[b-hebrew] Exodus, Dating of (Josephus vs. Manetho)

Walter R. Mattfeld mattfeld12 at charter.net
Fri May 28 14:07:13 EDT 2004

I have been doing some research on the Exodus for over 30 years, and am well
aware of _all_ the conflicting proposals, Conservative and Liberal. The
problem ? No period has the archaeological support, as noted by Professors
William G. Dever, Israel Finkelstein, Burton MacDonald, etc.

Putting aside for the moment, _the lack of archaeological evidence_, I have
of late (the past 24 hours) been "playing with, what is for me, "a new
brain-child" or "idea." That the biblical account is a fusion of two events
preserved in the writings of the 1st century CE (AD) Jewish Historian
Falvius Josephus.

As most on this list are aware (that is to say, those who have studied the
Exodus and its dating problems), Josephus argued that the Exodus was
recalling the mid 16th century BCE Hyksos Expulsion as presented by the 3rd
century BCE Egyptian historian Manetho in his History of Egypt, written in
Greek for his Ptolemaic overlords.

What is NOT so well known is that Josephus in citing Manetho's work, notes
with great displeasure, that Manetho does NOT associate the Exodus with the
Hyksos Expulsion ! Instead, Manetho claims the Exodus was in the days of the
Ramessides !

I have been carefully "re-reading" Josephus' quotations from Manetho
regarding the Ramesside Exodus which so incenesed the Jewish scholar for

It is _my_ conclusion, after having studied Josephus' account of Manetho and
having studied archaeology findings and having read innumerable Exodus
dating proposals, that _TWO EXODUS EVENTS_ are being recalled in the Bible.
The "first" is the mid 16th century BCE Hyksos Expulsion and the "second" is
the Ramesside expulsion "narrated" by Manetho !

My query to the audience- have other scholars made this proposal ? If so,
could someone direct me to a published presentation, either on the Internet
or Book or Periodical ?

Regards, Walter

Walter Reinhold Warttig Mattfeld y de la Torre, M.A. Ed.

mattfeld12 at charter.net

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