[b-hebrew] Zech 6:8

Steve Miller smille10 at sbcglobal.net
Fri Dec 9 00:08:33 EST 2005

Thanks Karl,
I appreciate your sharing the word $W(. This word is very similar to Z(Q,
often used in the same verse. The difference seems to me to be that $W(
involves humbling oneself while Z(Q does not.

All the examples you give below where Z(Q does not mean a cry for help or in
distress are not the Qal form. The Qal form always is a cry for help or in
distress. The Niphal and Hiphil forms are derived from the Qal, but would
not be expected to have the same meaning as the Qal.

The Niphal is always to be assembled for an emergency. That is the case in
Judges 18:22-23. To be assembled for an emergency is to be made to hear a
cry for help.

The Hiphil is the question. One meaning is to assemble people or things for
an emergency, the exact active form of the Niphal. This is the case in
Judges 4:13. Sisera assembled his chariots because he was being attacked by

But there is at least one Hiphil that cannot mean "assemble" (Job 35:9).
Jonah 3:7 probably means the king caused the people to cry out. Or maybe it
could mean that the king assembled the people, but there is no direct
object. In either case it was for an emergency. They believed Jonah's
message that God was going to destroy them.

The Theological Wordbook of the OT says re. Z(Q: 'The basic meaning of this
root is "to cry for help in time of distress."  It is used mainly in the
QAL, but occurs a few times in the Niphal and Hiphil, where it carries
distinctive meanings. ... 
In the Qal stem, the word is used almost exclusively in reference to a cry
from a disturbed heart, in need of some kind of help. The cry is not in
summons of another, but an expression of the need felt. ... In only one
instance is the idea of summons involved, and that is when Jephthah called
for Ephraimites to assist him against the Ammonites (Jud. 12:2). This is
still a cry for help.'

-----Original Message-----
From: Karl Randolph Wednesday, December 07, 2005 12:50 PM


I will back up HH in this. Z(Q, though often used in the 
context that such a cry was a cry for help, was not in itself 
a cry for help. The word for "to cry for help" is $W(.

In Judges 4:13, Siserah cried out, giving commands as 
the commander, this was not a cry for help. Again in 
Jonah 3:7 the king cried out, giving commands.

In Judges 18:22-23, Mikah"s crying out was one of 
complaint, that the tribe of Dan was stealing from him. 
He was not calling out to them for help.

Now if I did a full study of all the occurrences, I expect to 
find many more such examples. Basically, the verb means 
to cry out, and the context tells what is the content of that 
crying out.

Karl W. Randolph.

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