[b-hebrew] Kadesh-barnea

Uri Hurwitz uhurwitz at yahoo.com
Sat Apr 10 21:51:16 EDT 2010


    Yigal, 
    
    As you said, there is indeed ' no extra-biblical
 evidence for an Edomite kingdom until the 8th century'.

    I wonder whether the copper mines excavated by Levy
 et. al. south of the Dead Sea, in Khirbet en-Nahas,
 which they date to to the tenth century BCE, can contribute
 to the discussion. The size of these works
 is evidence of a centrally controlled adminstrative power
 -or Kingdom - already then, since no local authority would
 have the means of carrying out such a large project. Cf.
 with Beth Shemesh and, recently, Khirbet Qeiyafa, among
 others.

    This is not evidence for the existence of Edom,
 or any another known kingdom, but there
 seems to be consensus that the area of the mines is in
 what would later be known as Seir// Edom.

    Very interesting in this context is the biblical name
 Naha$ ,regardless of its meaning, as the ruler of the
 Ammonites in the general region.
 
  Also noteworthy here is what Kitchen wrote about early
 nomad-kingdoms.



  Uri

  Uri Hurwitz                                  Great Neck, NY

  
















      



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