[b-hebrew] Psa 107:19-21 (was WAYYIQTOL)

Peter Kirk peterkirk at qaya.org
Sun Mar 14 12:25:42 EST 2004

On 14/03/2004 05:43, furuli at online.no wrote:

> ...
> Dear Dave,
> Below are twenty-five passages of a list of 330 where there is no new 
> R-time when one WAYYIQTOL follows another, or when two or three follow 
> one WAYYIQTOL. Numbers 3), 5), 8), 9), 10), 11), 15), 18), and 24) 
> have two WAYYIQTOLs; numbers 1), 2), 4), 6), 7), 12), 14), 16), 17), 
> 22), and 25) have three WAYYIQTOLs, and numbers 20) and 21) have four 
> I have given different kinds of examples from my material. Some of the 
> examples are common expressions, such as 1), others are collocations, 
> such as 4), others express the same thing in different words, such as 
> 8), and others express actions that are naturally associated with one 
> another, such as 15). The twenty-five examples (and the 305 others) 
> represent a test that will answer the question: "Is a new R-time a 
> *semantic* part of the WAYYIQTOL form, or is the fact that the 
> WAYYIQTOL so often represents a new R-time only conversational 
> pragmatic implicature?" The answer should be obvious!
Rolf, I do not attempt to prove that ALL cases of WAYYIQTOL necessarily 
advance the R-time, because according to my arguments yesterday, which 
you chose not to answer, a distinction can be semantically significant 
without applying in 100% of cases. I note this partly by reference to a 
similar Azerbaijani construction which is usually but not always 
sequential, and in certain contexts contrasts semantically with an 
alternative non-sequential construction. Nevertheless, I consider that 
you have been too hasty in listing the following WAYYIQTOLs as 

> 1) 1Sam. 1:17 Eli answered and said

This is a frozen expression and an idiom, and so different criteria 
apply. The use of WAYYIQTOL for "answered" may well be one of Driver's 
inceptive uses, cf. the occasional use of "I opened my mouth and said" 
e.g. Daniel 10:16, which logically must be sequential.

> 2) 2 Ki 18:28 And he called out in a loud voice and spoke and said

This is textually doubtful, and the loud cry may have preceded the 
recorded words.

> 3) 1Chr. 29:22 And they ate and drank before YHWH
> 4) Ruth 3:7 And Boaz ate and drank and was in good spirits

The current Middle Eastern custom is to eat first, then drink. It is at 
least possible that there is here an intention to indicate the order of 

> 5) 2 Sam 3:32 And the king raised his voice and wept

Could be a simple sequence, a loud cry followed by quieter weeping.

> 6) 2 Sam 1:12 And they vailed, and wept and fasted until the evening
> 7) Ex 34:8 Šw And Moses hurried and bowed down to the earth and 
> prostrated himself

Similarly sequential.

> 8) Numb 22:31 And YHWH uncovered the eyes of Balaam, and he saw..

Obviously sequential, he couldn't see until his eyes had been uncovered.

> 9) 1Sam. 4:2 Israel was defeated before the Philistines, who went 
> striking down..
> 10) 1 Sam 5:6 He brought devastation upon them and afflicted them with 
> tumors
> 11) 1Sam. 17:50 he struck down the Philistine and killed him.

Simple sequence, the Philistine fell over, then died.

> 12) 1Sam. 14:48 He fought valiantly and defeated the Amalekites, 
> delivering Israel

Well, Israel was able to enjoy deliverance only after the defeat of the 
Amalekites, so sequential.

> 13) 1 Sam 6:6 did they not send the Israelites out so they could go on 
> their way?

Did anyone ever go before they were sent?

> 14) 1 Sam 7:10 YHWH thundered with loud noise against the Philistines 
> and threw them into such a panic that they were defeated before the 
> Israelites.

Simple sequence, thunder - panic - defeat.

> 15) 1Sam. 8:8 they left me and served other gods


> 16) 1Sam. 19:12 and he fled and escaped

Sequnce, or at least consequence.

> 17) 1Sam. 15:12 He then turned around, went across, and descended to 
> Gilgal

This one is so obviously sequential that its occurrence in a list of 
non-sequential WAYYIQTOLs makes me wonder about the reliability of any 
of Rolf's work.

> 18) 1 Sam 28:8 Saul disguised himself and clothed himself
> 19) 2 Sam 11.18 Joab sent Š and told

First Joab sent someone, then the message reached David.

> 20) 2 Sam 22:8 The earth trembled and quaked

Well, this one is poetic, but anyone who has experienced earthquakes 
will know that there are different kinds of shocks, so this could well 
be a description of two different kinds in sequence.

> 21) 1 Kings 20:33 The men took it as an omen and were quick to pick up 
> his word
> 22) 2 Ki 7:7 fled and abandoned their tentsŠ the fled for their lives
> 23) 2Chr. 1:17 They brought up and exported from Egypt
> 24) 1Sam. 7:2 It was a long time, twenty years in all, that the ark 
> remained at K. J.
> 25) 1Sam. 8:3 They turned after unjust profit, accepted bribes and 
> perverted justice

These could be three sequential stages of their wickedness: first 
general materialism, then accepting little gifts for doing their work 
well, then descending into selling justice for cash.

Peter Kirk
peter at qaya.org (personal)
peterkirk at qaya.org (work)

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