[b-hebrew] Hatshepsut's Inscription

MarianneLuban at aol.com MarianneLuban at aol.com
Wed Aug 25 03:52:52 EDT 2004

This is regarding an earlier discussion about Queen Hatshepsut and the 
"Hyksos".  I have checked the hieroglyphic text and see that the relevant part has 
been quite freely translated with the idea that Hatshepsut was "lying"--and 
there were no Hyksos in Egypt in her time.  But, as I stated previously, there 
was no such people called the "Hyksos"--until Manetho began calling a foreign 
element of unknown origin by that appellation.  This is what the pertinent part 

"Beginning  since the Aamu were in the midst of the Northland [Delta] [in] 
Avaris, vagrants among them, toppling what had been made, they ruled in the 
absence of Re, not by divine command down to the time of my Majesty"

H3  Dr   definitely means "beginning since" and not "from the time", as some 
scholars have put it--with prejudice.  Even though "n  rf  m wDw nTr"  is 
clearly there, some have arbitrarily changed "rf" to "iri=f" [he does or did] 
coming up with "and he did not act by divine decree" [meaning Re did not], which 
makes no sense.  "rf" is merely an emphatic, best left untranslated, 
emphasizing the notion that there was no "wDw ntr" [best translated by the German 
"Gottesgebot"] i.e., complete godlessness going on in that Delta right up to the 
time of Hatshepsut.  Then she goes on to say something to the effect that now she 
is on the throne,  the snake on her brow spitting fire at her enemies, she 
has "banished the abomination of the gods"--meaning those Aamu.  No doubt about 
it--she claims the credit.

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