[b-hebrew] Psalm 22:16 - daqar as pierced ?

schmuel schmuel at nyc.rr.com
Thu Sep 28 08:42:12 EDT 2006


Hi Folks,

  Recently I have been reviewing the very interesting Psalm 22 discussions.
A few threads over the years. 

Psalm 22:16 (KJB) 
For dogs have compassed me: 
the assembly of the wicked have inclosed me:
they pierced my hands and my feet. 

   In this post I would like to offer one small but hopefully interesting point.

   Often it is said that Zechariah 12:10 gives us another word for "pierced" that could
be used in Psalm 22 if a verb was meant there.  This is all over the anti-mish web sites
and is mentioned occasionally here. 

    Some of this is based on the fact that in the verse Zechariah 12:10
dqr is often translated as "pierced".

Zechariah 12:10  (KJB)
And I will pour upon the house of David,
and upon the inhabitants of Jerusalem,
the spirit of grace and of supplications: 
and they shall look upon me whom they have pierced,  ***
and they shall mourn for him, 
as one mourneth for his only son, 
and shall be in bitterness for him, 
as one that is in bitterness for his firstborn. 

     However the semantic range of daqar is a piercing of a very specific type,
in the Tanach.  This word is used again and again for a thrusting-through sword thrust.

    Here are the Tanach usages of the word used in Zechariah 12:10, daqar.
Notice how consistent they are, generally with the meaning of "thrust-through"
from weaponry, with one usage (Lamentations) being an analogy.

Numbers 25:8 
And he went after the man of Israel into the tent,
and thrust both of them through, the man of Israel,
and the woman through her belly. 
So the plague was stayed from the children of Israel.

Judges 9:54 
Then he called hastily unto the young man his armourbearer, 
and said unto him, Draw thy sword, and slay me,
that men say not of me, A woman slew him.
And his young man thrust him through, and he died

1Samuel 31:4 
Then said Saul unto his armourbearer, 
Draw thy sword, and thrust me through therewith;
lest these uncircumcised come and thrust me through, and abuse me.
But his armourbearer would not; for he was sore afraid.
Therefore Saul took a sword, and fell upon it.

1Chronicles 10:4 
Then said Saul to his armourbearer, 
Draw thy sword, and thrust me through therewith;
lest these uncircumcised come and abuse me.
But his armourbearer would not; for he was sore afraid. 
So Saul took a sword, and fell upon it.

Isaiah 13:15 
Every one that is found shall be thrust through; 
and every one that is joined unto them shall fall by the sword

Zechariah 13:3 
And it shall come to pass, that when any shall yet prophesy, 
then his father and his mother that begat him shall say unto him, 
Thou shalt not live; for thou speakest lies in the name of the LORD: 
and his father and his mother that begat him shall thrust
him through when he prophesieth.

Jeremiah 51:4 
Thus the slain shall fall in the land of the Chaldeans, 
and they that are thrust through in her streets.

Now these two have a bit of nuance:

Lamentations 4:9 
They that be slain with the sword are better than they
that be slain with hunger: for these pine away,
stricken through for want of the fruits of the field.

Jeremiah 37:10 
For though ye had smitten the whole army of the Chaldeans
that fight against you,
and there remained but wounded men among them, 
yet should they rise up every man in his tent, 
and burn this city with fire. 

=====================================================

This understanding is shown in Zechariah 12:10 in the -

Judaica Press Tanach  

Zechariah 12:10 
And I will pour out upon the house of David
and upon the inhabitants of Jerusalem 
a spirit of grace and supplications. 
And they shall look to me 
because of those who have been thrust through [with swords],
and they shall mourn over it 
as one mourns over an only son 
and shall be in bitterness, therefore,
as one is embittered over a firstborn son.

(the subject/object pronoun discussion is a separate issue :) ) 
Similarly

JPS-1917 

And I will pour upon the house of David, 
and upon the inhabitants of Jerusalem, 
the spirit of grace and of supplication; 
and they shall look unto Me
because they have thrust him through;
and they shall mourn for him, 
as one mourneth for his only son, 
and shall be in bitterness for him,
as one that is in bitterness for his first-born. 

Soncino

And I will pour upon the house of David,
And upon the inhabitants of Jerusalem,
The spirit of grace and of supplication;
And they shall unto Me
because they have thrust him through;

So if this is the case, that daqar is a word used for a type of sword or spear
thrusting-through (implications of mortal or ultra-serious wound through the belly) 
it would appear to be a very poor fit for any verbal reading of Psalm 22. 

Your thoughts ?

(Yes, I realize that there are other words also given for pierced alternatives, 
 however daqar is in a sense the primary discussion and significant).

Shalom,
Steven Avery
Queens, NY
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Messianic_Apologetic

==============================================
PROPHECY SIDENOTE

 From a Christian perspective, this would also support a separation of Psalm 22 from -

John 19:34-37 
But one of the soldiers with a spear pierced* his side, 
and forthwith came there out blood and water. 
And he that saw it bare record, and his record is true: 
and he knoweth that he saith true, that ye might believe. 
For these things were done, 
that the scripture should be fulfilled,
A bone of him shall not be broken. 
And again another scripture saith,
They shall look on him whom they pierced.

 (* nusso, a hapax)

Where John specifically references two verses, Zechariah 12:10 and 

Psalm 34:20
He keepeth all his bones: not one of them is broken. 

Yet not Psalm 22.

======================================================

Psalm 22 would more directly relate to ...

Luke 24:39
Behold my hands and my feet, 
that it is I myself:
handle me, and see; 
for a spirit hath not flesh and bones,
as ye see me have.

John 20:25 
The other disciples therefore said unto him, 
We have seen the Lord. 
But he said unto them,
Except I shall see in his hands the print of the nails, 
and put my finger into the print of the nails, 
and thrust my hand into his side, I will not believe.

John 20:27
Then saith he to Thomas, 
Reach hither thy finger, and behold my hands; 
and reach hither thy hand, and thrust it into my side: 
and be not faithless, but believing. 




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