[b-hebrew] Ark of the Covenant, Egyptian Prototype ?

Walter R. Mattfeld mattfeld12 at charter.net
Sat Apr 12 17:17:53 EDT 2003

Uri wrote:
Walter, You may wish to look up what K.Kitchen, the eminent Egyptologist
wrote on this very subject. He found a parallel to the ark in LB Egypt. This
is in an article on Israel in Egypt ( I don't remember the exact entry) in
ABD, and elsewhere. If you neeed more precise references let me know.

Dear Uri,
I would be grateful if you could supply a bibliography on Kitchen's
observations. I am aware that a number of scholars have noted the presence
of an Egyptian chest with poles attached for carrying from Pharaoh
Tutankhamun's tomb, but this chest is NOT a portable throne for a god to sit
atop, the Amon-Re Chest does MEET THE CRITERIA, as a possible prototype
(?)for the Ark of the Covenant.

While many are vaguely aware that Pharaoh Akhenaten inaugurated the worship
of ONE GOD, the Aten and addressed him  as SOLE GOD, generally UNKNOWN is
that Amon-Re (two gods fused together), who was restored to power after
Akhenaten's demise, was ALSO addressed as "SOLE GOD."

"O Re, venerated in Karnak...he of Heliopolis. Lord of the 9th day of the
month, in whose honor men keep the 6th and 7th day...His name is hidden from
his children- in his name of Amun...THOU ART THE SOLE ONE, who made all that
is, THE ONE AND ONLY, who made what existeth. Men issued from his two eyes,
and from his mouth the gods came into being. He made herbage for the cattle
and the fruit tree for men. He made that whereon live the fish in the river,
and the birds which inhabit the firmament...Praise to thee, who didst make
all this. SOLE ONE AND ONLY with the many hands...Amun, who abideth in all
things ! Atum, Harakhti ! ...Praise to thee, who made all that is, lord of
Truth, father of the gods who madeest man and created beasts...Amun, bull of
goodly countenance...SOLE ONE AND ONLY, without peer, who presideth in
Thebes, the Heliopolitan...Dweller in the Horizon, Horus of the East..."
(pp.285-287. Adolf Erman. _Ancient Egyptian Poetry and Prose._ New York.
Dover Publications. [1927] reprint 1995)

"Amun, thou bull! Thou CALF of the heavenly cow..." (p.309. Adolf Erman.)

Amun-Re's temples throughout Egypt in the "Glory Days" of the New Kingdom
were showered with wealth in the form of Tribute from the conquered peoples
of Canaan, Phoenicia and Syria. A number of "Temple Estates" existed in
Canaan and Syria whose lands and slaves provided continued wealth for Amun's
temples in Egypt. Akhenaten had stripped these estates away from Amun and
gave them to the Aten, his ONE GOD, but after his death the Estates were
returned to Amun-Re. Evidently the Asiatics of Syria-Palestine were WELL
AWARE of Egyptian gods gods claiming to be the SOLE ONE AND ONLY, Aten and
Amun-Re, evidently, a Late Bronze Age Yahweh-Elohim did not go
"unchallenged" for this epithet and title !

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