[b-hebrew] Samaritan Pentateuch On-Line?

C L sigebryht at yahoo.com
Fri Mar 22 12:01:10 EDT 2013

Dear Carla,

Thank you for posting the notice about the Samaritan Pentateuch. Volume 1 is available for download at archive.org, thanks to being out of copyright: http://archive.org/details/derhebrischepent01gall. I was reading it a bit this morning, and it is fantastic. So far, the copy I have seen is very clear, and the citation of textual witnesses along the left margin is a very welcome feature. Would that other critical editions cited their witnesses in this fashion.

Does anyone know where we might be able to download the remaining volumes in this set? They do not appear to be on archive.org, but volumes 2-5 must surely be out of copyright.


Christopher Lovelace

There is a print edition in modern Hebrew script of the Samaritan Pentateuch:
Der Hebräische Pentateuch derSamaritaner;
August Freiherrnvon Gall, editor
Alfred TöpelmannVerlag, 1918

Best wishes,
Carla Sulzbach

> From: "b-hebrew-request at lists.ibiblio.org" <b-hebrew-request at lists.ibiblio.org>
>To: b-hebrew at lists.ibiblio.org 
>Sent: Wednesday, March 20, 2013 12:00 PM
>Subject: b-hebrew Digest, Vol 123, Issue 17
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>Today's Topics:
>   1. Re: P R (H/"Pharaoh"" Three Meanings (JimStinehart at aol.com)
>   2. Re: Samaritan Pentateuch (George Athas)
>In analyzing PR(H [“Pharaoh”] in the received 
alphabetical text on the assumption that this Biblical Egyptian name was 
originally written down in Akkadian cuneiform, let’s examine how Egyptian aleph 
and Egyptian ayin come out in the Akkadian cuneiform of the Amarna Letters.  You will quickly see that in Akkadian 
cuneiform, Egyptian ayin cannot be distinguished from Egyptian aleph.
>As I noted previously, Amarna Letter EA 29 features mAat 
being spelled as mu-u, where the same Akkadian vowel U is used for both Egyptian aleph and Egyptian ayin.
>But now let’s see how Akkadian cuneiform A can also 
represent both Egyptian aleph and Egyptian ayin.  In Amarna Letter EA 1: 2 written by 
Amenhotep III himself, mAat is written, as you point out, as mu-a.  To me, that means that the Akkadian 
vowel A can stand for Egyptian ayin, although you oddly opt for seeing no ayin 
whatsoever being written down by Amenhotep III.  Without getting bogged down as to that 
one example, however, it is easy to confirm that Egyptian ayin could be 
represented by the Akkadian vowel A.  That is the case in the Egyptian name ap-pi-xa in four different Amarna 
Letters, including EA 105: 35, and the Egyptian name xa-ip in four different Amarna Letters, including EA 107: 16, where the Akkadian cuneiform vowel A is 
used for Egyptian ayin.
>But the Akkadian cuneiform vowel A can also be used for 
Egyptian aleph!  For example, in 
both the Amarna Letters and the Patriarchal narratives, the most frequent 
beginning of an Egyptian name is pA.  The Egyptian name pa-xa-na-te in four different Amarna Letters, including 
EA 60: 10, spells the Egyptian aleph with an A.  The Egyptian name pi-wu-ri features four 
different spellings of pA, but in three separate Amarna Letters, including EA 
287: 45 from IR-Heba of Jerusalem [whose scribe may have been the scribe who, 
shortly after leaving Jerusalem, was commissioned by the tent-dwelling Hebrews 
to write down the Patriarchal narratives in Akkadian cuneiform], the second 
letter in pA is spelled with the Akkadian vowel A.
>So when PR(H in Genesis is setting forth an Egyptian 
name, the Hebrew alphabetical ayin/( that one sees in the received text could 
just as easily have been originally intended to be a Hebrew alphabetical aleph/).  Why?  Because that name was first written down 
in the Late Bronze Age, when the only way to write down a sophisticated 
composition like the Patriarchal narratives was by means of Akkadian 
cuneiform.  The Amarna Letters 
