[b-hebrew] Daniel 12:13

Ken Penner kpenner at stfx.ca
Mon Jul 1 14:25:18 EDT 2013

“The Hebrew plural ending -îm (also found in Phoenician) is rarely replaced by -în (standard in Aramaic and Moabite). This occurs in several poetic passages as well as in later books, for example, אֲחֵרִין ‘other’ (Job 31:10), אִיִּן ‘islands’ (Ezek 26:18), חִטִּין ‘wheat’ (Ezek 4:9), חַיִּין ‘life’ (Job 24:22), יָמִין ‘days’ (Dan 12:13), מִדִּין ‘garments’ (Judg 5:10), מִלִּין ‘words’ (Job 4:2), מְלָכִין ‘kings’ (Prov 31:3), עִיִּין ‘rubble’ (Mic 3:12), צִדֹנִין ‘Sidonians’ (1 Kgs 11:33), רָצִין ‘runners’ (2 Kgs 11:13), שׁוֹמֵמִין ‘desolate’ (Lam 1:4).”
(IBHS 7.4.b)

Occasionally we have the Aramaic ending  ִין (very frequent in MH, and the rule in Moabite, though spelled defectively): מְלָכִין kings (or counsellors as in Aramaic; cf. Dn 4.24) Pr 31.3; צִדֹנִין Sidonians 1Kg 11.33; רָצִין runners 2Kg 11.13; חִטִּין wheat Ez 4.9; אִיִּן islands Ez 26.18; יָמִין days Dn 12.13; מִדִּין carpet(?) Jdg 5.10 (poet.); עִיִּין hills of ruins Mi 3.12; in Job, מִלִּין words (Aramaic word) is found 13 times besides מִלִּים (10 x).
(Joüon §90c)

Less frequent, or only apparent terminations of the plur. masc. are—
(a) ־ ִין, as in Aramaic, found almost exclusively in the later books of the O. T. (apart from the poetical use in some of the older and even the oldest portions), viz. מְלָכִין kings, Pr 31:3, צִֽדֹנִין 1 K 11:33, רָצִין the guard, 2 K 11:13, חִטִּין wheat, Ez 4:9; defectively אִיִּן islands, Ez 26:18; יָמִין days, Dn 12:13. Cf. also מִדִּין carpets, Ju 5:10, in the North-Palestinian song of Deborah, which also has other linguistic peculiarities; עִיִּין heaps, Mi 3:12 (before ת; cf. § 44 k); מִלִּין words (from the really Aram. מִלָּה), Jb 4:2, and twelve other places in Job (beside מִלִּים, ten times in Job); further, חַיִּין Jb 24:22, אֲחֵרִין 31:10, and שׁוֹמֵמִין La 1:4, תַּנִּין 4:3.
(Gesenius Grammar §87.e)

From: b-hebrew-bounces at lists.ibiblio.org [mailto:b-hebrew-bounces at lists.ibiblio.org] On Behalf Of K Randolph
Sent: Saturday, June 29, 2013 11:47 AM
To: Jerry Shepherd
Cc: b-hebrew
Subject: Re: [b-hebrew] Daniel 12:13

Thanks, Jerry:

On Fri, Jun 28, 2013 at 8:50 PM, Jerry Shepherd <jshepherd53 at gmail.com<mailto:jshepherd53 at gmail.com>> wrote:

Gary and others,

I believe that Martin has the correct assessment here, except that, rather than this being a confusion, it is probably simply an option open to the writer.  Waltke-O'Connor give a number of examples in IBHS 7.4b; and Joüon-Muraoka discuss the phenomenon in 90.3.  It is also discussed in GKC 87e.  Most of these are poetic and later texts.

These references mean nothing if they are not on line and available to all. If possible, could you at least give a synopsis of what these people claimed?

Other places where this occurs are Judg 5:10; 1 Kgs 11:33; 2 Kgs 11:13; Ezek 4:9; 26:18; Micah 3:12; Job 4:2; 24:22; 31:10; Prov 31:3; Lam 1:4; 4:3.

All of these are pre-Babylonian exile to during the same, before the Aramaic square characters were adopted.

Thanks for the references. I remembered that I had noticed this pattern before, but didn’t remember which verses where they were found and wasn’t sure how to find them.



Jerry Shepherd
Taylor Seminary
Edmonton, Alberta
jshepherd53 at gmail.com<mailto:jshepherd53 at gmail.com>

Karl W. Randolph.
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