Vowel Reduction and the Definite Article

Peter Kirk Peter_Kirk at sil.org
Mon Sep 4 08:32:18 EDT 2000


Thank you, Henry. Well, my phonological case is not as strong as I thought,
because the rule I learned that propretonic qamets is shortened seems to be
very far from absolute. Though I don't think I was ever suggesting anything
more than a "sporadic irregular diachronic change".

Is there in fact a sub-class of words in which qamets does not reduce as a
rule? I don't have my grammar books at hand to check for this rule.

Peter Kirk

----- Original Message -----
From: "Henry Churchyard" <churchh at usa.net>
To: "Biblical Hebrew" <b-hebrew at franklin.oit.unc.edu>
Sent: Sunday, September 03, 2000 1:06 AM
Subject: Re: Vowel Reduction and the Definite Article


> >>> From: Peter Kirk
>
> >>> I would actually lean towards the phonological argument I mention
> >>> there.  I suggest that the original was baaree'shiyt (absolute
> >>> with article), with three long vowels.  The Samaritan
> >>> pronunciation apparently supports this.  But the rather anomalous
> >>> qamets two syllables before the stress (a position where it is
> >>> usually replaced by a schwa) became shortened, in the Jewish
> >>> pronunciation tradition of this obviously well known word, to a
> >>> schwa.
>
> >> From: "George Athas" <gathas at globalfreeway.com.au>
>
> >> But is the definite article reducible.  I know that qamets is
> >> reducible in propretonic position, but does this also encompass the
> >> definite article when it has been lengthened to qamets?  Or, put
> >> another way, do we reduce vowels first and then add the definite
> >> article, or do we add the definite article and then reduce vowels?
>
> > From: "Peter Kirk" <Peter_Kirk at sil.org>
>
> > Probably normally we reduce vowels first then add the definite
> > article.  But when we do add a definite article and end up with a
> > propretonic qamets (quite a rare situation), we end up with
> > something which would have sounded rather oddly heavy to Hebrew
> > ears, and it would not be surprising if reduction crept in here,
> > especially in such a prominent position.  But I would value input
> > from an expert on Hebrew phonology.  Henry, where are you?
>
> Well, to have unreduced long _aa_ in an open syllable which is
> separated by at least one unreduced syllable from the word's main
> stress is somewhat infrequent within words without prefixed clitics --
> but such unreduced _aa_ vowels are in fact extremely common when
> clitics such as the definite article (or the waC- of wayyiqtol) occur
> before a guttural consonant or _r_.
>
> A reduction of b- + (h)aC- + reeshiit > b at reeshiit (where haC-, with
> "C"=assimilating consonant, is the apparent underlying/reconstructed
> phonological shape of the definite article) could not be done by
> normal strictly-synchronic phonological processes; if such a thing
> happened, it would have to be a sporadic irregular diachronic change.
>
> I couldn't really say beforehand exactly how unusual such long _aa_
> vowels in an open "propretonic" syllable really are in non-clitic
> contexts, so I decided to do a search.
>
> The list of cases I found is attached below.  Excluded are forms where
> such _qames._ occurs only in a clitic prefix (definite article or
