[b-hebrew] Qal passives

Donald Vance donaldrvance at mac.com
Sun Jun 20 17:17:55 EDT 2010

Aramaic DID gave internal G passives. What ate you talking about?

Sent from my iPhone

Donald R. Vance
donaldrvance at mac.com

On Jun 20, 2010, at 1:24 AM, Yitzhak Sapir <yitzhaksapir at gmail.com>  

> On Fri, Jun 18, 2010 at 11:23 AM, Randall Buth wrote:
>> The MT has retained vocalizations like luqqaH and yuqqaH  
>> לֻקַּח יֻקַּח
>> as well as yuttan יֻתַּן and 'ennenu ukkal' איננו  
>> אֻכָּל. [Note that this
>> last form is a participle, and thus not pu`al, nor feminine like  
>> 'fire'.]
>> This is remarkable because Aramaic had no internal qal passive, nor
>> even a nifal. [Aramaic did have forms built off of the passive- 
>> perfect
>> participle with cEc-I-c vowels.] And the BH vowels don't fit the  
>> Arabic
>> passives, *luqiHa. They do not function as pu``als, and there are no
>> pi``els attested for them to be passives to. From comparison with
>> other Semitic languages it is clear that an internal Qal passive used
>> to exist, but a qal would not have a lengthened middle consonant:
>> either *luqaH or *luqiH. but not *luqqaH.
>> So how can the dagesh in MT luqqaH be explained?
>> Due to the nature of long and short vowels in unaccented syllables,  
>> the
>> passive nature of these BH forms needed to develop a morphological/
>> phonetic change during the biblical/post-biblical period. The  
>> phonetic
>> lengthening of the consonant after the [u] vowel achieved this. But
>> this resulted in a homonym with pu``al forms in the past/suffix tense
>> and with hof`al in the future/prefix tense.
> I would like to suggest that perhaps it is not an issue of phonetic  
> change,
> but of morphological leveling.  As internal Qal passives were  
> increasingly
> lost, especially under the influence of Aramaic that did not have  
> them,
> these were viewed not as a separate class by themselves but as an
> exceptional form of the Pual and Hophal for some roots (just like  
> yitpaqad
> might be viewed as an exceptional form of the Hitpael).  Eventually,
> morphological leveling had its way, and the unique forms of the Qal
> passives were lost.
> Yitzhak Sapir
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