[Homestead] Acid streams, acid lakes, acid oceans

Tvoivozhd tvoivozd at infionline.net
Thu Sep 9 15:07:04 EDT 2004

All destroy marine life, but what the hell---who needs to sequester 
carbon----not the Republicrats.

	The Christian Science Monitor - csmonitor.com 

from the September 09, 2004 edition - 

    Oceans to acid

*Oceans act as giant sponges for CO2 - but what eases global warming 
harms marine life.*

*By Peter N. Spotts 
| Staff writer of The Christian Science Monitor

Call it the case of the missing "greenhouse gas." For years, scientists 
have been trying to figure out where carbon dioxide goes once humans 
generate it. Significant amounts billow into the atmosphere. But each 
year, atmospheric CO2 concentrations have been rising only half as fast 
as humans supply the gas.

The hiding place, it turns out, is the world's oceans. And the 
implications for marine life are troubling, researchers say. If 
industrial CO2 emissions continue to increase at their current rate, by 
the end of the century the surface waters of the world's oceans are 
likely to become more acidic. Though the change appears subtle, it could 
threaten key organisms at the base of the marine food chain and further 
endanger shallow-water reefs, which represent some of the most 
biologically productive ecosystems on the planet. The absorption of this 
extra carbon dioxide would induce changes in ocean chemistry not seen 
for at least 20 million years, some researchers say.

"A lot has been said about carbon dioxide in the atmosphere" and its 
impact on climate, says John Raven, a marine biologist at the University 
of Dundee in Scotland. But geophysical chemistry also "has pretty firmly 
established that when CO2 in the atmosphere dissolves into the ocean, 
the surface ocean will become more acidic. That is something that /is/ 

The oceans have been viewed as a potential brake on global warming 
through natural and engineered approaches to storing carbon- dioxide 
there. Ironically, it now seems that increased ocean uptake of CO2 "is 
not a good thing overall," he says.

One sign of growing concern over the issue comes from Britain, where the 
Royal Society - Britain's equivalent to the US National Academy of 
Sciences - late last month commissioned a six-month study to see what 
current research has to say about the ocean's carbon uptake and its 
effect on marine life. Prime Minister Tony Blair, who is slated to 
become president of the Group of Eight industrial countries next year, 
is said to have climate change high on his list of priorities for the 
next G-8 meeting. The Royal Academy study is expected to play a key role 
in those discussions.

The Royal Academy's announcement came a month after research results 
appeared in the US journal Science that solved the mystery of the 
missing CO2 and considered its biochemical consequences.

A research team, led by marine chemist Christopher Sabine, took on the 
herculean task of compiling a global picture of the oceans' CO2 uptake, 
based on measurements from some 70,000 samples of seawater. The samples 
were collected worldwide during two large oceanographic projects in the 
late 1980s and 1990s aimed at measuring ocean circulation and the 
movement of carbon through the system.

"We've known for years that the oceans take up a significant amount of 
carbon dioxide," says Dr. Sabine, with the Pacific Marine Environmental 
Laboratory in Seattle, part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric 
Administration (NOAA). "But we haven't been able to quantify it based on 
direct measurements until now."

 From 1800 to 1994, the team estimates, the oceans soaked up 48 percent 
of the carbon emitted from human activities, such as burning wood, coal, 
oil, or gas. Thus, the oceans are currently storing about a third of 
their long-term potential, the team concluded.

The real surprise, however, came from the impact the results had on the 
overall picture of the globe's carbon cycle,

When the team added the carbon stored in the oceans to the carbon stored 
in the atmosphere, the total exceeded emissions from human activities 
alone. After carefully reviewing their data and calculations, they 
concluded that the "extra" CO2 came from changes in land use, such as 
deforestation. This suggests that during the same period, the planet's 
terrestrial bio-sphere became a net source of, rather than a sink for, 
carbon dioxide.

Marine biologists, meanwhile, worry about what happens to that carbon 
once the oceans take it up.

When carbon dioxide mixes with seawater, it forms a weak carbonic acid. 
Over millions of years, erosion has supplied the oceans with vast 
amounts of dissolved calcium from weathered rock on the continents. This 
provides a natural buffer against the acid, creating chemical conditions 
to which some key forms of marine life are finely tuned.

Over the past five years, however, evidence has been mounting that 
rising CO2 levels could pose major challenges to these life forms by 
altering this balance.

By some measures, rising CO2 levels during the industrial age already 
have increased the oceans' acidity by roughly 0.1 pH units. By the end 
of this century, the reduction could reach 0.4 units. That may not sound 
like much, but researchers point out that each whole-number shift in pH 
represents a 10-fold change.

Thus, to some marine organisms, a pH shift of 0.4 toward the acid end of 
the scale could lead to dramatic changes.

By the middle of the next century, for example, coral reefs in shallow 
waters could lose up to 30 percent of the calcium carbonate they need to 
build their structures, calculates an international research group led 
by Joan Kleypas, a marine biologist at the National Center for 
Atmospheric Research in Boulder, Colo. That could lead to stunted growth 
or other effects, which could make them more vulnerable to erosion or 
storm damage.

Also, increased CO2 levels caused key plankton species to create badly 
formed or incomplete calcium carbonate shells, according to a team led 
by Ulf Riebesell with the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine 
Research in Bremerhaven, Germany. In lab experiments the ratio of shell 
to the rest of the organism dropped by as much as 52 percent.

"We've only just scratched the surface on this issue," says Victoria 
Fabry, a biologist at the California State University at San Marcos who 
specializes in plankton ecology. Preliminary results from her own 
studies show that when water is "undersaturated" with a certain form of 
calcium carbonate, the shells of tiny plankton-like creatures start 
dissolving within 48 hours.

Ironically, chemistry that threatens the organisms can help the 
atmosphere. As shells and other calcium-carbonate clothing dissolve, it 
returns minerals to the seawater that can help the oceans soak up more 
CO2. Research by a team led by Richard Feely, also with NOAA's lab in 
Seattle, notes up to 60 percent of the calcium carbonate formed each 
year dissolves in the upper 2,000 meters of the ocean, making it readily 
available as a buffer. But it also could be reducing the amount of 
carbon that falls to the deep ocean, where it is cached for centuries, 
or gets buried in sediments.

The net effect of these processes remains unclear both for the 
atmosphere and marine ecosystems - leading researchers to undertake more 
detailed studies. Next year researchers will head to sea to gather more 
information on the amount of carbon the ocean is taking in to see what 
changes may be taking place.

"The world ocean is one of the great commons of the human race," says 
Dr. Raven. "We're all stakeholders, and what we're doing influences it."

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