> conjunction), forms of _qodashim_ and _shorashim_ etc. where the
> _qames._ under the first root consonant is probably a _qames. qat.an_
> (short o) rather than long aa, and finally w at qaataltaa/w at qaataltii
> forms with shifted stress (where the _qames._ is in the syllable
> directly preceding the unshifted stress position, and so is not really
> "propretonic" in the relevant sense):
>
> ===========================================
>
> Forms that I didn't notice to be proper names, or to have _qames._ in
> certain highly specialized phonological/morphological environments:
>
> 2Ch12. 3             p:ArASi2ym
> 2Sa 8. 4             p:ArASi3ym
> 1Sa13. 5             p:ArASi3ym
> Eze23.12             p:ArASi3ym
> 2Ch 9.25             p:ArASi2ym
> 2Sa10.18             p:ArASi2ym
> Eze23. 6             p:ArASi3ym
> 2Ch 1.14             p:ArASi2ym
> 1Kg 5. 6             p:ArASi1ym;
> Isa31. 1            p:A8rASiym_4
> 2Kg13. 7            p:A8rASiym_4
> Isa22. 6            p:A8rASi2ym
> Isa21. 7            p:A8rASi3ym
> Isa21. 9            p:A8rASi2ym
> 1Ch18. 4            p:A8rASi3ym
> 1Kg10.26            p:A8rASi2ym
> Eze26. 7          uwb.pArASi3ym
> Jos24. 6          uwb.pArASi3ym
> Hos 1. 7          uwb.pArASi1ym;
> Joe 2. 4          uwk.pArASi3ym
> Isa36. 9          uwl.pArASi1ym;
> 2Ch16. 8          uwl.pArASi3ym
> 2Kg18.24          uwl.pArASi1ym;
> Ezr 8.22            uwpArASi3ym
> 1Ch19. 6            uwpArASi1ym;
> 1Kg20.20            uwpArASi1ym;
> Eze38. 4            uwpArASi4ym
> Neh 2. 9            uwpArASi1ym;
> 2Ch 8. 6           hap:ArASi2ym
> 2Sa 1. 6           hap:ArASi3ym
> 1Kg 9.19           hap:ArASi2ym
> Jer46. 4          hap:A6rASi3ym
> Exo14.28    w.'Et-hap:A6rASi3ym
> Isa22. 7        w.hap:A6rASi3ym
> Dan11.40         uwb.pA6rASi3ym
> Gen50. 9        g:am-p:ArASi2ym
> 1Kg 1. 5           uwpA6rASi3ym
> 2Kg22. 6           lEHA6rASi3ym
> Eze27.14           uwpA8rASiym_4
> Hab 1. 8            p:A8rASA2yw
> Exo14.23            uwpArASA2yw
> 1Kg 9.22            uwpArASA1yw;
> 2Kg13.14            uwpArASA1yw;
> Exo14. 9            uwpArASA3yw
> 2Ch 8. 9            uwpArASA1yw;
> Isa28.28            uwpArASA3yw
> 2Kg 2.12           uwpA6rASA3yw
> Hab 1. 8           uwpA8rASAyw_4
> Exo15.19          uwb.pArASAyw_4
> Exo14.17          uwb.pArASA1yw;
> Exo14.18          uwb.pArASA1yw;
> 1Sa 8.11          uwb.pArASA3yw
> Exo14.26       w.`al-p:ArASA1yw;
>
> Jer 2.19              rA`Ate4k
> Eze16.23              rA`Ate2k
> Jer22.22              rA`Ate1k;
> Jer 4.18              rA`Atek_4
> Isa47.10            b.rA`Ate4k
> Jer 3. 2          uwb.rA`Ate1k;
> Jer11.15              rA`Ate3kiy
> Num35.23              rA`Ato1w;
> Jer18. 8           merA6`Ato3w
> Jer23.14           merA8`Ato2w
> Jon 4. 6           merA8`Ato2w
> Jer 8. 6         `al-rA6`Ato3w
> Jer48.16           w.rA6`Ato3w
> Qoh 7.15           b:.rA`Ato1w;
> Obad  13           b:.rA`Ato3w
> 2Sa 3.39           k:.rA`Ato1w;
> Qoh 5.12            l.rA`Ato1w;
> Jer 6. 7              rA`AtA2h:
> Lam 1.22              rA`AtA6m
> Jer 1.16              rA`AtA2m
> Jer44. 3              rA`AtA4m
> Hos 9.15              rA`AtA6m
> Jer33. 5              rA`AtA1m;
> Jer11.12              rA`AtA1m;
> Jer11.14              rA`AtA1m;
