[b-hebrew] "Dan" in Ezekiel 27: 19
if at math.bu.edu
Fri Dec 28 06:29:41 EST 2007
The name DAN consists, in my opinion, of the combination of the two
existence markers, or substantives, AD-DA and AN-NA. It betokens beauty and
strength, and by implication rule and superiority. The root DN is a variant
of the roots ZN, TN, YN, SN, CN, $N. Derived from these are the words: ADON,
‘lord, master’, DIN, ‘law, justice’, )EDEN, ‘base, foundation, sill’, OZEN,
‘ear’, MA-ZON, ‘food, nutrient, nourishment’ [see Genesis 45:23], T(N, ‘load’
[see Genesis 45:17], T)EN-AH, ‘fig tree’, )ATON, ‘Equus asinus’, (EDN-AH,
‘vigor’ [see Genesis 18:12], YON-AH, ‘dove’, CEN, ‘thorn’, $EN, ‘tooth’.
As I have already remarked, as a personal name it may be the name of an
ancient deity, corresponding to ADONAY of the Hebrews.
Isaac Fried, Boston University
----- Original Message -----
From: <JimStinehart at aol.com>
To: <b-hebrew at lists.ibiblio.org>
Sent: Friday, December 28, 2007 12:06 AM
Subject: [b-hebrew] "Dan" in Ezekiel 27: 19
> Karl W. Randolph:
> Ezekiel 27: 19 says that the island city-state of Sur/Tyre in southern
> Lebanon traded with “Dan” (or “Vedan”) and with “Javan”.
> 1. The “Dan” or “Vedan” at Ezekiel 27: 19 is traditionally associated
> “Aden” in Arabia, I believe. But that is not necessarily correct. “Dan”/“
> Vedan” is linked with “Javan” in the text, and “Javan” is viewed as being
> Greece. To me, northern Canaan, or Lebanon, or Syria might be more
> pairings with a reference to Greece for the trading partners of Sur/Tyre
> would be Arabia.
> 2. The questions of how ancient the name “Dan” might be, and where this
> ” might be located, may take us all the way back to the 14th century BCE,
> may involve some connection of “Dan” to Sur/Tyre.
> 3. You wrote: “Background to this verse [Ezekiel 27: 19]: this is part
> of a
> list of trading countries with Tyre. Judah and Israel have already been
> mentioned as providers mainly of agricultural goods, in verse 17.”
> (a) In the Hebrew Bible (with the possible exception of Genesis), what
> and English speakers call “Tyre” is spelled either tsade-resh or
> tsade-vav-resh. That is CR or CWR here. In ancient times, the tsade was
> pronounced S or SS, vs. the modern pronunciation of TS, so the ancient
> sound may
> have been SUR. If so, sin-vav-resh, which is found at Genesis 20: 1 (as
> previously discussed on a different thread), could have been an alternate
> spelling for
> this same locale. BDB sees one of the meanings of tsade-vav-resh as being
> rocky wall”, and sin-vav-resh means “wall”, so the meanings seem similar.
> Importantly, this place is “Sur” in Arabic, and “Surru” in the Amarna
> So I will refer to this island city-state in southern Lebanon as
> (In my view, the Greek mispronunciation “Tyre” is misleading.)
> (b) Here is the text of Ezekiel 27: 17 that you reference:
> “Judah, and the land of Israel, they were thy [Sur’s/Tyre’s] traffickers;
> they traded for thy merchandise wheat of Minnith, and balsam, and honey,
> oil, and balm.”
> That means that the Hebrews sold agricultural products to Sur/Tyre.
> (c) Consider also I Kings 5: 25:
> “And Solomon gave Hiram [of Sur/Tyre in trade] twenty thousand measures of
> wheat for food to his household, and twenty measures of beaten oil”.
> That likewise means that the Hebrews sold agricultural products to
> (d) The island city-state of Sur/Tyre was unique in the ancient world, in
> that while it was rich, it had to import all its food. The one place
> where a
> Hebrew might sell a bumper crop, at sky-high prices, was Sur/Tyre. For
> reason, Sur/Tyre was far more important to the early Hebrews than is
> recognized. Ezekiel 27: 17 and I Kings 5: 25 are but the tip of the
> iceberg in
> that regard, in my opinion.
> 4. In 14th century BCE Ugarit, located on the west coast of Syria,
> was a prominent name. “Dan” could be viewed as being a shortened form of
> truly ancient name “Daner”.
> 5. Both Sur/Tyre and Ugarit were rich trading states in the mid-14th
> BCE. There are plenty of connections between Sur/Tyre and Ugarit.
> Ugarit lasted only about 200 years or so, Sur/Tyre remained unbowed and
> until Alexander the Great built the causeway that destroyed Sur/Tyre’s
> invulnerability to attack.
> 6. In short, there are plenty of ancient connections of the name “Dan” to
> northern Canaan, Lebanon and Syria. The name seems redolent of that
> 7. Some form of the name “Dan” was probably associated with the general
> area of northern Canaan, Lebanon and Syria prior to the time that the
> tribe of Dan became associated with northern Canaan. The city originally
> called “
> Laish” or "Lasha" or “Leshem” or “Lais” or “Lesem” or “Lus” or “Luz”,
> which is located directly east of Sur/Tyre on the upper Jordan River, was
> called “Dan” by the Hebrews.
> Jim Stinehart
> Evanston, Illinois
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