[Homestead] Education, don't be afraid to experiment, copy what works

Tvoivozhd tvoivozd at infionline.net
Thu Sep 23 00:47:51 EDT 2004

Small schools are an obvious choice for experiment. Not so long ago 
there were NO larrge schools.

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from the September 21, 2004 edition

Chicago hope: 'Maybe /this /will work.'
A struggling urban district invests in the belief that smaller will 
prove to be better.
By Amanda Paulson 
| Staff writer of The Christian Science Monitor
CHICAGO – Come next fall, Chicago's DuSable High School, one of the 
city's most historic - and lowest performing - schools on the South 
Side, will be reborn as several small schools.

Douglas, Austin, and a handful of other elementary and high schools, 
some of which have already been closed, will also get a major makeover.

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Those new schools, however, are just the beginning of one of the most 
ambitious school reform projects ever undertaken. Cities across the 
United States will be watching closely as - over the next six years - 
Chicago shuts some 60 schools and creates 100 new ones.

Beyond just closing and opening schools, the plan is one of the broadest 
endorsements yet of the "small schools" philosophy that has taken root 
over the past decade. Almost all the new schools will have a small 
number of students - less than 500 - and will emphasize personalized 
learning and greater staff and student interaction.

In some respects, however, the plan is also the district's way of 
admitting that it doesn't have all the answers when it comes to 
bolstering some of its lowest-performing schools. That's why the doors 
are being thrown open to outside experts who will be invited in to share 
their expertise.

Only about a third of the new schools will be run by the district. The 
rest will be charters or contract schools run by independent 
organizations, and all will be subject to five-year reviews. Those that 
don't make the grade can expect to be reformed anew.

It's a bold and risky plan that is creating a fair amount of controversy 
here in the city and has been called by turns visionary or foolhardy.

Parents worry their kids will be guinea pigs, facing a different school 
and educational philosophy every few years, and some experts question 
the advisability of putting so much faith in structures - like small 
schools or charters - for which little long-term data are available.

Others say that given the dire straits of public education in big cities 
like Chicago, a plan like this is the only thing that could work - a 
large-scale project that doesn't just shuffle people around but 
drastically reenvisions the landscape of urban education.

"It's loaded with incredible opportunity but also with significant 
challenges," says Timothy Knowles, director of the Center for Urban 
School Improvement at the University of Chicago. He, like others who 
cautiously endorse the plan, says the real test is in details, such as 
finding and training talented staff. "It's going to require people and 
institutions to stretch further than they have if it's going to be 
successful. But if you're gazing into the eyes of a class of 
kindergarten students and asking yourself, is this the right thing, I 
think the answer is: compared to the status quo, absolutely."

Parents and education activists don't necessarily agree.

Last week, the district released a draft policy for Renaissance 2010, as 
the plan is formally known, and over the next few months officials and 
community members will be hashing out the details of just what the first 
new schools will look like. But even before the written plan came out, 
some groups, particularly in the areas most affected, have been airing 
their doubts.

In South Chicago, where a large percentage of the affected schools are 
located, residents worry about constantly shifting students from one 
school to another. They also complain about the lack of voice they've 
had in forming this plan and wonder why these changes are coming only 
now that public housing is being dismantled and many neighborhoods are 
facing gentrification. At the heart of the rumblings is a deep distrust 
of a city government that hasn't always been open and up front in the past.

Credibility problems

"[The district] has no credibility with the community about the 
decisions they're making," says Julie Woestehoff, director of Parents 
United for Responsible Education, a parent activist group. "Their idea 
of community involvement is coming with a PowerPoint presentation, doing 
a dog-and-pony show, listening to people say they don't like the program 
and moving it to the next place."

Ms. Woestehoff worries in particular about the future of local school 
councils (LSCs) - elected bodies with high parent representation that 
govern current schools but which won't necessarily be a part of the new 
charter or contract schools - as well as the effect of multiple 
transfers on kids.

"Parents don't want their kids to be experimented on," she says. 
"They're tired of it. We've had an awful lot of it in Chicago over the 
past decades."

Indeed, this is a city that has been at the forefront of school reform 
since the mid-1980s, with a mixed bag of successes and misses. This 
newest plan might be considered the third wave of school reform, after 
changes to school governance (and the beginning of LSCs) in 1988 and the 
move toward accountability - which included reconstituting failing 
schools - in the 1990s.