> Joe 4.13              rA`AtA1m;
> Jer51.24              rA`AtA4m
> Jon 1. 2              rA`AtA3m
> Jer23.11              rA`AtA3m
> Hos 7. 2              rA`AtA3m
> Est 9. 2             rA8`AtA2m
> Jer 2.27             rA8`AtAm_4
> Jer44. 5           merA8`AtA2m
> Jer14.16          'Et-rA`AtA1m;
> Hos 7. 3           b:.rA`AtA3m
> Nah 3.19            rA`At.kA3
> 1Kg 2.44        'Et-rA`At.kA3
> 1Sa24.10              rA`AtE1kA;
> Jer 2.28              rA`AtE2kA
> 2Sa16. 8          b:.rA6`AtE3kA
> Lam 1.21             rA8`Atiy_4
> Num11.15           b:.rA`Ati1y;
> Hos10.15           rA8`at.kE2m
> 1Sa12.17      k:i8y-rA`at.kE6m
> Jer44. 9           rA`o6tekE3m
> 1Sa10.19          rA`owteykE6m
> Eze20.43          rA`owteykE3m
>
> Isa39. 7             sAriysi3ym
> 2Kg 9.32             sAriysi1ym;
> 2Kg20.18            sA8riysi3ym
> Jer41.16           w.sA6risi3ym
> Jer34.19          has:A8risiym_4
> Est 1.10         has:A6riysi3ym
> Dan 1.11         has:A8riysi3ym
> Isa56. 4         las:A8riysiym_4
> Dan 1.10          has:Ariysiym_4
> Est 1.15          has:Ariysi1ym;
> Dan 1.18          has:Ariysi3ym
> Est 1.12          has:Ariysi2ym
> Dan 1. 7          has:Ariysi3ym
> Dan 1. 8          has:Ariysi3ym
> Dan 1. 9          has:Ariysi1ym;
> 1Ch28. 1      `im-has:Ariysi6ym
> Est 7. 9      min-has:Ariysi5ym
> Jer29. 2        w.has:Ariysi5ym
> Est 6. 2             sAriyse6y
> Est 6.14           w.sAriyse6y
> Est 4. 5          mis:Ariyse6y
> Est 2.21      S.ne8y-sAriyse6y
> Dan 1. 3             sAriysA2yw
> Gen40. 2             sAriysA2yw
> 1Sa 8.15           l.sAriysA3yw
> 2Kg24.12          w.sA8riysA2yw
> 2Kg24.15       w.'Et-sAriysA4yw
> Est 4. 4           w.sAriysE4yhA=4
>
> Eze21.36              HArASe3y
> Isa45.16              HArASe3y
> 2Kg12.12            l.HArASe6y
> 2Ch24.12            l.HArASe6y
> 1Ch22.15            w.HArASe6y
> 1Ch14. 1            w.HArASe6y
> 2Sa 5.11            w.HArASe6y
> 1Ch14. 1            w.HArASe3y
> 2Sa 5.11           w.HA8rASe3y
> 1Ch29. 5              HArASi2ym
> Zec 2. 3              HArASi1ym;
> Hos13. 2              HArASi3ym
> 2Ch24.12            w.HArASi3ym
> Isa44.11            w.HArASi6ym
> Ezr 3. 7          w.lEHArASi2ym
> 2Ch34.11           lEHA8rASiym_4
>
> Num33.52             b:AmotA3m
> Jer17. 3             b:AmotE3ykA
> Hab 3.19            b:Amowta3y
> 2Sa22.34            b:Amowta3y
> Eze43. 7            b:AmowtA1m;
> Deu33.29        `al-b:Amowte6ymow
> 2Sa 1.25        `al-b:AmowtE3ykA
> 2Sa 1.19        `al-b:AmowtE3ykA
> Isa36. 7         'Et-b:AmotA6yw
> 2Ch32.12         'Et-b:AmotA3yw
> 2Kg18.22         'Et-b:AmotA6yw
> Eze 6. 3        b:Amo8wteykE1m;
> Lev26.30     'Et-b:Amo8teykE4m
> Deu32.13       `al-**b:A6m.Atey
> Mic 1. 3       `al-**b:A6m.Atey
> Isa58.14       `al-**b:A6m.Atey
>
> Eze23.15              SAliSi3ym
> Eze23.23             SA8liSiym_4
> Exo14. 7            w.SAliSi3m
> Exo15. 4             SA8liSA3yw
> 2Ch 8. 9             SAliySA3yw
> 1Kg 9.22            w.SAliSA3yw
> 2Kg 9.25           **SA8liSo3w
> 2Kg15.25             SAliySo4w
> 2Sa23. 8           haS:AliSi4y
> 2Kg10.25        w.haS:A6liSi3ym
> 2Kg10.25         w.laS:AliSi5ym
> 1Sa18. 6          uwb.SAliSi1ym;
> 1Ch11.11       **haS:A6liySi3ym
>
> Dan 9.25              SAbu`i3ym
