Rohl's fallacious chronology

Ian Hutchesson mc2499 at
Thu Sep 30 15:55:58 EDT 1999

Dear Peter,

As you won't go to the status quo, which should have been your, and Dave's,
first port of call, I'll try and bring it to you. Below are merely excerpts
from status quo books.

Amenophis III married a daughter of Kurigalzu I

Liverani, Antico Oriente, p603

Amenophis III had married at least two Babylonian princesses. The brother
of one, Kadashman-enlil, shows himself in his letters to be an irascible
old fellow...

Redford, Akhenaten, p40.

In the 10th year Amenophis III married Gilu-khepa, daughter of Shutarna II,
king of Mitanni. About six years later Gilu-khepa's brother Tushratta took
the throne under dubious circumstances...

Redford, Akhenaten, p41.

[Akhenaten] was largely responsible for the breakup of the Egypto-Mitannian
entente, just at a time when such a rupture ill behooved either state.
Shortly after Amenophis III's death, Queen Tiy has expressed in a letter to
Tushratta anxiety about future relations. The tone of concern was strange,
as Akhenaten had exchanged gifts with Tushratta and was soon to marry his

(Aldred tells us these letters were Kn.26, 28 & 29, Akhenaten, p193.)

Redford, Akhenaten, p195.

[Suppiluliumas], who deserves to be ranked with the great strategists of
history, lost not time in trying to widen the breach between Egypt and
Mitanni... What benefit Egypt would derive from a Hittite accord is hard to
say; but for Suppiluliumas it was a  godsend. He could now take on Mitanni
with impunity.

Redford, Akhenaten, p195-196.

In the wake of the Hittite march through Syria, Mitanni began to crumble,
Tushratta was assassinated, and his dynasty shattered. When the dust
settled, the entire plain of central Mesopotamia had become a power vacuum,
bordered on the northwest by a "superpower," Khatte, and on the east by the
newly liberated state of Assyria.

Redford, Akhenaten, p212.

The entrance of Assyria into the system of international relations is
documented by two letters from El-Amarna, written by the Assyrian king
[Ashur-uballit] to Amenophis IV in order to initiate diplomatic and
commercial exchange.

Liverani, Antico Oriente, p578.

In a letter written to Amenophis IV as soon as it was known that the
pharaoh had begun contact with Ashur-uballit, the Kassite king
Burna-Buriash protested, sustaining even that the Assyrians were his
subjects, and that the pharaoh could not pass over him in this manner.

Liverani, Antico Oriente, p580.

The second half of the 14th century passed for Assyria blocked by
Khanigalbat [successor to Mitanni] in the west... The battle of Sugagu
(Enlil-Nirari against Kurigalzu) was followed by the clash between
Arik-den-ili and Nazi-Marutash, but it was only with the battle of
Kar-Ishtar of Ugarsallu (Adad-Nirari I against Nazi-Marutash) that Assyria
succeeded in moving the frontier to the valley of the Zab...

But with Adad-Nirari I Assyria recommenced expansion principally toward its
natural blockage in upper Mesopotamia. Adad-Nirari chose military
intervention: a first campaign brought the defeat of king Shattuara I... a
second involvement brought the defeat of Wasashatta (son of the preceding...)

Liverani, Antico Oriente, p581.

In the wake of the Egypto-Hittite blood-bath at Qadesh, the bold king of
Assyria, Adad-Nirari, saw his chance. The land of Hanigalbat (..) had long
been the object of dispute between Hatti and Assyria. Hanigalbat had aided
Muwatallis at Qadesh, and doubtless suffered its share of losses. So now,
when Hatti and Hanigalbat were least expecting it, the Assyrian swept
westward, overcoming king Wasashatta and adding Hanigalbat to the Assyrian

Kitchen, Pharaoh Triumphant, p63.

On Mutawallis's death, Hattusilis grudgingly accepted his nephew
[Urhi-teshup]'s appointment... After seven years of Urhi-teshup's rule,...
Hattusilis staged a coup... Urhi-teshup escaped... to Pi-Ramesses... even
15 years later we find him still trying to stir up trouble...

"Urhi-teshup {wrote} to the king of Assyria, your father [Shalmaneser I],
{but you}, Tukulti-ninurta, have sent {to me} the tablet of Urhi-teshup."

Redford, Egypt, Israel & Canaan, p188

When Hattusilis III rose to the throne of Hatti, he received from
Adad-Nirari not only the proposition of the stabilisation of relations of
"brotherhood" but also a request of free passage to travel to Mount
Amano... In his answer the Hittite king admitted that the Assyrian king by
then had become a grand king, having defeated Khanigalbat, but idea of
"brotherhood" was out of the question...

Khanigalbat was perhaps briefly lost by the Assyrians at the end of
Adad-Nirari's reign, because his son Shamaneser I had to reconquer it
again, beating Shattuara II who was supported (..) by the Hittites.

Liverani, Antico Oriente, p582.

When Tukulti-Ninurta took the throne he received a letter from Tudkhaliya
IV which, with a tone of one who wanted to give good counsel to his young
colleague, attempted to discourage him from an expedition against Papkhi.

Liverani, Antico Oriente, p583.

[There is a royal inscription by Tukulti-Ninurta I which specifically gives
the order of his predecessors son of Shamaneser, son of Adad-Nirari. It
also mentions his capture of Papkhi and tells us of the Kassite king,
Kashtiliash. Liverani, p586.]

Assyria          Babylon         Hatti          Mitanni/Khanig.  Egypt
                 Kurigalzu I                                     Amenhotep III
                 Kadashman-enlil                 Shutarna II      
Ashur-uballit    Burnaburiash    Suppiluliumas I Tushratta       Akhenaten
Enlil-Nirari     Kurigalzu II
Arik-den-ili     Nazi-Marutash                                       
Adad-Nirari I                                    Shattuara I
                  (others)       Muwatallis      Wasashatta      Ramses II
Shalmaneser I                    Hattusilis III  Shattuara II
                                 Tudkhaliya IV
Tukulti-Ninurta I  Kashtiliash IV 

There are so many mistakes in Rohl's claims, as illustrated in this table
produced from the quotes above, that he must have known what he was doing.
So he must be a fraud.



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