[b-hebrew] Thutmose III Exodus ?
Walter R. Mattfeld
mattfeld12 at charter.net
Sat Aug 21 11:40:41 EDT 2004
Marianne Luban has proposed that 'remnants" of the Hyksos remained in Lower
Egypt till the days of Hatshepsut and Thuthmose III, and were expelled ca.
1446 BCE by Thuthmose III to become the Bible's Exodus.
My "reading" of Clayton's comments on Pharaohs Ahmose I, Amenhotep I,
Thuthmosis I and II, leave me with the impression that these were valiant
"warrior-pharaohs" engaged in campaigns designed to "extend the borders of
Egypt" in both Nubia and Syria-Palestine. They "brag" of bringing back
captured rebels and making slaves of them in Egypt.
I cannot -for the life of me- envision maurading Hyksos, rampaging in
Lower Egypt to the days of Hatshepsut and Thuthmosis III, while the previous
pharaohs marched Egyptian armies off into foreign lands, exposing an
undefended Egypt to the mercies of Marianne's "roving, pillaging Hyksos
king would be so foolish as to leave a dangerous enemy within his borders
while he marches off to engage Syrians and Nubians ! On this issue, a
two-front war, "divide and conquer an enemy," (the Hyksos in Lower Egypt and
the Egyptian army in Nubia and or Syria), I recall that Ka-mose intercepted
messenger from the Hyksos king Apophis, asking the Nubians to attack the
rear of the
Kamose's army while Apophis held the army down in the north, that is to say
strategy of using "two fronts" would divide and weaken Kamose's forces
leading to his defeat.
If Kamose was shrewd enough to anticipate that his Hyksos antagonist,
Apophis, would seek a two front war against him, why wouldn't this caution
be passed on to future pharaohs ? That is to say, don't allow a situation to
arise of a two front war (a two front war Napoleon's undoing in Spain and
Russia and later Hitler's undoing- his army split in Russia and in France
and in Italy. A two front war was employed against America, Japan in the
West, Germany in the East).
"So your wishes have failed, miserable Asiatic, who had been saying : "I am
lord without peer. As far as Hermopolis and the House of Hat-Hor are
bringing tribute to Avaris in the two rivers." I shall leave it in
desolation, without people therein, after I have destroyed their towns. I
shall burn up their places, made into red mounds forever, because of the
damage which they did in this (part of) Egypt, they who gave themselves over
to serving the Asiatics, after they had abandoned Egypt, their mistress.
I captured a message of his above the oasis, going south to Cush, upon a
letter of papyrus. I found it, in written words from the ruler of Avaris :
"Aa-user-Re, the son of Re: Apophis, sending greetings to my son, the ruler
of Cush. Why do you arise as a ruler without letting me know ? Do you see
what Egypt has done to me: the ruler who is in it, Ka-mose the Strong, given
life, attacking me on my own soil, (although) I had not assaulted him- just
like everything that he has done to you ? He picks out these two lands to
persecute them, my land and yours. He has destroyed them. Come north. Do not
falter. See, he is here in my hand, and there is no one waiting for you in
this part of Egypt. See, I will not give him leave until you have arrived.
Then we shall divide the towns of this Egypt, and our [two lands] will be
happy in joy." (cf. pp.89-93. Vol. 2. "The War Against the Hyksos." James B.
Pritchard. Editor._ The Ancient Near East, A New Anthology of Texts and
Pictures_. Princeton University Press. 1975. paperback)
I thus cannot endorse Marianne's notion that the Hyksos
were still a threatening power in Lower Egypt to be reckoned and still
rampaging in Lower Egypt as late as Hatshepsut and
Thuthmosis III. Thus, for me, there was "no" Hyksos expulsion ca. 1446 BCE
aligning with the Bible (1 Kings 6:1).
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