[Homestead] Behavior of herds, schools, flocks and voters

tvoivozhd tvoivozd at infionline.net
Mon Feb 7 08:14:44 EST 2005

Source:     Princeton University    
Date:     2005-02-05

Flocking Together: Study Shows How Animal Groups Find Their Way

A study led by Princeton biologists has revealed a remarkably simple 
mechanism that allows flocking birds, schooling fish or running herds to 
travel in unison without any recognized leaders or signaling system.

The finding, published in the Feb. 3 issue of Nature, helps settle 
age-old questions about how animals coordinate their actions. 
Previously, scientists had looked for subtle signals or other explicit 
systems that animals may use in disseminating information through 
groups. The new study showed that such complexity is not necessary: 
Large groups easily make accurate decisions about where to go even when 
no individuals are regarded as leaders and very few individuals have any 
pertinent information.

In addition to shedding light on the graceful coordination of animal 
groups, the results may be useful in understanding how humans behave in 
crowds and in designing robots that explore remote locations such as the 
ocean or other planets.

"When you see apparently complex behaviors, the mechanisms that 
coordinate these behaviors may be surprisingly simple and generic," said 
Iain Couzin, a postdoctoral researcher in Princeton's Department of 
Ecology and Evolutionary Biology and lead author of the study.

Using computer simulations, the researchers found that group 
coordination arises naturally from two basic instincts: the need to stay 
in a group; and the desire by some individuals to act on their own 
information about where to go. First, the researchers programmed their 
simulated animals with a basic urge to stay near others, but not collide 
with them. This instinct alone caused individuals to form close-knit, 
evenly spaced groups like those of real animals, which pay a high price 
-- such as being eaten -- if they stray from their group.

Second, a few animals were programmed to have a preferred direction, as 
if aware of a food source or other valued destination. These animals 
were instructed to balance their desire to move toward their goal with 
their desire to stay in the group. In repeated simulations, it required 
only a few individuals with specific goals to set hundreds of others on 
the same course.

"It demonstrates the power of the little guy," said Daniel Rubenstein, 
chair of ecology and evolutionary biology. "You don't need avowed 
leaders, you don't need complex signaling."

In the simulations, a small number of "informed" individuals was just 
about as effective in leading a large group as a small one. When the 
size of the group increased from 10 to 200, the percentage of informed 
individuals needed to accurately guide the group reduced from 
approximately 50 percent to less than 5 percent. As a result, the number 
of informed individuals required to lead a small group was about the 
same as the number needed to lead a large one, Couzin said

The researchers extended their experiments by introducing two subgroups 
with differing preferences about which direction to move. The overall 
group consistently chose the direction preferred by the bigger subgroup 
even if the two subgroups differed in size by only one member, 
demonstrating that groups can come to an accurate consensus decision 
even though individuals are not aware of the preferences of others or 
whether they are in a majority or minority.

Couzin, who divides his time between Princeton and Oxford University, 
collaborated with Simon Levin of Princeton as well as Jens Krause of the 
University of Leeds and Nigel Franks of the University of Bristol.

In addition to its biological insights, the research may provide ideas 
for designing robots that work together in groups, said Couzin, who has 
collaborated with roboticists at Princeton on designs for fleets of 
underwater vehicles.

"Say you had a group of robots exploring a planet or the ocean, and each 
individual robot was moving around collecting information locally," he 
said. "By returning to the group and following the type of algorithm we 
propose, they could select collectively the direction associated with 
the best quality information or select collectively the majority direction."

Couzin and colleagues are now testing their findings in experiments with 
animals, such as schools of fish in which a few have been taught to seek 
food in a certain location. He also believes the results may shed light 
on how people move in crowds and is currently organizing experiments 
that test the principles in large groups of student volunteers.

Editor's Note: The original news release can be found here.

This story has been adapted from a news release issued by Princeton 
8:09 AM 2/7/2005

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