Atonement in the Pentateuch

Peter_Kirk at Peter_Kirk at
Wed Sep 30 12:46:00 EDT 1998

Averbeck (in VanGemeren, s.v. KPR) writes:

The root KPR is attested in the Akk. base stem KAPARU, meaning wipe 
off, smear on... and in the so-called D. stem KUPPURU, meaning wipe 
off, clean, rub, ritually purify; Akk. also has it in the N stem = 
Heb. ni... In Arab. the situation is more similar to Akk. than has 
generally been recognized... The base stem KAFARA means cover, 
conceal, deny, disbelive, be ungrateful... and the D stem KAFFARA 
means conceal, annul, expiate, do penance... More extensive summaries 
of the root KPR in the Sem. languages can be found in Levine, 
PRESENCE, 121-27, and esp. Janowski, 29-102...

References are:

WA VanGemeren, "New International Dictionary of Old Testament Theology 
and Exegesis", vol.2, Zondervan 1997

BA Levine, "In the Presence of the Lord", SJLA, 1974, 55-77

B Janowski, "Suehne als Heilsgeschehen...", WMANT 55, 1982

Peter Kirk

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