Jeremiah describes the primeval state of tohu we bohu in Jer. 4: 23ff. It is obviously not amorphous matter, a fomless void, chaos or anything like that. It is simply barren, desolate, uninhabited, and dark. Lisbeth S. Fried Visiting Scholar University of Michigan Department of Near Eastern Studies Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 lizfried at umich.edu Spem successus alit.