[b-hebrew] The Exodus' Oxcarts, Oxen & Cattle & the Sinai

walter mattfeld mattfeld12 at charter.net
Wed Dec 28 08:07:43 EST 2005

Some scholars have "balked" at the Bible's portrayal of an Exodus possessing 
cattle and oxcarts in the Sinai. This article addresses those concerns and 
concludes that it is indeed possible for these animals and wagons to have 
survived in this wilderness citing the findings of archaeology and ancient 
Egyptian annals.

For a picture of oxcarts and an ox within the tent encampment of Pharaoh
Ramesses II set up near Kadesh on the Orontes cf. the following url


James Henry Breasted, using this Ramesside bas-relief also understood that
Ramesses II baggage-train consisted of two-wheeled oxcarts drawn by a yoke
of oxen (his observation being quoted). All this is to say that if an
Egyptian army of some 20,000 could cross the Sinai from Egypt to Gaza with
oxcarts, why deny this feat to Israel ? Also noted is the finding of the
remains of sacrified oxen at the Hathor shrine near Serabit el Khadim, the
last pharaonic cartouche at this location being Ramesses VI who reigned ca.
1141-1133 BCE. That is to say the Egyptians had oxen or cattle in the
southern Sinai which they later sacrificed to Hathor's honor. Now, if
Egyptians can keep oxen alive in the southern Sinai, bringing them as
sacrifices to their gods, why deny Israel the ability to sacrifice bullocks
before God at Mt. Sinai ?

Regards, Walter
Walter Reinhold Warttig Mattfeld y de la Torre, M. A. Ed.
mattfeld12 at charter.net

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