[b-hebrew] Isaiah 13:15 - every one that is joined (unto them) shall fall by the sword

Isaac Fried if at math.bu.edu
Sat May 26 21:18:49 EDT 2007


Schmuel,

NIMCA) is easy, but what is NISPEH? It is from the root SPH, which is  
a variant of the roots YPH, CPH, $PH, $BH, CBH, all essentially  
meaning 'accumulate, pile-up, mount up, bend over', or 'roll over' as  
in death and perdition. Admittedly, the root SPH is indeed close to  
the root SPX, yet it is never used in the sense of 'join'. It seems  
to me that reference in Isaiah 13:15 is to dead bodies, not live  
people; only this way does the verse makes symmetric sense. I would  
translate it thus: Every remain located will be dead by piercing, and  
every corpse found will be dead by sword stabs.

Isaac Fried, Boston University

On May 26, 2007, at 4:20 PM, schmuel wrote:

> Hi Folks,
>
> Greetings.
> Question on the following verse.
>
> Isaiah 13:15  (KJB)
> Every one that is found shall be thrust through;
> and every one that is joined (unto them) shall fall by the sword.
>
> Modern translations often have "captured" instead of "joined" in  
> this verse for
> HPS - saphah  -(Stongs 5595)
>
> =========================
>
> Yet this is not supported by Rashi, whose interpretation is much  
> closer to the traditional KJB reading.
>
> http://www.chabad.org/library/article.asp?AID=15944&showrashi=true
> Judaica Press
> "Everyone who is found shall be stabbed, and anyone who takes  
> refuge shall fall by the sword."
>
> Rashi
> "Everyone who is found outside, shall be stabbed. and anyone who  
> takes refuge with the people of the city to be included with them  
> in the siege, shall fall by the sword when the city capitulates...."
>
> ===========================================
>
> And John Gill gives Hebraic support and indicates the Greek OT  
> agrees with the traditional translation.
>
> http://eword.gospelcom.net/comments/isaiah/gill/isaiah13.htm
> and everyone that is joined [unto them] shall fall by the sword;
>
> "added" unto them; any of other nations that joined them as  
> auxiliaries ... or "that is gathered"; so the Septuagint, "they  
> that are gathered"; that are gathered together in a body to resist  
> the enemy, and defend themselves.
>
> =======================================
>
> Nor does Gesenius give "capture" as a meaning. (He goes in his own  
> direction.)
> http://cf.blueletterbible.org/lang/lexicon/lexicon.cfm? 
> Strongs=H05595&Version=kjv
>
> ========================================
> Early LATIN, GREEK, ARAMAIC translations
>
> Lamsa from the Aramaic (2nd century) also goes in his own direction ..
> "and everyone that escapes shall fall by the sword"
>
> Latin Vulgate (400 AD)
> omnis qui inventus fuerit occidetur et omnis qui supervenerit cadet  
> in gladio
>
> In the Douay-Rheims this is not remotely "captured"
> Every one that shall be found, shall be slain:
> and every one that shall come to their aid,
> shall fall by the sword.
>
> Gill has the Targum as
> "everyone that enters into the fortified cities," flees there for  
> safety and protection.
>
> And the Greek OT (Brenton)
> "For whosoever shall be taken shall be overcome;
>  and they that are gathered together shall fall by the sword.
>
> So none of the major early-translation languages
> appear to give "captured" any support whatsoever, nor Rashi.
>
> Does it have any early support in any manner ?
> Or is it just a recent translation 'discovery' ?
>
> ========================================
>
> And saphah is used as "add" or "augment" in a number of other verses,
> and is given as a dictionary definition (Biblical an modern)
> - which in this context is analogous to "join".
>
> So can you please help explain the modern movement to "capture" in  
> this verse.
> Perhaps explain some of the grammatical issues as well, and your  
> contextual thoughts.
>
> Thanks.
>
> Shalom,
> Steven Avery
> Queens, NY
>
> http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Messianic_Apologetic
>
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