corner of that wall and 
bathroom wall, a bricked corner to receive a

small backup woodstove, with double-wall stainless stovepipe going 
through roof above. Nobody needs a fireplace stuck

in the center of the best view, and nobody needs a fireplace anyway. I 
might add a tip-in firewood container to feed

the backup woodstove---but would add it later in any event. The 
greenhouse and house slab thermal storage should do

sufficiently well to heat the house even in our coldest weather.

I would probably also alter the eyebrow ---the plan says it is a 
clerestory (a good idea) but it really isn't.

Clerestories are great for light and ventilation, with enough overhang 
to keep out the summer sun. I guess the

eyebrow thing is supposed to be cute---I do not find it to bel I would 
extend it to light the interior better and

forget about being cute.

Someone wrote " I've heard that "just pouring" won't
work...so I'm about ready at last to concede
your strongly grain-enhanced wisdom and adopt
your suggestion.

One question: the "premix" surface bond cement
(with the fibers already in) is pretty expensive.
I've heard that you can buy the fibers and (obviously)
the cement materials separately, and make your
own inexpensive mix. The question is, exactly what
"stuff" does one buy--e.g., bags of long-strand
loose-fill fiberglass insulation plus cement plus sand
(suggestions on "where" also appreciated)? And how
do you mix those materials (proportions, etc.)?

Thanks as always for your exciting and insightful
moments of inter-brew lucidity.

tvoivozhd>>>na-a-ah, you'll have to wait too long for one of those
tragically brief moments of lucidity to reoccur.

U.S. Army, Corps of Engineers developed surface bonding. A good formula
is as follows:

Portland 19 1/2 lbs
Lime 3 3/4 lbs
Calcium Stearate 1/2 lb
Calcium Chloride 1/2 lb
Glass fiber 1 lb
Water 1 1/2 gallon

Note that the glass fiber should be treated for alkali resistance or use
polypropylene fiber.

Depending where and in what quantity you get the raw materials, this
goop applied at a recommended 1/8 inch thickness will probably cost
all of ten or fifteen cents a square foot, at a fraction of the cost of
buying, mixing and applying mortar-joints. As an added bonus besides
the increased strength, the wall will be practically waterproof.

You may visit this list and may even find ole encyclopaedia with legs, 
like our late TIV.

Reply-To: homestead at listserv.oit.unc.edu
To: homestead at listserv.oit.unc.edu


One day our Homesteader listers were talking about retrieving old wood 
from nearby farms. One lister said that he'd

had a cabinet maker build furniture out of the rustic, aged wood, it was 
that good.

Another l

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