> Dan 9.24              SAbu`i6ym
> Dan10. 2              SAbu`i3ym
> Dan10. 3              SAbu`i3ym
> Deu16. 9              SAbu`o3t
> Deu16.10              SAbu`owt_4
> Deu16. 9              SAbu`o1wt;
> Exo34.22              SAbu`ot_4
> Dan 9.25            w.SAbu`i5ym
> Dan 9.26           haS:Abu`iym_4
> 2Ch 8.13           haS:Abu`o3wt
> Deu16.16           haS:Abu`o3wt
> Num28.26    b:.SAbu`o67teykE2m
>
> Isa17.10             mA`uz:e3k
> Isa17. 9             mA`uz:o4w
> Dan11.10       `ad-**mA`uz:o1w;
> Jer16.19           uwmA`uz:i4y
> Eze24.25       'Et-mA6`uwz:A3m
> 2Sa22.33            mA`uwz:i3y
> Isa27. 5         b:.mA`uwz:i3y
> Dan11.19          l.mA`uwz:e3y
> Dan11.39            mA8`uz:iym_4
> Dan11.38            mA8`uz:i3ym
> Neh 8.10          mA8`uz:.kE1m;
> Isa23.14           mA`uz:.kE1n;
> Isa23.11            mA`uz.nE1yhA;
>
> 1Kg14.26             mAgin:e6y
> 1Kg14.27             mAgin:e3y
> 2Ch12.10             mAgin:e3y
> 2Sa22. 3             mAgin:i5y
> Hos 4.18             mAgin:E1yhA;
> 2Ch12. 9         'Et-mAgin:e6y
> 2Ch26.14             mAgin:i6ym
> 2Ch 9.16            mA8gin:iym_4
> 1Kg10.17            mA8gin:iym_4
> 2Ch32. 5           uwmAgin:i1ym;
> 2Ch32.27        uwl.mA6gin:i3ym
> Neh 4.10          ham:Agin:i3ym
> 2Ch23. 9    w.'Et-ham:Agin:owt_4
>
> 1Sa15. 6           `.amAleqi4y
> 2Sa 1.13           `.amAleqi3y
> 2Sa 1. 8           `.amAleqi3y
> 1Sa30.13          `.amA8leqi3y
> 1Sa30. 1         wa`.amAleqi6y
> 1Sa15.15         me`.amAleqi6y
> Num14.43         hA`.amAleqi6y
> Gen14. 7         hA`.amAleqi2y
> Jud12.15         hA`.amAleqi1y;
> Num14.45         hA`.amAleqiy_4
> 1Sa27. 8       w.hA`.amAleqi2y
> Num14.25      w.hA8`.amAleqi6y
>
> Eze32.12             `Ariyce6y
> Eze30.11             `Ariyce6y
> Eze31.12             `Ariyce6y
> Eze28. 7             `Ariyce3y
> Jer15.21              `Arici1ym;
> Isa25. 4             `Ariyci3ym
> Isa13.11             `Ariyci3ym
> Isa25. 3             `Ariyci3ym
> Isa25. 5            `A8riyci3ym
> Isa29. 5            `A8riyci3ym
>
> Ezr 7. 6          b:aq:ASAto1w;
> Est 5. 7         uwbaq:ASAti1y;
> Est 7. 3        b:.baq:ASAti1y;
> Est 5. 8      'Et-b:aq:ASAti2y
> Est 9.12    uwmah-b:aq:ASAte6k
> Est 5. 3    uwmah-b:aq:ASAte4k
> Est 7. 2    uwmah-b:aq:ASAte4k
> Est 5. 6    uwmah-b:aq:ASAte4k
>
> Eze31.12          dAliy:owtA4yw
> Eze17. 6         d:Aliy:owtAyw_4
> Jer11.16         d:Aliy:owtA1yw;
> Eze17.23         d:Aliy:owtA3yw
> Eze19.11          d:Aliy:otA1yw;
> Eze31. 7        d:A8liy:owtA2yw
> Eze31. 9        d:A8liy:owtA2yw
> Eze17. 7       w.dA8liy:owtAyw_4
>
> Jos 3.17          b:EHA6rAbA3h
> Jos 3.17          b:EHA7rAbA4h
> Eze30.12             HA8rAbA3h
> Gen 7.22          b:EHA8rAbA3h
> 2Kg 2. 8           b:EHArAbA1h;
> Jos 4.18            hEHArAbA2h
> Hag 2. 6      w.'Et-hEHArAbA1h;
> Exo14.21            lEHArAbA2h
>
> Isa 3. 4             $AreyhE2m
> Hos 7.16             $AreyhE3m
> Hos 9.15             $AreyhE3m
> Jer 2.26            $A8reyhE3m
> Jer32.32            $A8reyhE3m
> Jer17.25          w.$A6reyhE3m
> Jud 5.29             $ArowtE3yhA
> Isa49.23       w.$Aro8wteyhEm_4
>
> Gen35. 3             cA8rAti3y
> 1Sa 1. 6             cA8rAtAh:_4
> Neh 9.27             cA8rAtAm_4
> Isa63. 9              cArAtA5m!
