[b-hebrew] Isaiah 13:15 - every one that is joined (unto them) shall fall by the sword

schmuel schmuel at nyc.rr.com
Sat May 26 16:20:11 EDT 2007


Hi Folks, 

Greetings.
Question on the following verse.

Isaiah 13:15  (KJB)
Every one that is found shall be thrust through; 
and every one that is joined (unto them) shall fall by the sword. 

Modern translations often have "captured" instead of "joined" in this verse for 
HPS - saphah  -(Stongs 5595)

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Yet this is not supported by Rashi, whose interpretation is much closer to the traditional KJB reading.

http://www.chabad.org/library/article.asp?AID=15944&showrashi=true
Judaica Press
"Everyone who is found shall be stabbed, and anyone who takes refuge shall fall by the sword."

Rashi
"Everyone who is found outside, shall be stabbed. and anyone who takes refuge with the people of the city to be included with them in the siege, shall fall by the sword when the city capitulates...."

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And John Gill gives Hebraic support and indicates the Greek OT agrees with the traditional translation.

http://eword.gospelcom.net/comments/isaiah/gill/isaiah13.htm
and everyone that is joined [unto them] shall fall by the sword; 

"added" unto them; any of other nations that joined them as auxiliaries ... or "that is gathered"; so the Septuagint, "they that are gathered"; that are gathered together in a body to resist the enemy, and defend themselves. 

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Nor does Gesenius give "capture" as a meaning. (He goes in his own direction.)
http://cf.blueletterbible.org/lang/lexicon/lexicon.cfm?Strongs=H05595&Version=kjv

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Early LATIN, GREEK, ARAMAIC translations

Lamsa from the Aramaic (2nd century) also goes in his own direction .. 
"and everyone that escapes shall fall by the sword"

Latin Vulgate (400 AD)
omnis qui inventus fuerit occidetur et omnis qui supervenerit cadet in gladio 

In the Douay-Rheims this is not remotely "captured"
Every one that shall be found, shall be slain: 
and every one that shall come to their aid, 
shall fall by the sword. 

Gill has the Targum as
"everyone that enters into the fortified cities," flees there for safety and protection.

And the Greek OT (Brenton)
"For whosoever shall be taken shall be overcome;
 and they that are gathered together shall fall by the sword. 

So none of the major early-translation languages
appear to give "captured" any support whatsoever, nor Rashi.  

Does it have any early support in any manner ?
Or is it just a recent translation 'discovery' ?

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And saphah is used as "add" or "augment" in a number of other verses,
and is given as a dictionary definition (Biblical an modern)
- which in this context is analogous to "join".

So can you please help explain the modern movement to "capture" in this verse.  
Perhaps explain some of the grammatical issues as well, and your contextual thoughts. 

Thanks.

Shalom,
Steven Avery
Queens, NY

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Messianic_Apologetic  




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