When Chicago closed and reconstituted several schools back then, 
staffing was the key issue, says G. Alfred Hess, director of the Center 
for Urban School Policy at Northwestern University. "The last 15 percent 
of new hires they were simply exchanging each other's staff," he says, 
even though turnover was required. "If you keep the same teachers, and 
change the structure but don't change the way they relate to kids, 
you're not likely to see changes in student achievement."

Proponents of the Renaissance plan argue that this wave of closings will 
be very different from simply reconstituting schools. It will be instead 
an overhaul of philosophy, size, and, in particular, governance. Each 
new school will be based on a proposal drawn up by community members on 
a transitional advisory council, or TAC. While the district will review 
the schools' performance, the specifics - whether the school will be 
charter, contract, or district-run; whether it will have a local school 
council or appointed board; whether its employees will be union members 
- will vary widely.

In the past, every new school, every idea for reform, came from the 
central district office, says Greg Richmond, who is overseeing 
Renaissance 2010. This plan is, in a sense, an acknowledgment by the 
district that it doesn't have all the answers and a hope that by opening 
the doors to outside groups, to principals and teachers and education 
reformers with creative ideas of their own, some successful ideas will 
find fertile ground.

"We want to be able to find people with not just ideas, but with their 
own experiences and autonomy," Mr. Richmond says. "We want to be able to 
have a portfolio of people who will run good schools and have a track 
record, so that we can go to one of a dozen or two dozen proven 
organizations and replace a school that doesn't work with one that does."

Where Richmond and other proponents see flexibility and the potential 
for innovation, however, some residents see an abdication of responsibility.

"What you hear is less red tape, less bureaucracy, more autonomy," says 
Shannon Bennett, assistant director of the Kenwood-Oakland Community 
Organization in South Chicago. "To us that sounds like less 
accountability to parents and communities.... We're desperate for 
change, but out of all these schools that will open up, how many of 
these models have been proven?"

Mr. Bennett's point, that little research backs up the idea that 
charters, or small schools, necessarily have better performance, is a 
central criticism of Chicago's plan. Several experts have questioned the 
idea of such a major overhaul when it's unclear if the alternatives will 
be an improvement.

Are small schools really the answer?

"It's easy to be enthusiastic about creating something new, but I think 
what the charter experiment has taught us is that it's a lot harder to 
run highly effective schools than one might think at the beginning, and 
there's a lot of stored-up know-how and practice at the existing 
schools," says Archon Fung, a professor of public policy at Harvard 
University's Kennedy School of Government. "Why are reformers so 
interested in revolutionary solutions to school reform when nobody can 
say with confidence that any particular revolutionary solution is better 
than any other?"

In fact, there are data out there, but they are hardly conclusive. 
Charters have had mixed press nationwide lately, but the laws that 
govern them vary from state to state. In Chicago, they've done fairly 
well - better, on average, than district schools, according to a Chicago 
Board of Education study.

As for small schools, they have consistently better attendance, lower 
dropout rates, and fewer detentions. But improved academic performance 
has been tougher to prove.

It isn't so much that small schools by themselves are the answer, says 
Tom Vander Ark, director for education at the Bill and Melinda Gates 
Foundation, which has given millions of dollars to create small schools 
around the country and in Chicago. "They only make success possible."

Other than a few selective schools that serve wealthy communities or 
require entrance exams, "there are no successful large high schools," he 
says. "We think every urban area in America should be working as 
aggressively as Chicago."

Even the most ardent supporters of the plan acknowledge that the next 
few years may be hard on some parents and students, and that having even 
one school close - much less 50 or 60 - can be traumatic.

While Richmond consoles himself with the idea that if a new school 
fails, he can replace it with a better one, that's less comforting to a 
parent whose child has spent five years in the school that didn't work.

Still, the argument goes, the new schools can hardly be worse than the 
status quo, and hopefully, they'll be better.

The teachers union, the LSC advocates, the parents with kids in closing 
schools - "all these groups have good arguments and legitimate 
concerns," says Professor Knowles. "I think the test is not to throw 
away the whole initiative, but rather to look closely at the results as 
these schools open."

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