[b-hebrew] 1450 BCE Exodus ?
Banyai at t-online.de
Sun Jul 25 04:13:00 EDT 2004
I must contradict you. I arrive by exact calenaridstic computation means to results similar to Rohl`s however without altering the chronology of the 13th Egyptian dynasty. I date the Exodus by ca 1622 BC to the time of Dedumose by several ways.
1. first of all there are references to an exodus-similar event in contemporary acts of the period. The assumption these would be an echo of the biblical exodus leads to a plausible date of 1622 on astronomical computational basis.
2. the application of the daru-period (see Cambridge Ancient History, vol. 1, part 2 (1971) “ Assyria c. 2600-1816 BCE”, Hildegard Lewy, pp. 740-741 and 761) to the biblical chronology (specially to that of the judges) allows a similar reconstruction of the data leading to a date like 1622 BC
3. The assumption the biblical calendar was a sequel or spinn-off of the Egyptian calendar allows by computation similar to the Egyptian Sothis calculus to arrive same numbers
4. an overseen destruction level (by K. Kenyon) in Jericho with the case of a kerem victim found in these strata and defense structures similar to those described in the biblical sources, is datable exactly to this period of before 1600 BC. Since we will by no chance find a grafitti Joshua was here, this is the uttermost what one could expect from archaeology to confirm a given chronology.
There are several other dating elements to bring this chronology on solid ground.
I can not say that my demonstration thereoff is an easyread (as little as the previous paper about Meluhha and the Amalekites), but it is, I suppose, worth the effort.
> ----- Original Message -----
> From: "Peter Kirk" <peterkirk at qaya.org>
> To: "Yigal Levin" <leviny1 at mail.biu.ac.il>
> Cc: "b-hebrew" <b-hebrew at lists.ibiblio.org>
> Sent: Saturday, July 24, 2004 11:00 PM
> Subject: Re: [b-hebrew] 1450 BCE Exodus ? 'Apiru = Hebrews ?
> > On 24/07/2004 21:40, Yigal Levin wrote:
> > >Please remember, that the dates given below are all based on the
> > >that Shishak, who invaded Judah in Rehoboam's 5th year, is the same as
> > >Sheshonq I, who invaded "Retenu" in c. 925 B.C.E. I personally do not
> > >the equation, but this just shows that this whole dating scheme is not
> > >purely "biblical" - it is based on modern scholarly research, both of the
> > >Bible and of Egyptian chronology. So the date of 1446 for the Exodus is
> > >more "Biblical" than any other.
> > >
> > >
> > Actually, what depends on this questionable synchronism is not the
> > Israelite dates but the Egyptian ones. The Israelite dates, back to
> > Solomon at least, can be reconstructed from the reign lengths given in
> > Kings and Chronicles, and the known dates of Nebuchadnezzar. The main
> > evidence for the date of the Egyptian Sheshonq I is based on his
> > supposed synchronism with Rehoboam. If this synchronism is abandoned,
> > the absolute dates of biblical events are unchanged. But what does then
> > become variable are the Egyptian dates.
> > For example, David Rohl (in "From Eden to Exile") dates the Exodus to
> > 1447 BCE, a date based primarily on the same biblical evidence and
> > arguments that Walter has given and just one year different from
> > Walter's date (although Rohl is not a conservative Christian). But Rohl
> > puts this in the reign of Pharaoh Djedneferre Dudimose of the 13th
> > dynasty - in the Second Intermediate Period and conventionally dated
> > just before 1600 BCE. Rohl is able to do this because he radically
> > redates Egyptian, but not Israelite, history. He compresses the Third
> > Intermediate Period, and identifies the biblical Shishak with Rameses
> > II, and the biblical Saul with the Amarna letters' Labayu. This redating
> > is of course too radical for some, but I mention it just to explain that
> > abandoning the Shishak/Sheshonq identification does not imply adjusting
> > the absolute dates of biblical events.
> > --
> > Peter Kirk
> > peter at qaya.org (personal)
> > peterkirk at qaya.org (work)
> > http://www.qaya.org/
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