[b-hebrew] Alleged meaning of ecclesia in OT
Harold R. Holmyard III
hholmyard at ont.com
Thu Dec 16 06:25:17 EST 2004
>I have to check this out. Doesn't quite look like a Hebrew word to me ....
>I am taking a not very academic class at church on the Gospel of Matthew.
>We are using a definitely not all that academic text. In Matthew 16:18, it
>says that on Peter Jesus will build his church. Text says that the word
>ekklesia is also used in the OT to mean "community of the faithful".
>OK, it is specifically supposedly used in Solomon 16:13, Job 17:16, Isaiah
>38:10, and Ps 9:13, 69:15.
HH: The Septuagint is Greek, but the word
EKKLHSIA does not appear in any of these verses.
The verse numbering is the same in Hebrew as in
Greek. It does not occur in the Wisdom of Solomon
16:13 either. There is no book Solomon 16:13 in
However, the word EKKLHSIA does occur a hundred
times in the Septuagint, and it does mean the
community or assembly there, with reference to
the people of Israel. The word occurs in
Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges, 1 Samuel, 1 Kings, 1
and 2 Chronicles, Ezra, and Nehemiah.
Here are the verses where it occurs. I give the English:
Deut. 4:10 Remember the day you stood before the
LORD your God at Horeb, when he said to me,
"Assemble the people before me to hear my words
so that they may learn to revere me as long as
they live in the land and may teach them to their
Deut. 9:10 The LORD gave me two stone tablets
inscribed by the finger of God. On them were all
the commandments the LORD proclaimed to you on
the mountain out of the fire, on the day of the
Deut. 18:16 For this is what you asked of the
LORD your God at Horeb on the day of the assembly
when you said, "Let us not hear the voice of the
LORD our God nor see this great fire anymore, or
we will die."
Deut. 23:1 ¶ No one who has been emasculated by
crushing or cutting may enter the assembly of the
Deut. 23:2 ¶ No one born of a forbidden marriage
nor any of his descendants may enter the assembly
of the LORD, even down to the tenth generation.
Deut. 23:3 ¶ No Ammonite or Moabite or any of his
descendants may enter the assembly of the LORD,
even down to the tenth generation.
Deut. 23:8 The third generation of children born
to them may enter the assembly of the LORD.
Deut. 31:30 ¶ And Moses recited the words of this
song from beginning to end in the hearing of the
whole assembly of Israel:
Josh. 8:35 There was not a word of all that Moses
had commanded that Joshua did not read to the
whole assembly of Israel, including the women and
children, and the aliens who lived among them.
Judg. 20:2 The leaders of all the people of the
tribes of Israel took their places in the
assembly of the people of God, four hundred
thousand soldiers armed with swords.
Judg. 21:5 ¶ Then the Israelites asked, "Who
from all the tribes of Israel has failed to
assemble before the LORD?" For they had taken a
solemn oath that anyone who failed to assemble
before the LORD at Mizpah should certainly be put
Judg. 21:8 Then they asked, "Which one of the
tribes of Israel failed to assemble before the
LORD at Mizpah?" They discovered that no one from
Jabesh Gilead had come to the camp for the
1Sam. 17:47 All those gathered here will know
that it is not by sword or spear that the LORD
saves; for the battle is the LORD's, and he will
give all of you into our hands."
1Sam. 19:20 so he sent men to capture him. But
when they saw a group of prophets prophesying,
with Samuel standing there as their leader, the
Spirit of God came upon Saul's men and they also
1Kings 8:14 ¶ While the whole assembly of Israel
was standing there, the king turned around and
1Kings 8:22 ¶ Then Solomon stood before the altar
of the LORD in front of the whole assembly of
Israel, spread out his hands toward heaven
1Kings 8:55 He stood and blessed the whole
assembly of Israel in a loud voice, saying:
1Kings 8:65 ¶ So Solomon observed the festival at
that time, and all Israel with him - a vast
assembly, people from Lebo Hamath to the Wadi of
Egypt. They celebrated it before the LORD our God
for seven days and seven days more, fourteen days
1Chr. 13:2 He then said to the whole assembly of
Israel, "If it seems good to you and if it is
the will of the LORD our God, let us send word
far and wide to the rest of our brothers
throughout the territories of Israel, and also to
the priests and Levites who are with them in
their towns and pasturelands, to come and join us.
1Chr. 13:4 The whole assembly agreed to do this,
because it seemed right to all the people.
1Chr. 28:2 ¶ King David rose to his feet and
said: "Listen to me, my brothers and my people.
I had it in my heart to build a house as a place
of rest for the ark of the covenant of the LORD,
for the footstool of our God, and I made plans to
1Chr. 28:8 ¶ "So now I charge you in the sight
of all Israel and of the assembly of the LORD,
and in the hearing of our God: Be careful to
follow all the commands of the LORD your God,
that you may possess this good land and pass it
on as an inheritance to your descendants forever.
1Chr. 29:1 ¶ Then King David said to the whole
assembly: "My son Solomon, the one whom God has
chosen, is young and inexperienced. The task is
great, because this palatial structure is not for
man but for the LORD God.
1Chr. 29:10 ¶ David praised the LORD in the
presence of the whole assembly, saying, "Praise
be to you, O LORD, God of our father Israel, from
everlasting to everlasting.
1Chr. 29:20 ¶ Then David said to the whole
assembly, "Praise the LORD your God." So they
all praised the LORD, the God of their fathers;
they bowed low and fell prostrate before the LORD
and the king.
