[b-hebrew] Birah

Lisbeth S. Fried lizfried at umich.edu
Wed Mar 10 11:18:19 EST 2004


Yup, birtu is fortress, citadel
Liz Fried

> -----Original Message-----
> From: Jonathan D. Safren [mailto:yonsaf at beitberl.ac.il]
> Sent: Wed, March 10, 2004 2:22 AM
> To: Lisbeth S. Fried; Hebrew
> Subject: Re: [b-hebrew] Birah
> 
> 
> Has anyhone checked CAD or AHw on this? Our library has neither, but I
> remember birtu from the Akkadian texts I have read as "fortress".
> Sincerely,
> Jonathan D. Safren, Editor
> Mo'ed - Annual for Jewish Studies
> Center for Jewish Culture
> Beit Berl College
> Beit Berl Post Office
> 44905 Israel
> Tel.: 972-9-7476396
> Fax: 972-9-7476397
> e-mail: moed at beitberl.ac.il
> 
> 
> ----- Original Message -----
> From: "Lisbeth S. Fried" <lizfried at umich.edu>
> To: "Hebrew" <b-hebrew at lists.ibiblio.org>
> Sent: Wednesday, March 10, 2004 1:05 AM
> Subject: [b-hebrew] Birah
> 
> 
> > Dear All,
> > I discuss the term birah in my article "The Political Struggle of Fifth
> > Century Judah," in Transeuphratene 24 (2002):9-21
> > A birah is a citadel, an acropolis. It is part of a city , often
> > the capital of a province, which houses a fort and a garrison.
> > The term is well-attested. Birah is a loan-word from Akkadian birtu.
> > It is used throughout the Achaemenid Empire in Aramaic birta' 
> to refer to
> > the city of Elephantine/Syene in Egypt, Sardis in Lydia, and
> > Xanthus in Lycia, and probably others.
> > Best,
> > Liz Fried
> >
> > > -----Original Message-----
> > > From: b-hebrew-bounces at lists.ibiblio.org
> > > [mailto:b-hebrew-bounces at lists.ibiblio.org]On Behalf Of Karl Randolph
> > > Sent: Tue, March 09, 2004 5:45 PM
> > > To: Hebrew
> > > Subject: Re: [b-hebrew] Solomon's palace in 1 Kings 7:1-8
> > >
> > >
> > > Dear Chemorion Chosefu:
> > >
> > > I would hesitate to claim that BYRH refers to
> > > a capitol or seat of government: of the four
> > > times it is used apart from the name $W$N,
> > > twice it is used for Solomon's as of yet
> > > unbuilt temple (1 Chronicles 29:1,19) and once
> > > for a structure in Jerusalem when Jerusalem
> > > was a minor governor's city in the Persian
> > > Empire (Nehemiah 7:2). That is unless we read
> > > the temple as being the seat of God's
> > > government and even a minor governor has a
> > > seat of government.
> > >
> > > As for HYKL in 2 Chronicles 36:7, I had read
> > > it as referring to the building that contains
> > > the large meeting room. But you may be right.
> > >
> > > Karl W. Randolph.
> > >
> > > ----- Original Message -----
> > > From: "Chemorion" <chosefu_chemorion at wycliffe.org>
> > >
> > > >
> > > > > BYRH seems to indicate an edifice, a large,
> > > > > imposing building.
> > > > I think this was usually the headquarters of the rulership. In
> biblical
> > > > terms, Washington DC would be the BYRAH of America just as
> > > Shusan in Esther
> > > > 1:5, Nehemiah 2:8,
> > > >
> > > > > HYKL refers to a large meeting room. By
> > > > > extension, it also refers to the building that
> > > > > houses such a room. It can be in a tent or a
> > > > > building of wood and/or stone.
> > >
> > > > Your observation here is very interesting. Traditionally, lexicons
> have
> > > > understood this term in two senses. It is thought to refer 
> to a house
> of
> > > > splendour  that is usually associated with kings or a
> > > magnificent building
> > > > dedicated to divinities. Basically, the term is usually 
> translated as
> > > > either a Palace or a temple. In many cases, this term is
> > > rendered as Temple.
> > > > However, a close examination of how this term is used in 1
> > > Kings 6:3, 5ff,
> > > > reveals that HYKL was a one of the rooms in a bigger complex
> > > structure. I
> > > > think you are right. Your explanation could be useful in
> > > understanding the
> > > > usage of this term in 2 Chronicles 36:7, where  NIV says
> > > "Temple" but CEV
> > > > says "palace". From your explanation I would render HYKL in  2
> > > chroincles
> > > > 36:7 as a "a large room" which was probably used to store the
> > > valuables of
> > > > Nebuchadnezzer. I hope I am not too wrong!>
> > > >
> > > > Chemorion Chosefu
> > > > Sabaot Bible Translation
> > > > P.O.Box 6645 Eldoret (Kenya)
> > > > Tel.Office- 053 33794, Personal- 0733 360873
> > > --
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