Atonement in the Pentateuch

Tony Calman tcalman at
Sun Sep 27 07:28:10 EDT 1998

I have been doing some study into atonement found in the Pentateuch. I have
looked at the verbal root kaph pe resh and found the application to be
rather surprising. 

The atoning can be between a Priest and God (Exod. 29:33; Lev. 16:6; Num.
8:12; 8:21), a Human and Human (Gen. 32:21; Exod. 21:30; 30:12; Num. 5:8;
35:31; 35:32); God and Man (Exod. 30:15; Lev. 8:34; Num. 8:19; Deut. 21:8)
or God, a mediator and a person (Exod. 32:30 Lev. 1:4; 4:20; 4:26; 4:31;
Num. 15:25; 15:28). The surprising application is that it can be a thing,
eg. an Ark (Gen. 6:14); The Land (Num. 35:33; Deut. 32:43); the Altar (Lev.
8:15; 16:18); the Sanctuary (Lev. 16:16) and other Holy Places (Lev. 16:20;
16:33), even the house of a Leper (Lev. 14:53). 

Is there any thoughts on how this verbal root is to be applied in the
Pentateuch, especially to the non-human articles?

Tony Calman
tcalman at

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