[b-hebrew] Human Sacrifice - Qal, Hiphil, Hophal

tladatsi at charter.net tladatsi at charter.net
Mon Oct 24 01:24:16 EDT 2005

My posting was based on a concordance some fellow had 
prepared.  It included a list how the root XRM was used in 
the OT. He had two main definitions with some sub-
definitions with different stems.  I included some examples 
of those that I could find.

1) to ban, devote, destroy utterly, completely destroy, 
dedicate for destruction, exterminate

a) (Hiphil)

1) to prohibit (for common use), ban (1 Sam 15:9)

2) to consecrate, devote, dedicate for destruction (Mic 

3) to exterminate, completely destroy (Num 21:2 ? 3)

b) (Hophal)

1) to be put under the ban, be devoted to destruction (Lev 

2) to be devoted, be forfeited (Ez 10:8)

3) to be completely destroyed (Ex 20:22)

2) to split, slit, mutilate (a part of the body)

a) (Qal) to mutilate (Lev 21:18)

b) (Hiphil) to divide

There are 52 instances in the OT where XRM is the root of a 
word.  Here is how two other groups of translators put 
those words into English. 

King James Version - accursed, 1; consecrate, 1; destroy, 
34; devote, 2; flat nose, 1; forfeited, 1; slay, 1; 
utterly, 10; utterly to make away, 1; 

New American Standard - annihilate, 1; covet, 1; destroy 
them utterly, 1; destroy utterly, 1; destroyed them 
utterly, 1; destroying, 1; destroying them completely, 2; 
destruction, 2; devote, 2; disfigured, 1; forfeited, 1; set 
apart, 1; sets apart, 1; utterly destroy, 11; utterly 
destroyed, 22; utterly destroying, 3;

Almost all of the destroyed and utterly destroyed words are 
either hiphil or hophal.  If the qal is to mutilate (as in 
Lev 21:18) then the hiphil could be caused mutilation and 
hophal could be caused to be mutilated - both of which 
would be an adequate description of a sacrifed animal - or 
a slaughtered civilian.

So, this ol' dog ain't quite ready to give up his bone just 

Jack Tladatsi

More information about the b-hebrew mailing list