> Jud10.14            cArat.kE1m;
> Isa46. 7           mic:ArAto3w
> 2Ch20. 9           mic:ArAte3nuw
>
> Lev 6. 8         'az.k:ArAtA3h:
> Lev 2. 2     'Et-'az.k:ArAtAh:_4
> Lev 2.16     'Et-'az.k:ArAtA4h:
> Lev 5.12     'Et-'az.k:ArAtAh_4
> Lev 2. 9    'Et-'az.k:A6rAtA3h:
> Num 5.26    'Et-'az.k:A6rAtA3h:
>
> Exo38.19             wAweyhE6m
> Exo26.37             wAweyhE3m
> Exo26.32             wAweyhE3m
> Exo27.17             wAweyhE3m
> Exo36.36             wAweyhE3m
> Exo36.38      w.'Et-wA6weyhE3m
>
> Eze17.19             'A8lAtiy_4
> Gen24.41            me'AlAti1y;
> Gen24.41           me'A6lAti3y
> Eze17.16         'Et-'A6lAto3w
> Deu29.11          uwb.'AlAto2w
>
> Eze16.25             rA8mAte3k
> Eze16.31            w.rAmAte6k
> 1Ch27.27           hArA8mAti2y
> 1Sa 1. 1        min-hArAmAta4yim
> Eze16.39              rAmota3yik
>
> Eze39.23             cAreyhE3m
> Neh 9.27             cAreyhE1m;
> Neh 9.27            cA8reyhE3m
> Jer50. 7           w.cAreyhE6m
>
> Exo20. 5            tA`Ab.de2m=3
> Deu 5. 9            tA`Ab.de2m=3
> Exo23.24           tA8`Ab.de3m
> Deu13. 3         w.nA8`Ab.de1m;
>
> Eze 6. 6         Ham:A6neykE3m
> Lev26.30     'Et-Ham:A6neykE3m
> Eze 6. 4         Ham:A8neykE2m
>
> Exo 7.22          b:.lATeyhE2m
> Exo 8. 3          b:.lATeyhE2m
> Exo 8.14          b:.lATeyhE4m
>
> Eze42.11         mowcA6'eyhE3n
> Num33. 2      'Et-mowcA'eyhE4m
> Num33. 2        l.mowcA'eyhE1m;
>
> 2Kg 5. 6        mic:Ara`.t:o1w;
> 2Kg 5. 3        mic:Ara`.t:o1w;
> 2Kg 5. 7       mic:A8ra`.t:o2w
>
> Jer 7.11             p:Arici4ym
> Dan11.14            p:Ariyce6y
> Eze 7.22            p:Ariyci3ym
>
> Lev13.55        b:.qAraH.t:o3w
> Lev13.43        b:.qAraH.t:o3w
> Lev13.42        b:.qAraH.t:o3w
>
> Ezr 8.17         b:.kAsip.yA6'
> Ezr 8.17         b:.kAsip.yA3'
>
> Est 4. 7             p:ArASa6t
> Est10. 2            uwpArASat_4
>
> 2Ch31.12        **k:A8nan.yA6huw
> 2Ch31.13        **k:A8nan.yA4huw=4
>
> Lev13. 7            herA'oto4w
> Mal 3. 2       b:.herA8'owto2w
>
> Can 2.10              yApAti3y
> Can 2.13              yApAti3y
>
> Eze33.21           l.gAluwte2nuw
> Isa45.13           w.gAluwti6y
>
> Eze27.25             SArowta3yik
> Jer 5.10           b.SArowtE4yhA=4
>
> Mal 2. 2             'Arowti3yhA
> Mal 2. 2           w.'Arowti3y
>
> Exo25.29           q:.`ArotA5yw
> Exo37.16        'Et-q.`ArotA6yw
>
> 1Kg 6. 7       b:.hib:A6noto3w
> 1Kg 6. 7        b:.hib:Anoto1w;
>
> Exo40.37            he`Aloto1w;
> Num 9.22        uwb.he`Aloto3w
>
> 1Ch20. 6            l.hArApA1';
> 1Ch20. 8            l.hArApA3'
>
> 2Ch16. 7     b:.hiS:A6`En.kA5
> 2Ch16. 8    uwb.hiS:A8`En.kA6
>
> Isa65.23      w.cE'.EcA'eyhE3m
> Isa61. 9      w.cE'.EcA'eyhE3m
>
> Gen40.10             $Ariygi2m
> Joe 1. 7             $AriygE1yhA;
>
> 2Ch27. 4        b:i8yrAniy:o3wt
> 2Ch17.12         b:iyrAniy:o3wt
>
> Jon 1. 3             'Aniy:A5h!
