[b-hebrew] First 9 Hebrew Words [full English text]

jimstinehart at aol.com jimstinehart at aol.com
Tue Dec 4 19:51:48 EST 2012

Nir Cohen:
You wrote: “the problem isthat you always take things out of context and do not 
put your cards on the table. unless you send us the entire text which containsthose 9 "hebrew" words, there is absolutely no sense in continuingthis absurd exchange of emails.”
But except for those 9 westSemitic words, all the rest of the words in these Amarna Letters are inAkkadian.  On the b-hebrew list, we’reonly interested in the key question of asking whether the only 9 west Semiticwords that IR-Heba’s scribe in Jerusalem ever wrote are, as I have asserted tobe the case, the first 9 Hebrew words ever recorded in a writing that itselfhas been physically preserved until this very day. 
But O.K., here’s what I cando to make things a bit easier on everyone.  Remember,  e-v-e-r-y-t-h-i-n-g  is in the Shlomo Izre’el article I cited, atpp. 78-82:
Here are the sentences thatcontain those 9 west Semitic words, in English, with only the west Semitic wordreproduced [after the slash] as written. The question is whether these 9 west Semitic words are “Hebrew”. 
1.  u-$a-a-ru.  “They denounce/u-$a-a-ru me before the king,my lord.” Amarna Letter EA 286: 6-7.  [This is one of two west Semitic words (alongwith #7 below) where I cannot pinpoint an equivalent Biblical Hebrew word.  I believe the west Semitic word means “denounce”? Cf. Psalm 5: 8, which has $WRRY, meaning“my enemies”???]
2.  ma-ax-si-ra-mu.  “Look, the land of Gezer, the land of Ashkelonand Lachish gave them food, oil, and whatever they need/ma-ax-si-ra-mu.”  Amarna Letter EA 287: 14-16.  “whatever they need” = Deuteronomy 15: 8:  MXSRW.
3.  zu-ru-ux. “Look, this land of Jerusalem, neither my father nor my mother gave itto me.  The strong arm/zu-ru-ux of theking gave it to me.”  Amarna Letter EA287: 25-28;  also EA 288: 34.  “arm” =  ZR(Y at Genesis 49: 11.
4.  ca-du-uq. “Look!  My king, my lord!  I have a just/ca-du-uq case.”  Amarna Letter EA 287: 32.  “just” =  Genesis 38: 26:  CDQH. 
5.  la-qa-xu. “They took/ la-qa-xu their tools….” Amarna Letter EA 287: 36.  “…butthey have been taken/la-qa-xu ….”  AmarnaLetter EA 287: 53-57.  “they took” =Deuteronomy 31: 26:  LQX.  [In the Bible, the lamed/L normally dropsout.]
6. ga-ag-gi-mi.  “…and I had to take shelter by a support fromthe roof/ga-ag-gi-mi.”  “roof” =Deuteronomy 22: 8:  GG [as the root].
7.  u-bi-li-mi; u-bi-il.  “I sent as gifts to the king, my lord, xprisoners, 5,000…, and 318 porters/u-bi-li-mi for the caravans of the king….”  Amarna Letter EA 287: 53-57.  “Look, I am a friend of the king, and atribute-bearer/u-bi-il of the king, I am.” Amarna Letter EA 288: 11-12.  “porters” ???  Cf. the Aramaic word BLW, meaning “tribute”,at Ezra 4: 13??  [Does that word inAmarna Letter EA 287 actually refer to the “taxpayers” of Jerusalem, who are“tribute-bearers” in the sense that they have funded the “tribute” forIR-Heba’s caravan that is being sent to Egypt?  Or by contrast is the reference, asconventionally thought, to “[captive] porters” who are slaves being sent toEgypt as “tribute” as part of the caravan?  Cf. also the Hebrew word BLH in the form BLTYat Genesis 18: 12, though the meaning does not seem to fit too well???]
8.  $a-de-e. “…in the countryside/$a-de-e of Yalona.” Amarna Letter EA 287: 53-57.  “field” =  Genesis 23: 11:  %DH.
9.  a-ba-da-at.  “…all the land of the king, my lord, will belost/a-ba-da-at.”  Amarna Letter EA 288:52-53.  “lose” = Exodus 10: 7:  )BDH.
I see 7 of 9 of those words as being the direct equivalentsof Biblical Hebrew words [#2-#6;  #8-#9].  To me, those 7 words are “Hebrew”.  That’s the #1 question I am raising on thisthread.
I would also like help as to #1 and #7.  I don’t know how to handle a “Hebrew” wordthat begins with U as its own separate syllable.
Jim Stinehart
Evanston, Illinois

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