2Chr. 1:3 and Solomon and the whole assembly went
to the high place at Gibeon, for God's Tent of
Meeting was there, which Moses the LORD's servant
had made in the desert.
2Chr. 1:5 But the bronze altar that Bezalel son
of Uri, the son of Hur, had made was in Gibeon in
front of the tabernacle of the LORD; so Solomon
and the assembly inquired of him there.
2Chr. 6:3 ¶ While the whole assembly of Israel
was standing there, the king turned around and
2Chr. 6:12 ¶ Then Solomon stood before the altar
of the LORD in front of the whole assembly of
Israel and spread out his hands.
2Chr. 6:13 Now he had made a bronze platform,
five cubits long, five cubits wide and three
cubits high, and had placed it in the center of
the outer court. He stood on the platform and
then knelt down before the whole assembly of
Israel and spread out his hands toward heaven.
2Chr. 7:8 ¶ So Solomon observed the festival at
that time for seven days, and all Israel with him
- a vast assembly, people from Lebo Hamath to the
Wadi of Egypt.
2Chr. 10:3 So they sent for Jeroboam, and he and
all Israel went to Rehoboam and said to him:
2Chr. 20:5 ¶ Then Jehoshaphat stood up in the
assembly of Judah and Jerusalem at the temple of
the LORD in the front of the new courtyard
2Chr. 20:14 ¶ Then the Spirit of the LORD came
upon Jahaziel son of Zechariah, the son of
Benaiah, the son of Jeiel, the son of Mattaniah,
a Levite and descendant of Asaph, as he stood in
2Chr. 23:3 the whole assembly made a covenant
with the king at the temple of God. ¶ Jehoiada
said to them, "The king's son shall reign, as
the LORD promised concerning the descendants of
2Chr. 28:14 ¶ So the soldiers gave up the
prisoners and plunder in the presence of the
officials and all the assembly.
2Chr. 29:23 The goats for the sin offering were
brought before the king and the assembly, and
they laid their hands on them.
2Chr. 29:28 The whole assembly bowed in worship,
while the singers sang and the trumpeters played.
All this continued until the sacrifice of the
burnt offering was completed.
2Chr. 29:31 ¶ Then Hezekiah said, "You have now
dedicated yourselves to the LORD. Come and bring
sacrifices and thank offerings to the temple of
the LORD." So the assembly brought sacrifices and
thank offerings, and all whose hearts were
willing brought burnt offerings.
2Chr. 29:32 ¶ The number of burnt offerings the
assembly brought was seventy bulls, a hundred
rams and two hundred male lambs - all of them for
burnt offerings to the LORD.
2Chr. 30:2 The king and his officials and the
whole assembly in Jerusalem decided to celebrate
the Passover in the second month.
2Chr. 30:4 The plan seemed right both to the king and to the whole assembly.
2Chr. 30:13 ¶ A very large crowd of people
assembled in Jerusalem to celebrate the Feast of
Unleavened Bread in the second month.
2Chr. 30:17 Since many in the crowd had not
consecrated themselves, the Levites had to kill
the Passover lambs for all those who were not
ceremonially clean and could not consecrate
[their lambs] to the LORD.
2Chr. 30:23 ¶ The whole assembly then agreed to
celebrate the festival seven more days; so for
another seven days they celebrated joyfully.
2Chr. 30:24 Hezekiah king of Judah provided a
thousand bulls and seven thousand sheep and goats
for the assembly, and the officials provided them
with a thousand bulls and ten thousand sheep and
goats. A great number of priests consecrated
2Chr. 30:25 The entire assembly of Judah
rejoiced, along with the priests and Levites and
all who had assembled from Israel, including the
aliens who had come from Israel and those who
lived in Judah.
Ezra 2:64 ¶ The whole company numbered 42,360,
Ezra 10:1 ¶ While Ezra was praying and
confessing, weeping and throwing himself down
before the house of God, a large crowd of
Israelites - men, women and children - gathered
around him. They too wept bitterly.
Ezra 10:8 Anyone who failed to appear within
three days would forfeit all his property, in
accordance with the decision of the officials and
elders, and would himself be expelled from the
assembly of the exiles.
Ezra 10:12 ¶ The whole assembly responded with a
loud voice: "You are right! We must do as you
Ezra 10:14 Let our officials act for the whole
assembly. Then let everyone in our towns who has
married a foreign woman come at a set time, along
with the elders and judges of each town, until
the fierce anger of our God in this matter is
turned away from us."
Neh. 5:7 I pondered them in my mind and then
accused the nobles and officials. I told them,
"You are exacting usury from your own
countrymen!" So I called together a large meeting
to deal with them
Neh. 5:13 I also shook out the folds of my robe
and said, "In this way may God shake out of his
house and possessions every man who does not keep
this promise. So may such a man be shaken out and
emptied!" ¶ At this the whole assembly said,
"Amen," and praised the LORD. And the people did
as they had promised.
Neh. 7:66 ¶ The whole company numbered 42,360,
Neh. 8:2 ¶ So on the first day of the seventh
month Ezra the priest brought the Law before the
assembly, which was made up of men and women and
all who were able to understand.
Neh. 8:17 The whole company that had returned
from exile built booths and lived in them. From
the days of Joshua son of Nun until that day, the
Israelites had not celebrated it like this. And
their joy was very great.
Neh. 13:1 ¶ On that day the Book of Moses was
read aloud in the hearing of the people and there
it was found written that no Ammonite or Moabite
should ever be admitted into the assembly of God,
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