> Eze27.29    me'Aniy:o8wteyhE4m
>
> 1Kg12.10            qA8TAn:i6y
> 2Ch10.10            qA8TAn:i6y
>
> Eze23.42            **sAbA'i3ym
> 1Sa25. 3           **kAlib:i1y;
> Eze41.26           w.hA`ub:i1ym;
> Eze26. 9            qA8bAl:o3w
> 1Ch 2.54        ham:AnaH.t:i3y
> Jud 6.17             SA'at:A3h
> Lam 4.10       raH.amA6niy:o3wt
> Zec 9.15          k:.zAwiy:o3wt
> Num11. 8              bAreHa4yim
> Jos19. 6          w.SA8ruwHE2n
> 2Kg15.10           qA8bAl.`A3m
> Isa30.15         t:iw:A6Se`u3wn
> Eze 2. 6              sArAbi6ym
> Num26.24          hay:ASuwbi2y
> Deu 4.26          t:iS:Amedu1wn;
> Eze27. 9       uwmal:A8HeyhEm_4
> Qoh 9. 1        wa`.abAdeyhE3m
> Exo32.25          b:.qAmeyhE1m;
> Est 3. 8           w.dAteyhE5m
> 2Kg 8.12         w.hAroteyhE3m
> Isa 1.15        uwb.pAri$.kE6m
> Hos13.14           qA8TAb.kA_4
> Deu20. 2        k:.qA8rAb.kE3m
> Eze28.16        wA8'ab:Ed.kA_4
> Deu28.20        hiS:A8mEd.kA6
> Eze21.29        hiz:A6kEr.kE3m
> Eze32. 6            cApAt.kA4
> Isa28.18         w.HAzuwt.kE6m
> Eze28.13        hib:Ara'.akA3
> Isa 1.18          H.aTA'eykE6m
> Jer27. 9   w.'El-k:aS:ApeykE2m
> Eze 6. 8   b:.hiz:Aro8wteykE3m
> Num26.13          haS:A'uwli1y;
> Num26.21           hEHAmuwli1y;
> 1Ch27.29          haS:Arowni2y
> Num26.12          hay:Akiyni1y;
> Num26.12          hay:Amiyni2y
> Jud 1.32           hA'A6Seri3y
> Isa 7.25           ye`A6deru3wn
> 2Sa20.26          hay:A6'iri3y
> Num26.29          ham:Akiyri3y
> Lam 3.59          `aw:A6tAti3y
> Jos 3.13          yik:A6retu3wn
> Mic 5. 1         uwmowcA'otA6yw
> Eze31. 4     w.'Et-t:.`AlotE6yhA
> Isa19.10              SAtotE3yhA
> Ezr 4. 7         **k:.nAwotA3yw
> Eze43.18          he`A8$owto2w
> Hos14. 1        w.hAriy:owtA3yw
> Eze35.12          nA'A8cowtE4ykA
> Est 2. 9       w.'Et-mAnowtE4hA=4
> 2Kg15.16          hEhA6rowtE3yhA
> Eze20.38           uwbArowti6y
> Zec 2. 4           l.zArowtA1h:;
> Eze32. 5             rAmuwtE1kA;
> Jud11.35           p:Aci6ytiy-piy_4
> Lev24. 5           w.'ApiytA6
>
> ===========================================
>
> Forms for which I happened to notice that _qames._ was in a
> phonologically-special environment (elided yodh, elided 'aleph, or
> preceding an _r_ middle radical in Pi``el verb form):
>
> 1Ch 6.45            `AreyhE4m
> Zep 3. 6            `AreyhE4m
> 1Ch 4.31            `AreyhE3m
> Lev25.34            `AreyhE3m
> Num31.10            `AreyhEm_4
> 2Ch31.19            `AreyhEm_4
> 1Ch10. 7            `AreyhEm_4
> Jos 9.17        'El-`AreyhE3m
> Jos11.21        `im-`AreyhE3m
> Num21. 2        'Et-`AreyhE1m;
> Num21. 3      w.'Et-`AreyhE2m
> 1Ch 9. 2         b:.`AreyhE2m
> Est 9. 2         b:.`AreyhE4m
> Neh 7.72         b:.`AreyhE2m
> 2Ch19.10         b:.`AreyhE4m
> Ezr 2.70         b:.`AreyhE2m
> Neh 7.72         b:.`AreyhE1m;
> Ezr 2.70         b:.`AreyhE1m;
> Deu19. 1          b.`AreyhE3m
> 2Ch31. 1          l.`AreyhE1m;
> Eze19. 7          w.`AreyhE3m
> Jos 9.17          w.`AreyhEm_4
> Jer36. 6          me`AreyhE3m
> 2Kg17. 9           `A6reyhE3m
> Jer 5. 6       `al-`A6reyhE3m
> Jos10.19       'El-`A6reyhE3m
> 2Kg17.29        b:.`A6reyhE3m
> Neh11. 3        b:.`A6reyhE3m
> 1Ch19. 7         me`A6reyhE3m
> Amo 4. 6           `A6reykE3m
