[b-hebrew] 1446 BCE Exodus ? Apiru/Habiru = Hebrew ?

Uri Hurwitz uhurwitz at yahoo.com
Sat Jul 24 17:14:13 EDT 2004

The term Habiru, or in its logographic form SA.GAZ ,appears in cuneiform much earlier (than in Egytptian according to Marianne Luban see below ), from the twentieth century BCE. The letter H in the beginning of the word in non-scholastic texts in English refers to a sign that is used for two consonants in cuneiform: the Ayin and the Cha;  the system simply did not have a separate sign for these two consonants.
The term appears also in Ugaritic , -- (prm  -- with an Ayin as a first letter just as in Egyptian and througthout the ANE.
As for the exact meaning and the etymology of the term,opinions are divided, though in many contexts it seems to be "bandits, nomads" and so forth. Certainly so in the Amarna letters.
Jonathan D. Safren" <yonsaf at beitberl.ac.il> wrote: 

1) Habiru would be 'ober in Hebrew because of the Canaanite shift, and not

Not according to Th. Meek:  The term  'ibri without gentilic ending is found in the PN Eber"....which manifestly goes back to an earlier from 'abir(u)......in cuneiform is h(_)biru..."    

MarianneLuban at aol.com wrote:

"The history of the word "apiru", insofar as I know, is thus: Insofar as I 
know, it is first seen in Egyptian texts from the 13th Dynasty (ca. 1745 BCE) ..." 


"... the name "Abdul" ..."  --- BTW there's no such name: it is the word/name ABD plus the aricle Al.... which never stands alone in Arabic. The Alif drops out in a construct chain.


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