[b-hebrew] Hatshepsut's Inscription

Michael Banyai Banyai at t-online.de
Mon Aug 23 12:00:00 EDT 2004

Hallo Marianne,

you wrote:

> The scene is captioned "the 
> bringing of eye-paint (ground-up ore) by 37 Aamu".  Their leader's name is given 
> as "Abisha" and women and children are with him.  The children ride on a 
> donkey and they bring a gazelle, too, as a gift.  Before the procession is the word 
> "Hq3 x3swt" or "rulers of foreign lands".  This is the true meaning of the 
> term "Hyksos".  

I compared somewhere the term Hq3 x3swt with the old akkadian (and later on Assyrian and Babylonian) "sar kissati" the highest Mesopotamian royal title, often translated as king of the world but originarily coming from the title of king of Kish (the first monarchy after the mesopotamian Deluge). I found Gernot Wilhelm equating KISH=sanatum, which is Akk. hill. I was not able to find this in any glossary, so I can not say where does Wilhelm have this (probably from a list of Godsnames equivalating the Hurrian Kushuh with SU-EN, that is the Sumerian moon-god?). Should Wilhelm be right (a historian of great reputation!) than we would have the equivalence with the Egyptian title down to the yota. Since, what we commonly translate as foreign lands is the "hill" sign.

Probably was the Egyptian title some translation of a Levantine malikum title, itself a reflection of the akkadian one.

I suppose the reason why the royal title got applied to the Hyksos themselves is because their original name Meluhha/imliq had found a popular etimology in malik=king, that is Egyptian h3qw. Don´t forget that particularly for this name of the Hyksos are (wrong) popular etimologies current, deriving with Josephus (but probably with Manetho because Josephus was surely not current with Egyptian nor with the demotic language of the Egyptian) sos from the demotical word for sheppard.

Best regards,

Bányai Michael

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