[b-hebrew] Pharaoh as god

Yigal Levin Yigal-Levin at utc.edu
Mon Jul 7 15:30:33 EDT 2003

>From what I recall, and this is totally off the top of my head, the
Pharaohs acheived divine status by the begining of the Middle Kingdom, c.
2000 BCE.

But I'll gladly take corrections.


At 02:25 PM 7/7/2003 -0500, Karl Randolph wrote:
>To All:
>When did it become the tradition that pharaoh was to be considered as a god?
>While it is well attested to later that pharaoh was to be considered a
god, it is my understanding that at the very beginning of the kingdom,
pharoah was merely a first among equals, only later acquiring greater and
greater authority. At which point did he start claiming divinity? Are there
any historical records that spell out that point? Was it during the Hyksos
period when the shepherd kings tried to legitimize their claim to the
throne? Earlier? Later? When do we find the first claims of divinity? Was
there any controversy conserning those claims?
>Yours, Karl W. Randolph.
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Dr. Yigal Levin
Dept. of Philosophy and Religion
University of Tennessee at Chattanooga
615 McCallie Avenue
Chattanooga TN 37403-2598

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