> Deu 3.19        b:.`A6reykE3m
> 2Kg12. 8        mak:A8reykE3m
> Lev26.31       'Et-`A8reykEm_4
> Jer44.21          w.$AreykE3m
> Isa61. 5         'ik:AreykE3m
> Isa 1. 7            `AreykE3m
> Lev26.25        'El-`AreykE2m
> Jer40.10         b:.`AreykE6m
> Lev26.33          w.`AreykE3m
>
> Eze32.27           rA'SeyhE4m
> 1Ch12.33           rA'SeyhE6m
> Exo36.38           rA'SeyhE4m
> Exo38.19           rA'SeyhE4m
> Exo38.17           rA'SeyhE3m
> Exo38.28           rA'SeyhE3m
> Eze 7.18           rA'SeyhE3m
> Eze 1.22       `al-rA'SeyhE3m
> Eze23.42       `al-rA'SeyhE1n;
> Eze44.20       'Et-rA'SeyhE1m;
> 1Kg20.32        b:.rA'SeyhE4m
> Eze27.30      `al-rA6'SeyhE3m
> Eze23.15       b:.rA6'SeyhE3m
> 2Kg10. 7      'Et-rA8'SeyhEm_4
> Lev10. 6          rA7'SeykE6m
> Deu29. 9           rA'SeykE6m
> Eze24.23       `al-rA'SeykE4m
> Isa29.10     w.'Et-rA'SeykE6m
> Deu 1.13        b:.rA'SeykE1m;
>
> Rut 2. 4         y.bArEk.kA6
> Jer31.23         y.bArEk.kA6
> Deu23.21         y.bArEk.kA5
> Deu16.15         y.bArEk.kA5
> Num 6.24         y.bArEk.kA6
> Deu14.29         y.bArEk.kA_4
> Deu24.19         y.bArEk.kA_4
> Deu15.10         y.bArEk.kA_4
> Deu16.10         y.bArEk.kA3
> Deu14.24         y.bArEk.kA3
> Gen27.10         y.bArEk.kA3
> 2Kg 4.29  w.ki8y-y.bArEk.kA6
> Gen22.17        '.abArEk.kA4
> Gen12. 2     wa'.abA6rEk.kA3
> Gen27.25       t:.bA8rEk.kA3
> Deu15. 4        y.bA8rEk.kA_4
> Gen27. 4        t:.bArEk.kA6
>
> ===========================================
>
> Proper names:
>
> 1Ch27. 2          yA8SAb.`A3m
> 1Ch11.11           yASAb.`A6m
> 1Ch12. 7         w.yASAb.`A3m
>
> 2Sa23.30       p:ir.`A6toni3y
> 1Ch11.31      hap:ir.`Atoni1y;
> Jud12.15     hap:ir.`Atowni2y
> Jud12.13     hap:ir.`Atowni1y;
> 1Ch27.14     hap:ir.`Atowni3y
>
> 1Ch 4.21             mAreSA2h
> 1Ch 2.42             mAreSA3h
> Mic 1.15            mA8reSA2h
> Jos15.44         uwmA8re'SA2h
> 2Ch20.37         mim:A6reSA3h
> 2Ch14. 8         `ad-mAreSA1h;
> 2Ch11. 8       w.'Et-mAreSA3h
> 2Ch14. 9           l.mAreSA1h;
>
> Dan 8. 1            dAniy:e3'l
> Dan 8.27            dAniy:e4'l
> Dan12. 5            dAniy:e3'l
> Dan10. 7            dAniy:e6'l
> Dan 8.15            dAniy:e3'l
> Dan 1.21          d:A8niy:e3'l
> Dan 9. 2          d:A8niy:e3'l
> Dan12. 4           dA8niy:e4'l
> Dan10. 2           dA8niy:e'l_4
> Ezr 8. 2           d:Aniy:e2'l
> Dan 1. 6           d:Aniy:e6'l
> Dan12. 9           d:Aniy:e2'l
> Neh10. 7           d:Aniy:e6'l
> Dan 9.22           d:Aniy:e3'l
> 1Ch 3. 1           d:Aniy:e3'l
> Dan 1.11           d:Aniy:e3'l
> Dan10.11           d:Aniy:e6'l
> Dan 1. 8           d:Aniy:e'l_4
> Dan10. 1         l.dA8niy:e3'l
> Dan 1. 7         l.dA8niy:e5'l
> Dan 1.10         l.dA6niy:e3'l
> Dan 1. 9      'Et-d:A6niy:e3'l
> Dan 1.11       `al-d:Aniy:e6'l
> Dan 1.19         k:.dAniy:e6'l
> Dan 1.17          w.dAniy:e6'l
> Eze28. 3      **mid:A8niy'e2l
> Eze14.20         **d:Aniy'e6l
> Eze14.14         **d:Aniy'e6l
>
> 1Kg12. 2           yArAb.`A6m
> 2Kg 3. 3           yArAb.`A6m
> 1Kg16. 2           yArAb.`A4m
> 2Kg13. 2           yArAb.`A6m
> 1Kg14.17           yArAb.`A3m
> 1Kg15. 1           yArAb.`A6m
> 2Kg15.24           yArAb.`A6m
> 1Kg14. 2           yArAb.`A5m