attest that sometimes the Akkadian vowel U was used to render both Egyptian aleph and Egyptian ayin, and sometimes the Akkadian vowel A was used to render 
both Egyptian aleph and Egyptian ayin.  In fact, on a more general level, Akkadian cuneiform generally was unable 
to differentiate among the various gutturals.  That applies in spades to ayin vs. aleph.
>As to PR(H in particular, we note that Akkadian cuneiform heth could render, among other letters, alphabetical Hebrew ayin/( or 
alphabetical Hebrew heth/X, and that the Akkadian vowel A was sometimes used to 
render both Egyptian aleph and Egyptian ayin.  PR(H in the received text started out in Akkadian cuneiform as something like PR – RI – A – XI.  Those four Akkadian cuneiform signs 
could mean [among other possibilities] either (i) PR(H [per the received text], 
or (ii) P R )X, with the latter being pAra Ax : pAra a-khe : “Devoted to The 
Ra”, which compares nicely with Akhe-n-Aten : “Devoted to Aten”.
>If we reverse engineer the received alphabetical text as 
to the Biblical Egyptian name PR(H and determine what the original Akkadian 
cuneiform signs were, we then see an  e-x-a-c-t  letter-for-letter 
match of the original cuneiform version of PR(H to P R )X : pAra Ax : pAra 
a-khe : “Devoted to The Ra”.  Will, 
it’s an  e-x-a-c-t  match of  a-l-l  the letters.  It’s not merely close, it’s  e-x-a-c-t .
>Surely you would agree that if the Patriarchal narratives 
were not originally written down in the Bronze Age using Akkadian cuneiform, 
they can’t be old and accurate as to an historical Patriarchal Age.  To see then if the Patriarchal 
narratives are or are not truly ancient and accurate, simply reverse engineer 
the Egyptian names in the received text to determine how they would have 
originally been recorded in Akkadian cuneiform.  Then the gorgeous result is  e-x-a-c-t  letter-for-letter matches to Late Amarna 
nomenclature that in each case fit the storyline perfectly.  The greatest wordsmith of all time 
created these Biblical Egyptian names.  But we cannot appreciate them unless we reverse engineer the alphabetical 
Hebrew letters in the received text to determine the Akkadian cuneiform 
originals, and then ask what Egyptian names could result from such Akkadian 
cuneiform originals.  For example, 
the name of Joseph’s Egyptian priestly father-in-law, once it is recognized that 
the final intended letter was heth, not ayin, is:  pAwAt  -Y-  pArx, referencing such priest’s 
devotion to Akhenaten as allegedly being “the only one/pA who knows/rx the 
distant/pAwAt [God]”.  Only Akhenaten ever made such a daunting theological claim.  And Akhenaten himself is fittingly 
referred to as P R )X : pAra Ax : pAra a-khe : “Devoted to The Ra”, which 
exemplifies Late Amarna theology perfectly.
>The true antiquity and historical accuracy of the 
Patriarchal narratives come shining through when we reverse engineer the 
alphabetical Hebrew letters in these Biblical Egyptian names to determine the Akkadian cuneiform original signs, and then ask what Egyptian names could result 
from those original Akkadian cuneiform signs.  We find that, unlike all previous 
attempts to explain these Biblical Egyptian names, we don’t have to stretch a 
single letter!  Rather, we merely 
need to recognize that Akkadian cuneiform writing, such as in the original 
written version of the Patriarchal narratives, usually did not distinguish one 
guttural from another.
>Jim Stinehart
>Evanston ,  Illinois
>This further response comes courtesy of Carla Sulzbach in Montreal:
>There is a print edition in modern Hebrew script of the Samaritan Pentateuch:
>Der Hebräische Pentateuch derSamaritaner;
>August Freiherrnvon Gall, editor
>Alfred TöpelmannVerlag, 1918
>Best wishes,
>Carla Sulzbach
>Dean of Research,
>Moore Theological College (moore.edu.au)
>Sydney, Australia
>b-hebrew mailing list
>b-hebrew at lists.ibiblio.org
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