[b-hebrew] Timing of Thera volcano

Kevin W. Woodruff cierpke at prodigy.net
Tue Aug 24 14:11:01 EDT 2004


Stephen:

Some sources for you to check:

"Overview and Assessment of the Evidence for the Date
of the Eruption of Thera" in D. A. Hardy and A. C.
Renfrew, eds., Thera and the Aegean World III:
Proceedings of the Third International Congress,
Santorini, Greece, 3-9 September 1989. Vol. III
"Chronology" (London: The Thera Foundation 1990)
13-18.

V.C. LaMarche, Jr. and K.K. Hirschboeck, 1984. "Frost
rings in trees as records of major volcanic
eruptions", Nature, v. 307, 121-126. 

M. J. Aitken, H. N. Michael, P. P. Betancourt, and P.
M. Warren, "The Thera Eruption: Continued Discussion
of the Dating," Archaeometry 30(1988) 164-182.

K. P. Foster and R. K. Ritner, "Texts, Storms, and the
Thera Eruption," JNES 55(1996) 1-14.
C. F. Macdonald, “Chronologies of the Thera Eruption,”
AJA 105(2001) 527-532.

S. W. Manning, "The Bronze Age Eruption of Thera:
Absolute Dating, Aegean 

Chronology and Mediterranean Cultural Interrelations,"
JMA 1(1988) 17-82.

S. W. Manning, "The Eruption of Thera: Date and
Implications," TAW III.1(1990) 29-40.

S. W. Manning, "The Thera Eruption: the Third Congress
and the Problem of the Date," Archaeometry 32(1990)
91-100.

S. W. Manning, "Thera, Sulphur, and Climatic
Anomalies," OJA 11(1992) 245-253.

S. W. Manning, "Santorini, Ice-cores and Tree-rings:
Resolution of the 1645 or 1628 B.C. Debate?," Nestor
19(1992) 2511-2512.

S. W. Manning, "Dating the Aegean Bronze Age: Without,
With, and Beyond, Radiocarbon," in K. Randsborg (ed.),
Absolute Chronology: Archaeological Europe [Acta
Archaeologica 67 Suppl. 1] (Copenhagen 1996) 15-37.

S. W. Manning, "Aegean and Sardinian Chronology:
Radiocarbon, Calibration, and Thera," in M. S. Balmuth
and R. H. Tykot (eds.), Sardinian and Aegean
Chronology: Towards the Resolution of Relative and
Absolute Dating in the Mediterranean (Oxford 1998)
297-307.

S. W. Manning, A Test of Time: The Volcano of Thera
and the Chronology and History of the Aegean and East
Mediterranean in the mid-Second Millennium B.C.
[Oxford 1999].

S. W. Manning, B. Kromer, P. I. Kuniholm, and M. W.
Newton, “Anatolian Tree-rings and a New Chronology for
the East Mediterranean Bronze – Iron Ages,” Science
294(2001) 2532-2535.

S. W. Manning, C. B. Ramsey, C. Doumas, T. Marketou,
G. Cadogan, and C. L. Pearson, “New Evidence for an
Early Date for the Aegean Late Bronze Age and Thera
Eruption,” Antiquity 76(2002) 733-744.

P. Warren, "Absolute Dating of the Bronze Age Eruption
of Thera (Santorini)," Nature 308:5959(1984) 492-493

P. M. Warren, "The Minoan Civilisation of Crete and
the Volcano of Thera," Journal of the Ancient
Chronology Forum 4(1990-91) 29-39.

P. M. Warren, "LM IA: Knossos, Thera, Gournia," in P.
P. Betancourt, V. Karageorghis, R. Laffineur, and
W.-D. Niemeier (eds.), MELETEMATA: Studies in Aegean
Archaeology Presented to Malcolm H. Wiener as He
Enters His 65th Year [Aegaeum 20] (Liège/Austin 1999)
893-903.

M. H. Wiener, "The White Slip I of Tell el-Dab'a and
Thera: Critical Challenge for the Aegean Long
Chronology," in V. Karageorghis (ed.), White Slip Ware
(Nicosia 2000) 195-202.

http://projectsx.dartmouth.edu/classics/history/bronze_age/chronobib.html

http://www.arts.cornell.edu/dendro/thera.html
http://www.mystae.com/restricted/streams/thera/dating.html


Kevin



--- Stephen Segall <segall at umich.edu> wrote:

> All of the archeological evidence about the date of
> this volcano is
> suspect. A conclusive way to date the Thera volcano
> may be through study
> of ice cores from Greenland, Antarctica or other
> places that can date
> volcanic events by comparison with more recent and
> more precisely known
> events that are recorded in the ice cores. Does
> anyone know of such
> studies and do you have references to them?
> 
> On Mon, 23 Aug 2004, Karl Randolph wrote:
> 
> > Marianne:
> >
> > If as you claim below, Exodus mentions phenomena
> consistant with the Theran eruption, and those
> phenomena were also connected timewise with Ahmoses'
> attack on the Hyksos' strongholds, you have just
> made my point that the Exodus under Moses occured
> under the last or next to last Hyksos pharaoh (next
> to last, if the pharaoh of the Exodus was killed as
> mentioned in Exodus, and his successor ruled for
> only a short period before being expelled).
> >
> > Karl W. Randolph.
> >
> > ----- Original Message -----
> > From: MarianneLuban at aol.com
> >
> > > In a message dated 8/21/2004 10:02:57 AM Pacific
> Daylight Time,
> > > Banyai at t-online.de writes:
> > >
> > >
> > > > I suppose you miss the point Marianne. You use
> the stratum where the Theran
> > > > pumice was found as a marker for the date as
> the eruption took place
> > >
> > > No.  I am no vulcanologist.  I do not place the
> eruption of Thera at all.
> > > Don't confuse me with Manfred Bietak.  I have
> used the eruption as a "marker"
> > > for nothing.  The only thing I did in my book
> was discuss the theories of others
> > > as to whether this "tempest" described at Karnak
> by Ahmose (and also hinted
> > > at by the pRhind when the onslaught of the
> Hyksos strongholds took place) can
> > > have had anything to do with the final eruption
> of Thera in antiquity--and the
> > > phenomena described in the BOE.  Some say
> "yes"--others "no".  It has become
> > > an ongoing debate in the journals.  I tend to
> side with the "yes"
> > > contingent--because I have faith that the Torah
> would not describe things that seem so
> > > connected with a natural disaster for no reason
> at all.  Hail, raining soot and
> > > darkness for three days don't happen every day
> in Egypt.
> > --
> >
>
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=====
Prof. Kevin W. Woodruff, M. Div., M. S. I. S.
Library Director/Reference Librarian, Professor of Bible and Greek
Tennessee Temple University/Temple Baptist Seminary, 1815 Union Ave. 
Chattanooga, Tennessee 37404, United States of America
423/493-4252 (office) 423/493-4423 (home) 423/493-4497 (FAX)
Cierpke at prodigy.net  http://pages.prodigy.net/cierpke/woodruff.htm



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