[b-hebrew] DSS Tense Aspect Mood

goranson at duke.edu goranson at duke.edu
Sat Mar 1 06:37:36 EST 2003

Thanks for your reply, Ken.

Though I suppose we could agree that sources should be used carefully, 
that Josephus mentions fate, among other things, is no big problem. My 
JJS article on his sources (Posidonius via Strabo, etc.), not cited in 
yours, deals with this; see also, e.g., R. Argall in the George 
Nickelsburg FS, if interested. Essenes do have predestination 
interests as Qumran confirms; Pharisees, or at any rate Rabbis, with 
all is forseen yet freewill is given, match the middle range; 
Sadducees, the smallest, with Torah limits fit freewill OK, for 
starters. Of course Josephus selects and colors--but all sources do; 
and we know his biases better than many others. I could go on about 
this, but it's maybe not b-hebrew stuff, so won't, unless you wish, or 

A few more very preliminary comments on your interesting proposal. On 
p. 6 of 10 you mention a "certain" form, "certain" meaning. I guess 
you mean certain as in particular, specified, given. But the other 
meaning--sure, secure--came up in my mind as a question. In other 
words, how can you be certain of a meaning (TAM=tense, aspect, mood? 
if so, perhaps spell out). In other words, your project is to figure 
out how verbs are used and how to understand them. How then can you 
determine this, then quantify, then analyse, in order to be certain of 
a meaning (and/or the absolute or relative time) you already decided 
in the previous step? In other other words, in cases where a sentence 
can arguably be read two ways, how do you decide before entering in 
your database? Or will you have as part of your calculus, the 
certainty, relatively, of your various imputs? Or leave out or process 
separate iffy cases? Maybe I missed something. 
Typos: Riechenbach-->Reichenbach
Puech pub. Llecoffre-->Lecoffre
Zevit no hyphen

Stephen Goranson

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