> 2Ch13. 4           yArAb.`A6m
> 2Kg14.28           yArAb.`A5m
> Amo 7.11           yArAb.`A2m
> 1Kg21.22           yArAb.`A6m
> 1Kg14. 4           yArAb.`A3m
> 2Kg15.28           yArAb.`A6m
> 2Kg14.23           yArAb.`A6m
> 1Kg16.26           yArAb.`A6m
> 1Kg16.19           yArAb.`A3m
> 1Kg14. 2           yArAb.`A2m
> 2Ch10.12           yArAb.`A6m
> 2Ch10. 2           yArAb.`A6m
> 2Kg14.24           yArAb.`A6m
> 2Kg14.16           yArAb.`A6m
> 2Ch13. 1           yArAb.`A2m
> 2Kg23.15           yArAb.`A6m
> 2Kg17.21           yArAb.`A6m
> 1Kg16. 7           yArAb.`A2m
> 2Kg14.27           yArAb.`A6m
> 1Kg13. 4           yArAb.`A6m
> 1Kg16. 3           yArAb.`A6m
> Hos 1. 1           yArAb.`A6m
> 1Kg12.12           yArAb.`A6m
> 1Kg14. 6           yArAb.`A2m
> 1Kg14.10           yArAb.`A3m
> 2Kg15. 9           yArAb.`A6m
> 1Kg16.31           yArAb.`A6m
> 1Kg12.25           yArAb.`A6m
> 1Kg11.40           yArAb.`A4m
> 1Kg14. 5           yArAb.`A5m
> 1Kg15.34           yArAb.`A3m
> 2Kg13.11           yArAb.`A6m
> Amo 1. 1           yArAb.`A6m
> 2Kg10.29           yArAb.`A6m
> 2Ch13. 6           yArAb.`A6m
> 1Kg15.29           yArAb.`A3m
> 1Kg13.34           yArAb.`A2m
> 2Kg15.18           yArAb.`A6m
> 2Kg 9. 9           yArAb.`A6m
> 1Kg14.20           yArAb.`A3m
> 1Kg12.20           yArAb.`A3m
> 1Kg22.53           yArAb.`A6m
> 1Ch 5.17           yArAb.`A6m
> 1Kg14.13           yArAb.`A1m;
> 2Ch13. 2           yArAb.`A1m;
> 1Kg15. 7           yArAb.`A1m;
> 1Kg14.30           yArAb.`A3m
> 1Kg12. 2           yArAb.`A3m
> 2Kg17.22           yArAb.`A3m
> 2Ch13. 8           yArAb.`A3m
> 2Ch10. 2           yArAb.`A3m
> Amo 7. 9           yArAb.`A3m
> 2Ch10. 3           yArAb.`A3m
> 1Kg11.28           yArAb.`A3m
> 1Kg15. 6           yArAb.`A3m
> 1Kg13.33           yArAb.`A3m
> 1Kg12. 3           yArAb.`A3m
> 1Kg12.26           yArAb.`A3m
> 1Kg14.14           yArAb.`A3m
> 1Kg12.32           yArAb.`A6m|
> 1Kg15.30           yArAb.`Am_4
> 2Kg10.31          yA8rAb.`A3m
> 1Kg14.19          yA8rAb.`A3m
> 2Ch11.14          yA8rAb.`Am_4
> 2Kg14.29          yA8rAb.`Am_4
> 1Kg14.16          yA8rAb.`Am_4
> 2Ch13.15      'Et-yA8rAb.`Am_4
> 1Kg14.11        l.yA8rAb.`A6m
> 1Kg11.31        l.yA8rAb.`A3m
> 1Kg14.10        l.yA8rAb.`Am_4
> 2Ch13.13        w.yA8rAb.`A4m
> 1Kg11.29        w.yA8rAb.`A3m
> 1Kg14. 7         l.yArAb.`A4m
> 1Kg15.29         l.yArAb.`A3m
> 1Kg15. 9         l.yArAb.`A3m
> 2Kg15. 1         l.yArAb.`A3m
> 1Kg14.13         l.yArAb.`A3m
> 2Ch13. 3         w.yArAb.`A4m
> 1Kg13. 1         w.yArAb.`A4m
> 2Kg13.13         w.yArAb.`A3m
> 2Ch12.15         w.yArAb.`A3m
> 2Ch 9.29       `al-yArAb.`A3m
> Amo 7.10       'El-yArAb.`A6m
> 2Ch11. 4       'El-yArAb.`A1m;
> 1Kg12.15       'El-yArAb.`A3m
> 2Ch10.15       'El-yArAb.`A3m
> 1Kg15.25      b:En-yArAb.`A4m
> 2Kg15. 8       bEn-yArAb.`A6m
> 1Kg14. 1       bEn-yArAb.`A1m;
> 2Kg13. 6     b:eyt-yArAb.`A4m
> 1Kg14.10      beyt-yArAb.`A3m
> 2Kg17.21       'Et-yArAb.`A6m
> 1Kg11.40       'Et-yArAb.`A2m
> 2Ch13.20    k:o8aH-yArAb.`A4m
>
> ===========================================
>
> --
> Henry Churchyard   churchh at usa.net   http://www.crossmyt.com/hc/
>
> ---
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